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fear&ara fiToUege l.ilirar]i 

^ltf^l«fc<*rrr^ Jit**/*^ 












THE YEAR 1546 TO THE YEAR:1716; 














ORDERS, &c. 


Archiepiac Cant. Anno Christ! R^. Anglias 

JoH. Whitgift 3. 1584. Elizab. 17. 

A tvriting of the bishops in answer to the book of articles 
offered the last sessions of parliament^ anno regin. 
XXVII. for ecclesiastical causes^ concerning ministers^ 
ea^communication^ dispensations ^ SfC. — Strype's Annals, 
vol. iii. App. p. 81. 

I. Conceiving ministers. 
The first article. 

THAT it may be enacted, that none be admitted to be 
minister of the word and sacraments, but in a be- 
nefice having cure of souls, then vacant in the diocese of 
such a bishop as is to admit him. 

5 A writing of the bishops] This paper is so described on the authority 
of Strype, (Ann. vol. iii. P. i. p. 329,) who speaks of it thus : " I meet 
with another answer at good length to those sixteen petitions, given 
in by the bishops in general ; and seem to have been done at their con- 


2 The bishops^ answer to the hook of [C. 

Answer to the first article. 

This cannot possibly be performed without altering the 
whole state of the church of England. First because 
there must be curates, and that of necessity. Secondly, 
Because there are other ecclesiastical livings, which re- 
quire ministers of the word and sacraments, as well ass 
benefices with cure ; as deaneries, prebends, masterships, 
and fellowships in the universities, and petty canons in 
cathedral churches. 

The article is grounded upon a false principle of T. C. 
(Thomas Cartwright) against ministers having no pas-io 
toral cure; which neither he, nor any man else is able 
to maintain either by the word of God, or ancient au- 
thority. For by " Ministerium vagum," the old councils 
and canons did always understand such as were ordained 
" Sine patrimonio aut titulo :" that is, not having any 15 
stay of living. As it is manifest in the council of 

vocation ; which having not as yet seen the light, I can not omit to in- 
sert this MS., being an important matter of the history of oar church 
at that time, when there was such a joint endeavour of many, eager 10 
for another discipline to be brought in, and the former with the public 
prayers and offices to be laid aside." But it is evident on a compa- 
rison of this paper with the sixteen petitions drawn up by the house of 
commons in the session of 1584-5, and presented by them to the house 
of lords, that the statement of Strype is incorrect. The sixteen peti- 25 
tions recommend many matters, such as the suspension of ministers 
who are not of ability according to the statute, the prohibition of any 
oath or subscription on ordination or institution except according to 
statute, the allowing of omissions or changes of some portions or rites 
in the Book of Common Prayer, the restoring of certain ministers sus- 30 
pended for non* subscription, the forbearing of examinations ex officio 
mero, and the permitting of exercises and conferences among the min- 
isters of each archdeaconry ; these matters were among the topics of 
greatest interest and most frequent discussion at the time, but are alto- 
gether unnoticed in the paper before us. It is more probable then that 35 
the articles propounded in the paper were drawn up at a subsequent 

1 584.] ariidea presented to parliament. 3 

Such as have great cures shall be overburdened with 
saying of service, preaching, ministering of sacraments, all 
themselves. For they shall be destitute of a curate to 
help them to say service, to visit the sick, to administer 
5 the sacraments, to catechise, etc. By this means fellow- 
ships in colleges, which by their statutes must be in 
orders, are overthrown. 

The second article. 

That before the admission of such minister, the bishop 
give public notice by writing under his seal, to be fixed 

10 on the church door, that is destitute of a pastor, upon 
some Sunday or holy-day in the time of divine service, 
signifying the name of the person presented to that 
church, or there to be admitted; with intimation that 
such as within twenty-six days after, will object against 

15 the admission, shall appear at a place certain before him, 

period, and in a form less likely to be rejected, the general sentiments 
of the bishops having already been ascertained from the answers to the 
sixteen petitions which had been given by the two archbishops, and by 
bishop Cooper. (Strype, Ann. vol. iii. P. i. p. 329.) They certainly 

10 adopt more moderate views of change than the petitions of the com- 
mons, not merely in omitting the matters noticed above, but also in ex- 
pressing in a less objectionable manner the suggestions that are com- 
mon to both documents. The petitions, for instance, pray that " no 
bishop shall ordain any minister of the word and sacraments but with 

*5 assistance of six other ministers at the least ;" the articles before us 
are contented to recommend that *' the bishop shall not make any min- 
ister but such as shall be by the dean and chapter, or the more part of 
them, or six learned preachers of the diocese then present, allowed for 
a man meet and sufficient, by subscription of their hands to some writ- 

30 ing, declaring their assent in allowing of him." It would appear then 
Uiat these articles were presented to the bishops by some party less ad- 
verse, than the commons were, to the existing condition of the church, 
and after the more objectionable propositions of the commons had been 
withdrawn or modified. Comp. Strype, Whitg. vol. i. p. 347. vol. iii. 

35 pp. 118. 124. Ann. vol. iii. P. ii. p. 302. Collier^ vol. ii. p. 593. Neal's 
Porit. vol. i. p. 393. Hallam, vol. i. p. 226. 

B S 

4 The bishops^ answer to the book of [0. 

and allege such matter, as shall only concern his conver- 
sation of life, and thereby his insufficiency for that place. 

The third article. 

That the bishop shall not proceed to the admission of 
any to be minister of the word and sacraments, before 
due certificate made in authentic form, and public place, 5 
by him to be assigned, that the process of notice and in- 
timation was executed in form aforesaid ; nor before the 
expiration of the said twenty-six days, nor without call- 
ing for and hearing of such, as upon return of the said 
process, shall and will object, as aforesaid. 'o 

The answer to the second and third articles. 

This is unnecessary and in vain, unless he that is to be 
admitted, had been dwelling in that parish before. Which 
will happen very seldom. The writing and sending to 
the benefice void, and the return thereof in authentic 
form, will be very chargeable to the minister ; especially 's 
where the place is far from the bishop's mansion house. 
It also protfacteth time^ and will administer occasion of 

The charges also and delay will be increased, if the 
party to be admitted, do stand upon the purgation of the *<> 
objections laid against him. 

This testimony required of the parishioners, lacking 
their pastors, is an introduction to bring the patronage to 
the people, and to set a fire among them, for testifying or 
not testifying; and that many times of a person they 25 
know not. 

The objecting of the people will fall out many times to 
be mere malice, whereby immortal hatred will rise among 

The person indeed had need be a very ill man, that a 30 
number of the parish will come a long journey to the or- 

1584.] articles presented to parliament. 5 

dinarj, on their own costs, to object against him that is 
to be admitted. 

What, if the parish will be negligent and will not re- 
turn ? shall they lack a pastor still ? the patron, if he be 
5 mighty, may enter, lett the return, or procure such as he 
shall like of. And who and how many of the parish 
shall return? 

The fourth article. 

It is here to be provided, that where in certain col- 
leges, and cathedral and collegiate churches the founda- 

lotion or statutes require such as are there placed, to be 
ministers; it shall be lawful for such as are known to 
profess the study of divinity, or otherwise be lawfully dis- 
pensed withal, to retain, as before this act they might, 
any fellowship or prebend within the said colleges, not- 

15 withstanding they be no ministers. 

The answer to the fourth article. 

I. This utterly overthroweth the foundation and sta- 
tutes of almost all the colleges in Cambridge and Ox- 
ford, being founded principally for the study of divinity, 
and increase of the number of learned preachers and 

30 ministers. And therefore, not only the master, provost, 
warden, president, etc. by the said foundation and statutes 
are bounden to be ministers, but divers others also of 
such societies sare likewise bounden to enter into the 
ministry by a certain time, or else to yield their places to 

35 others. 

II. It will deprive the church of England of the wor- 
thiest, best learned, and wisest ministers and preachers. 
For there is no comparison between such ministers and 
preachers, as the universities continually yield, in respect 

30 of such foundations and statutes, and others, being no 
university men, or not entering into the ministry, while 
they remained there; as at this day it is notorious. For 
although there are divers that can preach, etc. yet they 

6 The bishops' answer to the book of [C. 

have no substance of learning in them, neither are they 
able to stand with the adversary, either in pulpit or dis- 
putation : a thing as well required in a minister as exhor- 
tation is. 

III. If this device take place, where the universities 5 
yield now great number of preachers and ministers, they 
would not then yield one for twenty. And so the num- 
ber of preachers, which now are thought to be very few, 
would then be much less ; and at length the utter decay 
of the study of divinity, and the very next way to bring 10 
in popery and ignorance again. 

IV. It overthrows the degrees of the university, which 
are taken in divinity ; as the bachelorship and doctorship. 
For even sithence the first foundation of them both, it 
hath been perpetually used, and it is by statute required, 15 
that none should take any of these degrees, but such as 
are in the ministry. And indeed it is both inconvenient 
and absurd that it should be otherwise. 

V. At this day, there are in the university of Cam- 
bridge an hundred preachers at the least, very worthy 20 
men, and not many less in the university of Oxford : and 
the number daily increaseth in both, to the great benefit 
of the church. But if this might take place, within these 
seven years there would not be five ministers in either of 
them. «s 

VI. It would cause men all their lifetime to remain in 
the universities ; so that there should be no succession. 

VII. It also overthroweth the foundation and statutes 
of all cathedral and collegiate churches; and taketh 
away the chief and principal reward for learned preachers : 30 
for the best livings for worthy men are in such churches. 

VIII. It taketh away the wisest, best learned, and 
gravest divines, such as do and are most able to withstand 
not only papists, but other sectaries also. 

IX. Every one to keep these places would openly pro- 35 
fess the study of divinity, and secretly study the one law 

1584.] articles presented to parliament. 7 

or the other, or physic, or some trifling study all his life 

X. There' will be no care of profiting when there is no 
trial thereof, which is most special by open preaching: 

5 which were absurd to be done by no ministers. 

XI. Any which hath been a student, may under pre- 
tence of studying divinity, without any trial obtain 
deaneries, provostships, prebends, etc. and being a layman, 
may live idly on the spoil of the church all his life, ex- 

"ooept he taught a benefice. 

XII. There shall want sufficient trial of the abilities 
of preaching of such as are to be bishops, except they be 
chosen from some benefice : which breedeth small expe- 
rience for governance. 

'5 XIII. It would greatly diminish the number of preachers 
and sermons; which the universities, colleges, and ca- 
thedral churches do yield both at home and abroad in 
every country ; in the respect that those, which now have 
the livings, are bound to be ministers. 

«o XTV. It taketh away daily service used in these 
churches (which were impiety) unless it might be said or 
sung by such as are now ministers : which is absurd. 

XV. To conclude, it will breed a beggarly, unlearned, 
and contemptible clergy and ministry. It is the very 

»5way to overthrow all colleges, cathedral churches, and 
places of learning. It will extinguish the study of divi- 
nity, diminish the number of preachers, and breed a 
great confusion and alteration in the church and com- 
monwealth. And it is a piece of T. C. his platform. 

30 XVI. By this the reward of divinity will be taken 
away, and the divine thrust to a benefice of x\L This is 
covertly to shove at the gospel, to place the lawyers and 
others as they please. 

XVIT. Note, That hereby they would have dispensa- 

35tions to take place against the statutes of colleges and 
cathedral churches. 

8 Hie biskopi cmswer to the book of [C. 

The fifth article. 
That none be made minister, but upon some Sunday . 
publicly in the cathedral church of the diocese, where 
the minister is admitted. 

The answer. 

That he be made public, it is not amiss ; but to ob- 
serve the precise place of the cathedral church, it will be 5 
inconvenient ; because divers bishops dwell far from their 
cathedral churches. 

The siMh article. 

That the bishop make no minister but such as be of 
his own diocese, and have there continued by the space 
of one whole year ; except such only as come from the lo 
universities, and bring testimonials of their meetness 
under the university seal. 

The seventh article. 

That such as be of the bishop's own diocese, shall 
bring with them such a testimonial as is limited in the 
statute of anno xiii. Elizab. '^ 

The answer. 

I. These are very expedient and necessary, and even 
so provided for by the law. 

II. It were more meet also, that these things were 
observed, when patrons present to a benefice : and that 
as the testimonials do witness their conversation, so theao 
bishop should without any impeachment of " Quare im- 
pedit," etc. be judge of their ability in respect of the 
cure which they desire. 

The eighth article. 

That after the receipt of the said testimonial, the 
bishop shall not proceed to the making of this person 35 

1584-] durticles presented to parliament. 9 

minister, which bringeth that testimonial, before he shall 
declare before the dean and chapter of the cathedral 
church, that he well knoweth the persons, by whom the 
testimonial is made, to be such as is by the said statute 
5 expressed. 

The atiswer. 

This is unnecessary and altogether needless, neither 
can it be performed. 

The ninth article. 

That he shall not make any minister but such as shall 
be by the dean and chapter, or the more part of them, 
10 or six learned preachers of the diocese then present, 
allowed for a man meet and sufficient, by subscription 
of their hands to some writing, declaring their assent, 
in allowing of him. 

The answer. 

I. It will breed great trouble, and not work that 
IS effect which is looked for ; neither can it by all in place 

be performed. 

II. It would also be very chargeable, upon the ab- 
sence of the most of the chapter, if the party should 
procure the hands of six preachers, dwelling in dispersed 

ao places. 

The tenth article. 

That none shall have a benefice with cure, being of 
the value of xx/. yearly in the queen's books, exce})t 
he be a master of arts, or a preacher allowed, notwith- 
standing that he be made a minister before of some 
25 mean cure. 

The answer. 

It is to be liked of; so that diligent heed be taken 
that none be admitted preachers, but such as be worthy. 

10 The biihops* answer to the book of [C 

II. Concerning ea^communication. 

The first article. 

Excommunication is at this time the pain of contu- 
macy, and hath place where a man appeareth not upon 
a process, or satisfieth not some order prescribed by the 
judge, as not taking some oath, or not paying legacies, 
tithes, etc. 5 

The second article. 

The offences that grow by the practice hereof in this 
manner are great. One, that being the highest censure 
left by the church of God, it is profaned by applying it 
to temporal and civil causes. Another, that it is exe- 
cuted by men that have no calling in the church, asio 
chancellors, officials, etc. 

Again, forasmuch as the church may not be left with- 
out this censure of excommunication, it is to be pro- 
vided, that for enormous crimes, as adultery, and such 
other, the same be executed either by the bishops them- 15 
selves, with the assistance of grave persons, or else by 
other persons of calling in the church, with the like 
assistance, and not by chancellors and officials, as hath 
been used. 

The answer. 

Excommunication hath been used by the ecclesiastical so 
judge, ever sithence there hath been either discipline in 
the church, or jurisdiction in the ecclesiastical magistrate, 
and is the only punishment thereof: for the ancient law- 
makers, thinking that blood and bodily pains ought to be 
far from ecclesiastical magistrates, have given them this 25 
mild spiritual sword, to divide that person from the 
ecclesiastical body, that reftiseth to do his ecclesiastical 
duties, and to obey the ecclesiastical judge ; not excom- 

1384.] articles presented to parliament, 11 

municating every man for twopenny causes, as is sur- 
mised (though indeed there be as much in iid. as in cc/.) 
but in excommunicating them for not obeying the order, 
decree, and sentence of the judge, according to her ma- 

sjesty's ecclesiastical laws. Even as in a temporal cause 
of iirf. the party is outlawed, and consequently his fruits 
and goods of his lands are at the prince's pleasure, if he 
appear not, or obey not ; and yet it is not to be said, 
that a man is outlawed for iirf. but for not obeying the law 

10 process and judge, in a twopenny matter. For the smaller 
the matter is, the greater is the fault of contumacy and 
disobedience, saith the law. 

Excommunication for process, order not obeyed, taking 
some oath, etc. is not for civil causes : but these causes 

15 are ecclesiastical; and what can be more against the 
church, than when men will not be ordered by it, nor 
obey it ? In God's law such as would not be ordered by 
their judge, or high priest, were stoned. 

There is no law nor function in the world void of 

10 exception, and imperfection. And to have it void thereof 
" Est optandum magis, quam sperandum," as in Plato's 

If excommunication be either taken away or changed, 
the whole course of the common law of the realm con- 

25 ceming that matter, and touching the writ, " De excom- 
municato capiendo," must be changed ; wherein many 
things, not yet thought on, may happen ; and instead 
thereof some convenient temporal penalty must be de- 
vised. Which how unliking and unpleasable it will be, 

3oand how full of diflSculties, the wise can consider. 

And if excommunication be thought fittest to "^^ 
tinue (for that there will be as many inconveni^ y?^or 
more in time found in other things, as in thr ^md that 
for the better credit of the proceeding therSH; the bishop 

35 be arched to sit in consistory, his whole life will be spent 
in his jurisdiction, and in study of law, that he might be 

12 The bishops' answer to the hook of [G. 

able to discern whether the process be according to law, 
before he inflicts the censure; which will be as great 
decay of preaching, as it hath been in foretime. For 
the jurisdiction alone requireth " totum et integrum 
hominem." 5 

Touching the ea^ecution hy men of no calling in the 


The jurisdiction in the beginning was jointly in the 
bishop, dean, and chapter. Which bred so many opin- 
ions, such impeachments and confiisions in proceeding, 
that by the general custom of the world, generally the 
jurisdiction was thought convenient to be exercised byio 
the bishop alone; which growing great, as the church 
and ecclesiastical causes increased, and consequently call- 
ing the bishop from his function, the law and constitu- 
tions ordered that the official or vicar general of a bishop 
or archdeacon, should have the same consistory or juris- 15 
diction, that the archdeacon or bishop had, and the same 
authority to excommunicate. Which by the statutes of 
this realm is also allowed to doctors of the law. For 
that in later times, divines have wholly employed them- 
selves to divinity, and not to the proceedings and study 20 
of the law : whereunto in foretimes the clergy were more 
addicted than to divinity, in respect of the gain and 
offices exercised under bishops, archdeacons, and other 
ecclesiastical callings, which drew them wholly from 
diHr-^ty. n 

— i excommunication by law was never used, nor 
"^ p^ be used as a punishment of any crime, saving of 
•-> '<^« heresy, usury, simony, piracy, conspiracy against 
til. ^) *<^f the prince, of his state, dignity, or crown, 
pertui \ .;the common peace and quietness of the 30 

church 01 m, wilful murderers, sacrilegers, perjurers, 
and incorrigible and notorious committers of incest and 
adultery, false witness, and suborners thereof, violent 


1584-] articles presented to parliament. 1 3 

layers of hands upon ecclesiastical persons, and such other 
great and horrible crimes, which were called "sententise 
canonum." Wherein besides the particular penances, 
that the bishops and their officers did impose, it was for 

5 more terror provided by ancient canons, that there should 
be a general open denunciation of this excommunication 
in every cathedral church and parish church twice in the 

For other light faults there was no excommunication 

10 permitted or used as a punishment, other than for mani- 
fest and wilful contumacy or disobedience in not appear- 
ing, when persons were called and summoned for a cause 
ecclesiastical, or when any sentence or decree of the 
bishop or his officer, being deliberately made, was wil- 

15 fully disobeyed and not performed. 

Such wilful contumacy and disobedience to authority 
is in the law accounted so great, that it is called a con- 
tempt of that " quod est in jure extremum ;" that is to 
say, if the judge cannot have appearance of the parties, 

wor execution of his judgments, here he is at the wall, 
and can go no fiirther. 

Of very ancient time this was the manner of proceed- 
ing in this realm, and the only mean of reducing obsti- 
nate persons to the obedience of the law. 

25 It may appear by the ancienter statute or act of par- 
liament in the 9th year of Edward II. that it was the 
old custom and usage of the realm, long before that 
time. The words are these : " Si aliqui propter suam 
contumaciam manifestam excommunicentur ; ac post 

30 40. dies, dies pro eorum captione scribatur, et prae- 
tendunt se privilegiatos ; et sic denegatur breve regium 
pro captione corporum ? Responsio regis : Nunquam fuit 
negatum, nee negabitur in fiituro." 

It is to be considered, whether this manifest con- 

35tumacy, and wilful disobedience to the magistrate and 
authority be not as well punishable, as when the original 

14 The bishops answer to the look of [C. 

cause or matter is weighty, the difference whereof doth 
nothing alter the nature of the disobedience. 

In this our realm, of very ancient time, it hath been 
observed from time to time, that there was never altera- 
tion made of any law ecclesiastical, although it had ap- s 
pearance to benefit the state of the clergy ; but that it 
turned ever to some notable prejudice. 

III. Concerning commutation of penance. 

That there be no commutation of penance for sin, but 
by the order and appointment of the bishop, with the 
assent of the dean and chapter, or the most part of them, 10 
or with the assent of six preachers of that diocese. 

The answer. 

I. The bishop is sufficient for this matter. II. It 
were good to inhibit justices of peace to commute, but 
to permit them only to punish corporally. And yet not- 
withstanding, the parties offending not to be received into is 
the church, till they have done such penance, whereby 
the congregation may be satisfied. 

IV. Concerning dispensations. 

The first article. 

The faculties which did the greatest hurt in the 
church of God, were three ; viz. dispensation " de non 
promovendo," dispensation for pluralities of benefices, 10 
and dispensation for non-residence. 

The second article. 

These two last named faculties have bred the disorders 
of making "vague" ministers, whereof have ensued two 
great incommodities : one, and the chiefest of all, that the 
people is not taught : the other, that the ministers placed «5 
in benefices, where the pastor is absent, and having for 


1584O articles prsienUd to parliament. 15 

the most part small allowance, do post from place to 
place for their better preferment, and resting no where, 
respect neither their life, nor increase in knowledge. For 
men be careful for their conversation, where they are to 
5 have continuance. And small account can be taken how 
he profiteth, that abideth no where long. 

The answer. 

The faculty " de non residendo," is so rare, as by the 
present archbishop there was never any granted. And 
by the last archbishop never any yielded unto, but by 
10 special requests and warrant from my lords of her ma- 
jesty's council ; and that to men qualified in her majesty's 
service, or otherwise greatly employed in the common- 
wealth. And therefore it needeth no such provision by 
15 The faculty of non-residence is also so rare, and granted 
in such respects, as sithence the time of this archbishop 
there hath not been above one granted, and that to a 
man of 80 years old ; with whom the law itself dispenseth. 
Beside, that the statute of the realm provideth so 
ao sharp a penalty for non-residence, by the forfeiture of xl. 
a month, to be recovered in the exchequer, as no man 
careth to sue for the faculty ; and if they do, it profiteth 
nothing. For that the statute inflicteth the punishment, 
all faculties and dispensation notwithstanding; and a 
25 more severe punishment cannot well be devised. 

Touching the faculty of pluralities, the ground thereof 
is this. Men of excellent gifts, and extraordinary virtue, 
oftentimes have no livings or very small living. And 
when they cannot attain so great as their quality de- 
3oserveth, the policy of the church hath thought fit to grant 
to such an one two livings, as an extraordinary reward 
for extraordinary virtue. For if all men could be made 
fit for all livings, or all livings for all manner of men, 
there should have needed no dispensation of pluralities ; 

16 The bishops' answer to the book of [0. 

but forasmuch as that cannot be, it is lawful in such case 
of necessity, and for such extraordinary causes, to recede 
from the strait and common course of the law. And so 
hath it been used in all ages. Neither can it be better 
policed, nor more restrained, than of late it hath been in 5 
respect both of distance of places, and the value of their 
parsonage, with great caution both for their hospitality 
and preachings. Besides that the laws being positive 
that forbid plurality, the difference in reason is very small 
between the little benefices not far distant, and one great 10 
benefice : and therefore no strange thing, if by like posi- 
tive law there be admitted by mitigation a dispensation 
of the rigor of law. 

Moreover, the number of benefices in England being 
about 18,000, and the universities not able to furnish the '5 
third part of them with sufficient men, it is better, that 
one worthy man have tw^o benefices, than to be unfur- 
nished of living, or be obscurely placed in a small parish 
or poor living ; or the same benefices committed to two 
unlearned men. 20 

The third article. 

That no chaplain have two cures, if both amount above 
40/. in the queen's books, or be 20 miles distant. 

T lie fourth article. 

That none enabled to have two cures, shall enjoy the 
same, unless they be under the value aforesaid, and with- 
in 20 miles distant ; and be resident upon one of them. 25 

The answer to the third and fourth articles. 

I. The distance of miles is not to be misliked ; but the 
limiting of the value is unreasonable, and tendeth only to 
the impoverishing of the ministry; being a state as worthy 
of living in many respects, as others of other callings 
whatsoever, in respect of their calling. 30 

II. The best gifts deserve the best rewards. And there- 

^5^4*] articles prmented to parliament. 1 7 

fore it were better to make a limitation, what degrees of 
schools shall only be enabled for the best livings. 

III. Dignities, prebends, and places in colleges (as be- 
fore) are required by dispensation for laymen. Here the 
5 divine is set at 40/. If a man would deal covertly to pull 
away religion, how could he do it better ? 

The fifth article. 

That no dean of cathedral church, prebendary, or other 
having dignity, shall have more than one benefice with 
cure, besides his dignity. 

The sisth article. 
»o That no one have rao dignities or prebends than two. 

The answer to the fifth and sixth articles. 

I. It is very unreasonable, and tendeth to the same end 
with the third and fourth articles, and will discourage 
men from the ministry, and make a beggarly clergy, far 
unapt to give hospitality, or to do many other things 

■5 required of them, and looked for at their hands. 

II. It is also very inconvenient, for most of these dig- 
nities are decayed within these last fifty years very much. 
Greater impositions for the service of the realm are laid 
upon them. Every thing to be required at double or 

ao treble prices, in respect of that it was then at. And yet 
as great or greater hospitality looked for. 

The seventh article. 

That they, which may have chaplains, shall advance no 
more than their number, till the advanced dieth, or 
otherwise one of two benefices become void. 

The answer. 

25 I. This is not to be misliked, unless the party be 
otherwise qualified than by the chaplainship. 

VOL. II. c 

18 The bishops' answer to the book of [C. 

II. And yet inconvenience may arise of it. For if a 
chaplain doth not behave himself as appertaineth, no 
reason he should be retained in service, and it were hard 
not to allow another in such a case. 

The eighth article. 

That none shall be chaplain, enabled to two benefices, s 

except he be master of arts, or allowed by the ordinary 

as sufficient. 

The answer, ' 

It is very convenient. 

The ninth article. 

That none shall be non-resident, but such as be con- 
tinually attendant in the houses of such as they are'o 
chaplains unto. 

The answer. 

I. To be attendant the greater part of the year were 
sufficient. For the other part of the year they may be 
at their cure. And besides some have chaplains, which 
attend by course. Which is very convenient. >5 

II. This is very prejudicial for grave men required for 
government in the universities. Which may very well 
discharge both duties. 

III. This overthroweth residence in cathedral churches, 
colleges, and deaneries. So that they cannot be attendant «<> 
there, except they will leave their benefice, though it be 
but one. 

The tenth article. 

That they shall preach in person yearly, two sermons, 
and four sermons besides *' per se vel per alium." 

The answer. 

It is too easy. It is requisite, that they should preach ^5 
mo sermons even in their own persons. 

1 5 84.] articles presented to parliament, 1 9 

The eleventh article. 

Lastly, To consider, whether it were not meet to abate 
the numbers of the chaplains of the archbishops, and 
others under that degree, that may by the statute keep 
more than one chaplain. 

The answer. 

5 It is not meet. For those of the clergy that have 
chaplains allowed, the statute sets down a good con- 
sideration. And there are not many such. Besides it i^ 
looked for, that they should have preachers about them 
to furnish the want that is in most dioceses. 

The twelfth article. 

■o That in cases of pluralities and non-residences, the 
bishops shall have the allowing of the minister that shall 
serve the cure, in the absence of the incumbent ; and 
the stipend of the said minister to be appointed by the 
bishop, according to the suflSciency of the minister. So 

>5 that the same stipend do not exceed the third part of the 
clear yearly value of the benefice. 

The answer. 
This 18 very reasonable and according to law. 

The thirteenth article. 

There is one faculty of great inconvenience granted not 
only by the court of faculties, but by the chancellor of 
«o every diocese, viz. The dispensation of marriage without 
banns asking. By occasion whereof, children make dis- 
ordered matches without the assent of their parents ; and 
orphans are left to the spoil of unthrift persons. >^ 

The answer. 

I. It may be so qualified that no inconvenience shall 

c 2 

90 ITte Kskapi' amwer to the book of afiieles. [G. 

ensue thereof. II. There be divers reasonable occasions, 
that daily happen, which may hinder the thrice asking of 
banns; which causes are meet to be considered of and 
allowed by the ordinary, or his deputy. III. The incon- 
venience that is proposed is in most dioceses already met 5 
withal, by putting these conditions in the faculty; viz. 
that they have their governors* consent ; that there is no 
suit for matrimony depending; no precontract, nor any 
other impediment, which the party is by a bond with 
sureties bound unto. So that by this means, this incon- 1© 
venience is better met withal, than by asking the banns 
thrice ; which may be done, and yet these impediments 
remain. IV. And since the bonds have been qualified 
as is above said, being about one twelvemonth past, expe- 
rience doth teach, that none of the pretended inconve-'S 
niences have happened. 

A general answer to all the articles of ewcommunicoMon^ 

commutation^ and dispensation. 

Generally, This alteration, confusion, and abridgment 
of exercise of that jurisdiction will shortly decay the pro- 
fession of the canon law, and civil law together. Whereby 
divers now are bred up in learning, in languages, in»o 
studies ; so that they are enabled to serve the realm in 
any foreign service, as well as any one sort of learned 
men in the realm besides. 

1585] Cerkiin ordert for th« iitcreate of teaming. 21 


Archiepiac. Cuit. Anno Chriiti R«g. Anglis 

JoH. Whitgipt 2. 1585. Elizab. 17. 

Certain orders for the increase of learning in the unlearned 
sort of ministers. — ^E Libro Instrum. Episc. Lincoln. 
foL 50, 51 . 

INPRIMIS, The order appointed in the preface of the 
common book, concerning the dayly readinge of pub- 
lique prayer, shall be duly observed, to the end they 
mayfbe the better acquainted with the phrase and histo- 
5 ries of the scriptures. 

Item, The ordinary of the place shall assigne unto 
such as are not maisters of art, or preachers, one chapter, 
att the least, of the Old and New Testament, every 
week, to be diligently studied upon by them in such 
10 sort, as they be able to make accompte of the principall 
contents thereof in Latten, and bring notes in Latten, 
collected out of the same. 

Certain orders] These were evidently adopted as a substitute for the 
exercises called prophecyings, which had been prohibited by the queen. 

■5 But it does not appear, nor is it probable, that they were adopted 
generally. It is clear that in the next year (1586) a less laborious 
kind of exercise was enjoined in the following order proposed by the 
archbishop and agreed upon in convocation ; " Every minister having 
cure, and being under the degree of master of arts, and bachelor of 

^ civil law, and not licensed to be a public preacher, shall before the 
second day of February next provide a Bible and Bullinger's Decads in 
Latin or English, and a paper book, and shall every day read over one 
chapter of the holy scriptures, and note the principal contents thereof 
briefly in his paper booke, and shall every weeke read over one sermon 

>5 in the said Decads^ and note likewise the chief matters therein con- 
tained in the said paper ; and shall once in every quarter (viz. within 
a fortnight before or after the end of the quarter) shewe his said note 
to some preacher nere adjoining to be assigned for that purpose." 
Wilkins, Cone. vol. iv. p. 321. 

25^ Articles in the viiitation [Gil. 

Item, The ordinary of the place shall likewise appoint 
unto them, every quarter of a yere, a common place of 
divinity, to be written upon in Latten by them, and to 
be travelled in so, as they be able to answer to the prin- 
cipal points thereof in Latten. 5 

Item, Such as are not able to do these exercises in 
Latten, shall for the time perfoime them in Engliabe, 
yet so as if in convenient time to be assigned unto them 
by the discretion of the ordinarie (having regard to their 
age and capacities) they do not perform them in Latten, lo 
or at least have good testimonie of their diligence in 
studie, they shall be proceeded against by ecclesiastical 
censures for their notorious negligence. 

The ordinary shall examine himself, or by some learned 
preacher call them to accompte for their exercises every is 
quarter, and shall examine them also att their synods 
and visitations, how they have profited ; and such as shall 
be notoriously negligent, or wilfuUie disobedient, shall be 
punished by the ordinary of the place, as the quality of 
his offence shall require. 20 


Archiepisc. Cant Anno Chri§ti R€g. Anglias 

JoH. Whitoift 7, 15S5. Elizab. 37. 

Articles to be enquired upon in the visitation of th^ 

diocesse of Chichester^ sede vacante^ by the authority of 

the most reverend father ifi God John^ archbishop of 

Cant, primate of all England^ and metropolitan^ as 

foUoweth.—Reg. I. Whitgift, fol. 116. b. 

T. TTTHETHER your minister have used any other 
▼ f form or manner of publick prayers, administra- 

Articles to he enquired upon] These articles shew the decision of the 
archbishop in all the points resisted at this time by the puritans, viz. 

^S^i'] ofiU diocese of OAicAester. 88 

tion of sacramentes, or any other rites, ceremonies, or 
orders, than are prescribed by the book of common 
prayer ; or hath he altered them, or any of them, how, 
and in what maimer ? 

5 n. Whether doth he, or any other, take upon them 
to reade lectures, or preach, being mere lay persons, or 
not ordered according to the lawes of this realme% or 
not lawfully licensed; doth he or any other preachers, 
remayning in your parishes, at some times every yere, 

lopersonallie, say the publick service and administer the 
holy communion himself, according to the said book of 
common prayer or noe; doth he, or any other, keepe 
any exercise of expoundinge, or reade any lecture in 

the complete and unreserved use of the Book of Common Prayer, 
15 anconditional assent to all the 39 Articles, the having perfect orders^ 
the ahstaining from any religious exercises in private houses, or con- 
venticles, and the use of the surplice and of clerical apparel. His 
general sentiments may be best expressed in his own words addressed 
to lord Burghley on the 26th of December, 1584: " He beseeched his 
ao lordship not to think that he stood so much in these matters for any 
other cause* than for conscience sake and duty to the church ; know- 
ing what was meant by these kind of dealings. That his lordship also 
knew, that her majesty loved not to hear of innovations ; wherein she 
did, in his opinion, both graciously and wisely ; especially seeing the 
95 laws and orders already established were such as could not justly be 
impeached. And that for his part, being persuaded and resolved in all 
points, as he was, he could not but confirm her highness therein, so 
much as in him lay ; notwithstanding the hard opinions of some men 
concerning him." (Strype, Whitg. vol. i. p. 361.) The strict inquiries 
30 made at this time respecting Romanists were owing to the fears enter- 
tained of popish emissaries, and the designs that were believed to be 
formed against the life of the queen. Strype, Whitg. vol. i. p. 462. 
Ann. vol. iii. P. i. pp. 446. 481. Collier, vol. ii. p. 593. Neal, 
Purit. vol. i. p. 281. The see of Chichester became vacant by the 
35 death of bishop Curteis in Aug. 1582 (Strype says, in February 1584), 
and continued vacant till the end of the year 1585, when Dr. Bickley 
was elected. Le Neve, Fasti, p. 58. 

a mot ordered according to the lawes of this realme] This is one of the 
earliest declarations from authority against orders conveyed by pres- 

24 Articles in the visitati^m [Oil. 

private bowses, whereunto other, besides those of that 
famylye, do resorte ? 

III. Whether upon Sabbath days, and holie dayes, 
doth your minister call for, and instructe the youth of 
his parish in the eateehisme, and principles of Christian s 
religion ; and whether likewise, once every Sabbath day, 
put the churchwardens in mynde of ther duty, as well 
to note who absentes themselves from divine service, 
and upon the goodes and catties of such to levye xiirf. a 
peece for every default, to the use of the poor, as such lo 
also who unreverentlie there behave themselves ; and 
whether do the churchwardens perform that duty 
accordinglie ? 

byters. Whittingham indeed, the dean of Durham, had as early as the 
year 1578 been caUed into question for the invalidity of his orders, f 5 
which he had received at Geneva; and it is cle^r that archbishop 
Sandys saw the great danger of allowing such a precedent (Strype* 
Ann. vol.ii. P. ii. pp. 168. 622) : but the matter was not at that time 
brought to a final issue. The question was revived in the year 1584 
in the case of Travers ; and he alleged in his favour not only the 30 
theological elements of the question (which seem to have been the 
only grounds taken in the case of Whittingham), but also the pro- 
tection he had under the statute 13 "EMz. c. 12, which admitted other 
forms of ordination as well as the established form, on condition that 
the articles should be duly subscribed. His pleas and the archbishop's 25 
answers may be seen in Strype's Life of Whitgift (vol. iii. p. 182); 
and though when silenced by the archbishop he appealed to the privy 
council, and great endeavours were made in his behalf, the queen 
would not suffer the decision to be disturbed, and the archbishop's 
views respecting ordination from the hands of presbyters prevailed. It 30 
is evident however that these views were not uniformly acted upon : 
for archbishop Grindal in 1582 gave his license to John Morrison, who 
had been ordained by the hands of presbyters in Scotland, to preach 
and administer holy things throughout the province of Canterbury 
(Strype, Grind, p. 596) ; and lord Bacon in his Advertisement respect- 35 
ing the Controversies of the Church of England, (written probably 
about 1590,) says, "Yea and some indiscreet persons have been bold 
in open preaching to use dishonourable and derogatory speech and 
censure of the churches abroad ; and that so far, as some of our men. 

^585-] of^ diocsie of Chichegter. ^ 

IV. Whether hath your minister used the form of 
thanksgiving after ehildebirth, for any woman unlawfullie 
begotten with child, otherwise then upon a sabbath day, 
or holy day, in time of publick prayer ; and also with 

spublick acknowlegment of her sinne, in such forme as 
the ordinarie has prescribed ? 

V. Whether doth your minister in public prayer time 
wear a surplesse, and go abroad apparelled, as by her 
majesties injunctions and advertisements prescribed ; doth 

10 he privately exercise himself in godly prayer, and study, 
and with other convenient exercise for his vocation ; doth 
he kepe any suspected woman in his house, resorte to 
any infamous houses, use any light-disposed company ; 

as I have heard, ordained in foreign parts have been pronounced to be 

15 no lawful ministers." (Works, vol. ii. p. 5 1 4.) It is certain also that 
instances may be given down to the time of the civil wars of foreigners 
holding preferment without episcopal ordination ; but the act of uni- 
formity (13 and 14 Charles II. c. 4.) made such ordination indispens- 
able for the future. 

20 Inseparably connected with the question of episcopal ordination was 
another tenet which could not fail to be brought into immediate dis- 
cussion, the divine right of episcopacy as a superior order to that of 
presbyters. Up to this period it had been usual to consider bishops 
and priests as of the same order ; but Dr. Bancroft in the well-known 

»5 sermon preached by him on the 9th of Feb. 1589, maintained the 
superiority of bishops jure divino ; and though lord Burghley and sir 
F. Knollys objected against it as interfering with the queen's supre- 
macy, and the puritans were unanimously opposed to it, it appears to 
have been the prevailing doctrine of the church since that period, and 

30 to have been approved and sanctioned by the convocation in 1606. 
It received however its most complete acknowledgment in the time of 
archbishop Laud, and on the publication of bishop Hall's celebrated 
treatise, entitled, " Episcopacie by Divine right asserted." The part 
of Dr. Bancroft's sermon which bears upon the subject, and which 

35 Mr. Hallam appears to have overlooked (see Const. Hist. vol. i. p. 428), 
is to be found at p. 97 of the edition printed immediately after the 
delivery of the sermon. See N'. CXLIX. Strype, Whitg. vol. i. 
p. 559. Ann. vol. iii. P. ii. p. 98. Biog. Brit. art. Bancroft. Overal 
CoBToc. Book, Canon 6, &c. 

26 Articles in the visitation [Gil. 

is he a swearer, gamester, common himter or hawker, 
unsemely in apparel, or giveth any just occasion of 
offence, or evil example of life ; is he probable suspected 
to have attained any spiritual living through any symo- 
nical compact, made by himself, or any other for him, 5 
eyther directly or indirectly ; is he a common resorter to 
tavern or alehowses, or doth suffer any wine, ale, beere, 
or victual to be sold in his parsonage, or vicaridge house 
or no ? 

VI. Whether hath your minister, or any other what- 1© 
soever, spoken against any parte of the booke of com- 
mon prayer, or against any of the articles agreed upon 
by the clergy of both the provinces anno MDLxn. in a 
synod holden at London; or defended any popery, or 
other erronious, seditious, or schismatical opinions? 15 

VII. Whether are any in your parish suspected to 
reserve any monument of superstition or idolatrye, to 
resort to any masse, or other service disallowed, or to 
any popishe prieste for shrifte ; or any in your parish 
suspected to receive into their houses, or companie, any 40 
jesuites, preists, seminary men, or other like fugitives 
disguised, or suspected persons, or to be reconciled to the 
church of Rome ; are ther any which do not, according 
to the law, both resorte to divine service publickly in the 
church, and also communicate the holy sacrament as is 35 
required ? 

VIII. Whether doth any in your parish teach chil- 
dren publickly, or in any man's house privately ; is such 
licensed by the ordinary; is he known to resorte to 
publick service, and to be of sound religion ; doth he 30 
teach the catechism to his schollars, which was set out 
for that purpose ; and doth he train up his schollars in 
knowledge of true religion now established, and in obe- 
dience to the prince or no ? 

IX. Whether are your hospitals and almeshouses used 35 
according to the foundation and ordinance of the same. 

1585] of the dioceie of Chichester. 27 

and snch only placed in them as be most impotent and 
nedye; and whether legacies, and other sommes of 
money, given and set forth for such other good and 
godly uses, be employed according to the intent of the 
5 givers ? 

X. Whether have anie married within the forbidden 
degrees, consanguinitie or affinitie ; any separated in that 
respect, do keep company still together; any lawfully 
married, which offensively live asunder, or which have 

10 married elsewhere; any man which has two wives, or 
woman two husbandes ; are ther in your parish any incest- 
uous, adulterous, or incontinent persons; any common 
drunkards, rybaldes, swearers, slanderers, uncharitable, 
sorcerers, charmers, usurers, or vehemently suspected of 

T5 these or any of them ? 

XI. Whether any in your parish have departed this 
life, whose vnlls are not proved ; doth any administer or 
intermedle with the deades goods, without authoritie 
from the ordinarie for the time being; hath any wills 

iobeen proved, or administrations granted since the 27th 
of February last; what be their names and surnames, 
which offend against this or any other the aforesaid 

XII. Whether hath anie ordinary, register, clerke, or 
^5 apparitor concealed, or winked at any offender, presented, 

or commuted any publick satisfaction, or punishment for 
money, without most urgent cause, and publick testifica- 
tion in the church of the offenders repentance, or in such 
case hath not wholie imployed the same to godly uses ; 
30 and whether hath any of them enacted excessive or unac- 
customed fees in anie ecclesiastical matter whatsoever? 

XIII. Whether is your minister a preacher ; hath he 
any other living ecclesiastical ; where doth he reraayne, 
and abyde, for the most part ; what is his living yerely 

35 worth by common estimation ; and of whose patronage in 

28 Admittance qftmmeet persons into the ministry. [OIII. 

fee is such living ; of what age and degree of scholes is 
he, as you have heard or do conjecture ? 

XIV. Whether hath any in your parish, being such as 
refuse to come to divine service, any children ; of vehat 
age, where and with whom do they remain ; have such, 5 
or any other, any children, kinsfolkes, or friends beyond 
the seas ; did they depart with license ; how long agone ; 
and in what partes on the other syde of the sea do they 
remain, as you know, have heard or do conjecture ; and 
what releife have they from any in your parish, or from lo 
any other within her majestys dominions ? 

XV. Generallie you shall, by the othe you have taken, 
make diligent inquisition and trewly present in writing 
not only the names and surnames of all, who have 
offended, are suspected, or are touched in anie of these "s 
articles, but also who have offended, or are suspected to 
have offended against any parte of the queens injunc- 
tions, or any ecclesiastical lawe of this realme. 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christ! R^. Anglm 

JoH. Whitoift 3. 1586. Elizas. 28. 

A letter from the archbishop of Cant, to the bishop of Lin- 
coluy concerning the admittance of unmeet persons into 
the ministry. — E Libro Instrument. Episc. Lincoln » 
fol. 73. 

" CjALUTEM in Christo." It hath plesed her majesty 

O of late to signifie unto me, that she is informed «<> 
little or no redresse at all to be concerning the admit- 
taunce of unmeet men into the ministry, and suffering 
such as are dissolute in life to remain therein ; giving 
unto me very straight charge to loke diligently unto it. 
And although I hope the information is not true, but 25 

1586.] Admifiance of unmeet persona into the ministry. 29 

rather devised by some that can be contente to take oc- 
casion to seek the disgrace of the present estate of the 
clergy, and that for the time I satisfied her highness ; yet 
for a more satisfaction therein, and for the better dis- 

5 charge of my duty, I do earnestly pray your lordship, 
with as much speed as you can, not only to certifie me of 
all those that you have admitted into any degree of the 
ministry, since the last convocation, together with their 
degrees and qualities; but also in like manner such as 

10 you have admitted to any benefice, or to serve any cure 
within your diocesse, since the last time. And further to 
send unto me the names, degrees, learning, and qualities 
of all the ministers within your diocesse, according to the 
canon of the articles agreed upon in the last convocation, 

isentituled, "De inquisitione per episcopos ineunda;" de- 
siring your lordship to loke diligently to the observing of 
all the said articles, which as yet you have not done, 
because I am not certified in many points according to 
the same. And assure yourself there are diligent inqui- 

lositors for those matters, who will not be silent, when oc- 
casion shall serve. Her majesty is very earnest to have 
them performed ; and I would be lothe, for my creditts 
sake, that any defect should be found, when the matter 
shall come to further examination. I have sent your 

n lordship herein enclosed a note of such counterfaite min- 
isters, as I have learned to be abroad. I pray you have 
a special regard unto them, and if any of them happen to 
be within your diocesse, send them uppe to me, that I may 
take order with them accordingly. And so with my 

50 hearty commendation I committ your lordship to the 
tuition of Almighty God. From Croydon the 6th of 
September, mdlxxxvi. 

Your loving brother m Christy 

Jo. Cantuar. 

30 License to bring inpopith booh. [GIV. 


Archiepisc. Cant Anno Christi Reg. AnglisR 

JoH. Whitoift 3. 1586. Elizab. 28. 

The archbishop of Canterburies license to bring in popish 
books — Strype's life of Whitgift, p. 269. 

WHEREAS sundry books are from time to time 
set forth in the parts beyond seas by such as are 
addicted to the errors of popery ; yet in many respects 
expedient to be had by some of the learned of this realm ; 
containing also oftentimes matter in them against the 5 
state of this land, and slanderous unto it, and therefore no 
fit books to pass through every man's hand freely: in 
consideration whereof, I have tolerated Ascanius de 
Benialme, merchant bookseller, to bring into this realm 
from the parts beyond seas some few copies of every such 10 
sort of books, upon this condition only, that any of them 
be not shewed nor dispersed abroad, but first brought to 
me, or some other of her majesty's privy council, that so 
they may be delivered or directed to be delivered forth 
unto such persons only, as by us or some of us shall be 15 
thought most meet men, upon good considerations and 
purposes to have the reading and perusal of them. Given 
at Lambeth the... day of October mdlxxxvi. anno reg. 
Elizab. xxvin. 

7%^ Archbishop of] Stiype, Whitg. vol. i. p. 512. "One of the 20 
charges made by Dr. Rainolds at the Hampton Court conference was 
that xmlawful and seditious books were circulated, whereby many 3roimg 
scholars and imsettled minds in botii universities were corrupted and 
perverted ; naming for one instance that book entitled ' De jure magis- 
tratus in subditos/ published by Ficlerus a papist, and applied against 45 
the queen for the pope. Bishop Bancroft answered that there was no 
such licentious divulging of those books as he imagined or complained 
of, and that none, except it were such as Dr. Rainolds (who were sup- 
posed to confute them), had liberty by authority to buy them," Barlow's 
Conference, 2d day. 30 

1587 •] ^r«iA$M^9 Whitgifi abimt Bibles in churches. 31 


Ardiiepisc. Cant Anno Christi Reg. Angliae 

JoH. Wbitotft 4. 1587. Elizab. 29. 

A letter from the archbishop ofCanL to the bishop of Lin- 
coln about Bibles in churches. — E Libro Instrument, 
episc. Lincoln, fol. 65. 

WHEREAS I am credibly informed that divers, as 
well parish churches, as chapels of ease, are not 

A letter /ram the"] Archbishop Parker's translation, commonly called 
the Bishops' Bible, was first printed in folio in the year 1568 and in 

5 4to in 1569 ; and it was ordered in the convocation of 157 1 (Wilkins, 
Cone. vol. iv. p. 263) that copies should be provided by all dignitaries 
for their private houses, and by all church officers for the use of their 
cathedral and parish churches. It was republished several times in foHo 
and once or twice in 4to before the year 1585, in which year were 

10 printed the two editions described by archbishop Whitgift in this letter 
as " extant and ready." During the same interval the Genevan trans- 
lation had been republished at least fifteen times. The feeling in its 
favour seems to have been created by archbishop Grindal ; for though 
it had not been reprinted for several years previously, five different 

15 editions of it made their appearance within two years after his removal 
from York to Canterbury. Notwithstanding this letter, it still conti- 
nued throughout the reign of queen Elizabeth to be the more popular 
translation, and is computed to have been published by the queen's 
printers alone more than thirty times. Archbishop Whitgift, who in the 

20 year 1595 approved the Nine Lambeth Articles, cannot reasonably be 
supposed to have objected at this period to the Genevan translation 
from any supposed tendency it had to favour the peculiar opinions of 
Calvin. His objections doubtless were the following : that it was not 
the translation enjoined to be used by the authority of the church ; and 

2$ that many of the notes which accompanied it were adverse to the prin- 
ciples of government, civil as well as ecclesiastical, estabhshed in Eng- 
land. The original epistles dedicatory which were offensive to the 
queen had been omitted ; but it still contained such notes as these ; 
Elxod. i. 19, " Their disobedience herein was lawful." Exod. x. 26, " The 

30 ministers of God ought not to yield one iota to the wicked as touching 
their charge." 2 Chron. xv. 16," Herein he shewed that he lacked zeal ; 

32 Archbishop Whitffift abotU Bibles in churches. [OV. 

sufficiently ftirnished with Bibles, but some have either 
none at all, or such as be torn and defaced, and yet not of 
the translation authorized by the synods of bishops: 
these are therefore to require you strictly in your visita- 
tions, or otherwise, to see that all and every the said 5 
churches and chapels in your diocese be provided of one 
Bible, or more, at your discretion, of the translation al- 
lowed as aforesaid, and one book of Common Prayer, as 
by the laws of this realm is appointed. And for the per- 
formance thereof, I have caused her highness's printer to lo 
imprint two volumes of the said translation of the Bible 
aforesaid, a bigger, and a less, the largest for such parishes 
as are of ability, and the lesser for chapels and very small 
parishes ; both which are now extant and ready. And so 
I commit you to the tuition of Almighty God. From my ts 
house at Lambeth the l6th day of July, mdlxxxvii. 

Your loving friend^ 

Jo. Cantuar. 

for she ought to have died, both by the covenant at verse 13, and by 
the law of God : but he gave place to foolish pity." And Rev. ix. 3, 20 
where, under the word " locusts" are included not merely monks, ^ars, 
and cardinals, but also bishops, doctors, bachelors, and masters. It 
was owing to its evil reputation in this respect that at a subsequent 
period, during the conference at Hampton Court, king James pro- 
nounced it the worst of translations, adding that some of the notes 45 
annexed to it were " very partial, untrue, seditious, and savouring too 
much of dangerous and traitorous conceits." See Cotton's Last of Bibles. 
Lewis, Hist, of Transl. p. 257, &c. 308. Neal, Purit. vol. i. p. 110. 
Strype, Whitg. vol. ii. p. 280. Collier, vol. ii. p. 504. Barlow's Con- 
ference, p. 45. Newcome's Hist, of Transl. p. 68. Todd's Vindic. App. 30 
No. 3. Wood's Ann. vol. ii. p. 3 1 2. 

1588.J AreMinAop W/ii(pi/fs article 0/ visitation 4"c. 38 


Archiepiac. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Augltw 

Job. Whitoift 5. 158K. Elizab. 30. 

Articles to be enquired of by tfie churchwardens and swome 
men in the ordinary visitation of the lord archbishop of 
Cant, within the diocese of Sarum. — Reg. Whitgift^ 
fol. 400. a. 

I. TNPRIMIS, Whether your church be void, and if it 

i be, who gathereth the fruictes thereof; and if it be 

full, whether the incumbent hath any moe benefices then 

one; and whether he be a preacher, yea or noe; and 

5 what degree of schole he hath taken ? 

II. Item, Whether your minister doth reverently say 
service, and minister the sacraments according to the 
book of common prayers : and whether doth he use in his 
ministration the ornaments appointed by the lawes now 

10 in force? 

III. Item, Whether have you in your church all things 
necessary for the common prayer, and due administration 
of the sacramentes, according to her majesties lawes and 
injunctions ? 

15 rV. Item, Whether have you had monethlie sermons 
in your parish church at the least, or noe ; and whether 
are the homilies read, when there is no sermon ? 

V. Item, Whether any person, being not deacon at the 
least, is suffered to say service in your church, to minister 

«o the sacraments, or bury the dead ; and whether doth any 
take upon him to preach, not being sufficiently licensed ; 

Articles to be enquired of] Strype, Whitg. vol. i. p. 549. The see of 
Samm continued vacant for three years after the translation of bishop 
Kers in the year 1588 to the province of York. (Le Neve, Fasti, p. 260.) 
35 The same articles appear to have been employed by the archbishop in 
other visitations, as of Canterbury and Rochester, which he made about 
this time. Strype, Whitg. vol. i. p. 593 . 


34 ArMUhop W%itffiji*8 afiides of fdiitaiicn [CVI. 

and whether doth any use to preach, that doth not once 
in the year at least administer one of the sacraments ? 

VI. Item, Whether your parson or vicar be resident 
upon his benefice ; and whether he be an incontinent 
person, or suspected thereof, or faulty of any other kind s 
of lewdness? 

VII. Item, Whether your parson, vicar or curate have 
publickly, or otherwise, spoken against the order or 
government of the church of England, or the book of 
common prayer, established by law ? »® 

VIII. Item, Whether your ministers used to pray for 
the queues majestic, queen Elizabeth, by the title and 
style due to her majestic, appointed by the statutes of 
this realme, and her highness injunctions, and exhort the 
people to obedience to her highness, and other magis-ts 
trates being in authority under her ? 

IX. Item, Whether your minister doth not openly in 
your church catechise such as be of convenient age, ac- 
cording to the ordres set forth in the book of common 
prayer ? «o 

X. Item, Whether all persons of convenient age doth 
not repaire to the church upon Sundays and holydaies, 
and receave the communion thrise yearly ? 

XI. Item, Whether you do know any persons, that 
withhold any church-stock, or hathe not made their ac- «5 
compts duly, according to the law, having byn church- 
wardens ? 

XII. Item, Whether you do know any common 
swearer, drunkarde or blasphemer, any symonical person, 
usurer, witch, conjurer, soothsayer, charmer, fornicator, 30 
adulterer, incestuous person, or any that harboreth incon- 
tinent persons, or any vehementlie suspected of any of 
those crimes ? 

XIII. Item, Whether you do know any scholemaster 
that doth teach within your parish without license of his 35 
ordinarie under his seal or no ? 

1588.J in the diocese of Sarum. 35 

XIV. Item, Whether you do know in your parish any 
man that hath two wiefes living, or anie woman that 
hath two husbands living? 

XV. Item, Whether you do know anie that doth ob- 
5 stinately defende papistrye, heresies, errors, or false doc- 

XVI. Item, Whether do you know any person excom- 
municate in your parish, and whether any such doth 
repaire to the church ? 

«o XVIL Item, Whether your parish church or chauncell 
be ruinous or decayed, and by whose deiaulte ? 

XVIII. Item, Whether you know any receivers of 
jesuites, seminaries, or massing priestes, or any other 
Itigitive persons, or reconcyled to the church of Rome ? 

15 XIX. Item, Whether you knowe any that use con- 
▼entycles, or meetings, for expounding scriptures, or say- 
ing of prayers in private houses or places ? 

XX. Item, Whether there be any hospitals, or almes- 
howses in your parish ; and whether the same be used 

30 according to the foundations and ordinances thereof? 

XXI. Item, Whether you knowe any person ordered 
by the law to do penance, or excommunicate for not 
doing the same, do still so continue unreformed ? 

XXII. Item, Whether you doe knowe any other 
«s matter worthey of presentment above not expressyd, yea 

or noe, which you shall likewise present by virtue of 
your oathes ? 

D 2 

36 Ths archbishops' and bishops' order ahotU residence. [CVIl. 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Chrisii Reg. Angliap 

JoH. Whitoift 6. 1588. £lizab..^o. 

Orders agreed upon hy the archbishopps and byshopps^ etc. 
at the parliament mdlxxxviii. and commanded by her 
majestie ea^actlie and diligentlie to be observed and put 
in ea^ecution. — E MS. col. Caj. Cantab. D. 87. fol. 170. 

THAT all such as have one benefyce with cure shal be 
compelled by his ordinarie absolutely and conti- 
nuallie to be resydent thereupon accordinge to the lawe, 
unlesse he be absent by occasion of residence in any 
cathedral churche, or of any service or attendance al-s 
lowed by the statutes of this realme, in which cases he 
shall finde a sufficient preacher to be allowed by the 
byshoppe of the dioces, yf the lyvinge shal be thought 
to the byshoppe able to find a preacher. 

Every incumbent of moe cured benefices then one by '<> 

Orders agreed upon] In every Bession of parliament for some time 
previously endeavours had been made by the commons to improve the 
state of the law respecting pluralities and nonresidence. On a me- 
morable occasion in the year 1584 the archbishop, who was opposed to 
such a measure, pressed the following consideration in a letter which he 15 
wrote to the queen ; *' if it pass by parliament, it cannot hereafter but 
in parliament be altered, what necessity soever shall urge thereunto. 
.... Whereas if it is but as a canon from us by your majesty's au- 
thority, it may be observed or altered at your pleasure." (Strype, 
Whitg. vol. i. p. 391.) This was an appeal to some of the strongest 20 
prepossessions of the queen, and too powerful to be unsuccessful. In 
the session of 1588 a bill connected with church matters was brought, 
as in former instances, into the house of lords without effect, and the 
orders before us were considered a sufficient substitute, although very 
different from the severer provisions of the bill. Strype, Ann. vol. iii. 25 
P- "• P* 53- Collier, vol. ii. pp. .')95.62o. Conf. Strype, Whitg. vol. i. 
?• 539- 

1588.] 7^ areUkithopi and UsAcpa* order abmU residence. f37 

lawful dispensation, is to be compelled to be equallie re- 
sydent, or to have a sufficient preacher to be allowed by 
the byshoppe upon that benefice, from the which he shall 
happen to be absent, yf the lyviuge shall be thought to 

5 the byshoppe able to finde a preacher. 

If any person having one or more benefyces with cure 
shal be absent from the same by color of his resydence in 
any cathedral church, or of the service of any prelate or 
nobleman, or woman ; such a non-resjdent that shal be 

>o absent by any such occasions by the space of 4. monthes 
in one yeare, shal be compelled (as before) to fynde such 
a sufficient preacher to supplye his absence as the 
bishoppe of the place shall allow of. 

If any mynister havinge any lyvinge ecclesiastical in 

'5 perpetuitie, or otherwise, shall so notoriously offend in 
anye great cryme, that he shall be justly offensyve and 
scandalous to his profession and calling, and thereby shal 
be unable to profytte the place where he offendeth, he is 
to be removed from suche his lyvinge, and not to be ad- 

»o mytted after to serve any cure. 

That noe mjmister unlearned and not able to catechise 
shal be hereafter admytted to serve any cure. And yf 
any such be incumbent of any benefyce alreadie, the 
bjTshoppe shall, and by the lawe maye appoynt unto 

«5him a coadjutor with a convenient stypend accordinge 
to the value of the benefyce. 

That none be suffered to place or displace any curate 
without authoritie from the archbishoppe or byshoppe of 
the dyocesse, where such a cure lyethe. 

38 A proclamation apainst $editioUi hook* atid libels. [GVIII. 


Archiepiflc. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Angiia 

JoH. Wbitoift 6. 1588. Elizab. 31. 

A proclamation against certain seditious and schismaiical 
books and libels^ ^fc.*— (Bodl. I. 2. 18. Med,) 

By the queen. 

THE queen's most excellent majesty considering how 
within these few years past, and now of late, certain 
seditious and evil disposed persons towards her majesty, 
and the government established for causes ecclesiastical 
within her majesty's dominions, have devised, written, 5 

A proclamation againsf] The controversy between Whitgift and Cart- 
wright which had grown out of " the Admonition to the Parliament," 
published in 1572, had ceased on the publication of Cartwright's se- 
cond reply in the year i577> and had been succeeded by other con- 
tests, whenever an eminent work had been written in favour of any of 10 
the three great parties. Conformists, Puritans, and Romanists, that ex- 
press in general terms the different religious sentiments of this period. 
But in the year 1588 began a series of publications under the name of 
Martin Mar-Prelate^ commonly ascribed to Penry, Udall^ FHeld, and 
Throgmorton, which completely changed the character of religious con- 15 
troversy, and alienated some of their most constant and powerful 
friends from the cause of the nonconformists. The whole progress of 
puritanism, as connected with this matter, is well shewn in the follow- 
ing statement of secretary Walsingham, himself disposed originally to 
protect the puritans, but disgusted at last by the scurrilous publications 30 
and dangerous conspiracies in which many of the most worthless^ but 
most active, of their party were engaged. " When they inveighed 
against such abuses in the church as pluralities, non-residence and the 
like, their zeal was not condemned, only their violence was sometimes 
censured. When they refused the use of some ceremonies and rites as 25 
superstitious^ they were tolerated with much connivance and gentle- 
ness. Yea, when they called in question the superiority of bishops, 
and pretended to bring a democracy into the church, yet their propo- 

1588.] A proclamation agahui teditious books and Ubeb. 39 

printed, or caused to be seditiously and secretly published 
and dispersed sundry scbismatical and seditious books, 
de&matory libels, and other fantastical writings amongst 
her majesty's subjects, containing in them doctrine very 
5 erroneous, and other matters notoriously untrue, and slan- 
derous to the state, and against the godly reformation of 
religion and government ecclesiastical established by law, 
and so quietly of long time continued, and also against 
the persons of the bishops, and others placed in authority 

10 ecclesiastical under her highness, by her authority, in rail- 
ing sort, and beyond the bounds of all good humanity : 
all which books, libels, and writings, tend by their scope 
to persuade and bring in a monstrous and apparent dan- 
gerous innovation within her dominions and countries, of 

15 all manner ecclesiastical government now in use, and to 

sitions were heard, considered, and by contrary writings debated and 
di g cossed. Yet all this while it was perceived that their cause was dan- 
gerous and very popular. As, because papistry was odious, therefore 
it was ever in their mouths that they sought to purge the church from 

so the relics of popery; a thing acceptable to the people, who love ever to 
ran from one extreme to another. Because multitudes of rogues and 
poverty were an eye- sore and dislike to every man, therefore they put 
it into the people's heads that if discipline were plaintiff, there should 
be no beggars nor vagabonds ; a thing very plausible. And in like 
manner they promise the people many other impossible wonders of their 

«5 discipline. Besides, they opened the people a way to government by 
their consistory and presbytery ; a thing, though in consequence no less 
prejadicial to the liberties of private men, than to the sovereignty of 
princes, yet in the first show very popular. Nevertheless this (except 
it were in some few that entered into extreme contempt) was borne 
with, because they pretended but in dutiful manner to make proposi- 

3otioDs. and to leave it to the providence of God and the authority of the 
magistrate. But now of late years, when there issued from them a co- 
lony of those that affirmed the consent of the magistrate was not to be 
attended; when under pretence of a confession to avoid slanders and 
imputations, they combined themselves by classes and subscriptions; 

35 when they descended in that vile and base means of defacing the go. 

vemment of the church by ridiculous pasquils then it appeared to 

be no more zeal, no more conscience, but mere faction and division. 

40 A praeUmatim agmfigt seditious boots aiid UbeU. [GVIII. 

the abridging, or rather to the overthrow of her highness's 
lawful prerogative, allowed by God's law, and established 
by the laws of the realm, and consequently to reverse, 
dissolve, and set at liberty the present government of the 
church, and to make a dangerous change of the form of 5 
doctrine and use of divine service of God, and the min- 
istration of tlie sacraments now also in use, with a rash 
and malicious purpose also to dissolve the estate of the 
prelacy, being one of the three ancient estates of this 
realm under her highness, whereof her majesty mindeth «<> 
to have such a reverend regard, as to their places in the 
church and commonwealth appertaineth : all which said 
lewd and seditious practices, do directly tend to the ma- 
nifest wilful breach of a great number of good laws and »5 
statutes of this realm ; inconveniences nothing regarded 
by such innovations. 

And therefore though the state was compelled to hold somewhat a 
harder hand to restrain them than before, yet it was with as great mo- 
deration as the peace of the church and state could permit." Collier, 
vol.ii. p. 608. Comp. Hooker, £cc. Pol. Pref. p. 181 ; and lord Bacon, ao 
Works, vol. ii. p. 5 1 3. 

It would have been well if these pamphlets had always been answered 
in the sober and rational spirit of bishop Cooper in his " Admonition to 
the people of Ehigland ;" of whom lord Bacon remarks, " I do much 
esteem the wisdom and religion of that bishop which replied to the 25 
first pamphlet of this kind ; who remembered that a fool was to be an- 
swered, but not by becoming like unto him^ and considered the matter 
which he handled, and not the person with whom he dealt." Advertisem. 
on Ch. Controvers. Works, vol. ii. p. 503. 

This proclamation bears date Feb. 13, 1589, according to our com- 30 
mon computation, and it is worthy of notice that on the 9th of the 
same month Dr. Bancroft, then chaplain to the lord chancellor and 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, preached his well-known sermon 
at Paul's Cross, which may be considered as the origin of other impor- 
tant measures besides the issuing of this proclamation. Str3rpe, Ann. 35 
vol. iii. P. ii. p. 70. Whitgift, vol. i. p. 549. Wood's Ann. vol. i. p. 591. 
Collier, vol.ii. p. 609. Neal's Purit. vol.i. p. 3 26. Biog. Brit. art. Ban- 
croft, &c. Bancroft's Dangerous Positions, b. 2. c.3~i4, Hallam, Const. 
Hist, vol.i. p. 320. 

1588.] A prodanusiion agairui seditious booh and libels. 41 

In consideration whereof, her highness graciously mind- 
ing to provide some good and speedy remedy to withstand 
such notable dangerous and ungodly attempts, and for 
that purpose to have such enormous malefactors disco- 

5 vered and condignly punished, doth signify this her high- 
ness's misliking and indignation of such dangerous and 
wicked enterprises; and for that purpose doth hereby 
will and also straitly charge and command, that all per- 
sons whatsoever, within any her majesty's realms and 

10 dominions, who have or hereafter shall have any of the 
said seditious books, pamphlets, libels or writings, or any 
of like nature already published, or hereafter to be pub- 
lished, in his or their custody, containing such matters as 
above are mentioned, against the present order and go- 

>5 vemment of the church of England, or the lawful min- 
isters thereof, or against the rites and ceremonies used in 
the church, and allowed by the laws of the realm ; that 
they, and every of them do presently after, with conve- 
nient speed, bring in, and deliver up the same unto the 

«o ordinary of the diocese, or of the place where they in- 
habit, to the intent they may be utterly defaced by the 
said ordinary, or otherwise used by them. And that 
from henceforth no person or persons whatsoever be so 
hardy as to write, contrive, print, or cause to be pub- 

«5 lished or distributed, or to keep any of the same, or any 
other books, libels, or writings of like nature and quality, 
contrary to the true meaning and intent of this her ma- 
jesty's proclamation. And likewise, that no man here- 
after give any instruction, direction, favour or assistance 

30 to the contriving, writing, printing, publishing, or dispers- 
ing of the same, or such like books, libels, or writings 
whatsoever, as they tender her majesty's good favour, will 
avoid her high displeasure, and as they will answer for 
the contrary at their uttermost perils ; and upon such fur- 

35 ther pains and penalties, as by the law any way may be 
inflicted upon the offenders, in any of these behalfe, as 

42 Archbishop WhUgifrs letter far [CIX. 

persons maintaining such seditious actions, which her ma- 
jesty mindeth to have severally executed. And if any 
person have had knowledge of the authors, writers, print- 
ers or dispersers thereof, that shall within one month 
after the publication hereof discover the same to the 5 
ordinary of the place, where he had such knowledge, or to 
any of her majesty's privy council ; the same person shall 
not for his former concealment be hereafter molested or 
troubled. Given at her majesty's palace of Westminster, 
the 13th of February, mdlxxxviii. in the 81st year of hen© 
highness's reign. 

God save the qtwen. 




Archiepisc. Cant. 

Anno Christ! 

I^g. Anglin 

JoH. Whitoift 8. 


Elizab. 33. 

The archhishop^ s letter for catechising and confirming. 

Reg. I. Whitgift, fol. 181. a. 

AFTER my very hartie commendations. Your lord- 
ship is not ignorant, that a great parte of the 
dissolutenes in manners and ignorance in the common 15 
sorte, that raigneth in most partes of this realme, even in 
this clear light of the gospell otherwise, ariseth hereof, 
for that the yowthe (being as it were the frie and seami- 
narie of the church and commonwealth) through negli- 
gence both of natural and spiritual fathers, are not (as 20 
were meete) trayned up in the chief and neacessarye 
principells of Christian religion, wherby they might learn 
their duty to God, to their prince, their countrie, and 
their neighbours, especially in their tender yercs, when 
these things might best be planted in them, and would 25 

The archbishop's letter'] Strype, Whitf^. vol. ii. p. 106. Comp. 

1591O catechising and confirming, 48 

become most hardly to be afterward removed. This mis- 
chief might well (in myne opinion) be redressed, if that, 
which in this behalf hath been wisely and godlie pro- 
vided, were as carefiillie called on, and executed, namely, 

5 by catechisinge and instructing in churches of yowthes, 
of both sexes, on the Sabbath dales, and holy dales, in 
aftemoones, and that (if it may be convenientlie) before 
their parents, and others of the several parishes, who 
therby may take comforte and instruction alsoe. One 

10 great inducement unto the learning of the rudimentes of 
religion hath hertofore ben observed to be, that chardge, 
which by the book of Common Prayer every minister 
should give after baptizing the infantes, to have them 
(soe sone as they maye leame) instructed in the cate- 

ischisme, and having learned it, to be broughte to the 
bisshoppe to be confirmed ; which gyvinge chardge I do 
heare is for the most parte omitted. This auntient and 
laudable ceremonie of confirminge children, in respect of 
a carefullnes in fathers to have their children instructed, 

so that afterwards they might be confirmed, hath heretofore 
wrought much good, where yt was used; I am very 
sorrye to hear that my brethren the bishops of my pro- 
vince of Canterbury doe so generally begin to neglect to 
confirm children, at least to call for, and exact the use 

«5 both of it and of catechising children in the church by 
the minister, and of parents to send their children, and to 
come thither themselves. These wantes are now grown 
so common and offensive by the ill effects, which they are 
found to yeld, that I am in conscience urged verie ear- 

aonestlie, and in the fear of God, to require your lordship 
and other my brethrene the bisshops, according to your 
pastoral care, and for the duty which you owe to God 
and his church, both in your own visitations, from time 
to time, and by your archdeacons, and other ecclesiastical 

35 officers, to give straite chardge unto parentes to come 
themselves, or at least to send their children to the 

44 Archbishop Whitgiffs letter far cantribtUians [CX. 

church at such times, and especially unto ministers to 
expounde unto them, and to examine the children in 
that little catechisme, which is allowed by authoritie; 
and also at the baptizing of infants to give that charge 
for bringing them unto the bishop to be confirmed, 5 
which by the book of Common Prayer is prescribed. And 
I do also hereby require at your lordships handes to geve 
warning to the ministers of your dioces, that they cause 
such children of their parish onely, that can say the cate- 
chisme, to be brought from tyme to time unto your lord- lo 
ship to be confirmed, not only when you visite trien- 
niallye, but also at other fit opportunities for such a 
purpose; as namely when you travel abroade in the 
dioces to preach, and on markett daies, when you reside 
and make your abode in any markett town, whither the is 
people of parishes thereabouts do usually resorte. Thus 
nothing doubting of your lordships forwardness and care 
herein, I commend you to Gods holy protection. From 

Croydon the of Septembre m.d.xci. your loving 

freind and brother. ^ 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi I^g. Anglin 

JoH. Whitoift II. i59.{* Clizab. 36. 

Archbishop* s letter for contributions towards converted 
preists. — Reg. II. Whitgift, fol. 106. a. 

" CjALUTEM in Christo." Amonge such priestes as 

O come over from beyond the seas to pervert her 

majesties subjects both in religion and obedience, yt 

Archbishop's letter] " Antony Tyrrel and William Tedder, priests, 
both recanted at Paul's Cross in the month of December 1588; and 25 
many more afterwards. Contributions for the maintenance of these 


converted priests were expected from the bishops and the abler sort of 
the clergy." Stipype, Whitg. vol. ii. p. 155. 

'593*] towards converted prieists. 45 

pleaseth God, by conference and other good meanes, to 
convert some to the truth, to whome also it pleaseth her 
majestie of her gracious goodness to graunt pardon ; and 
forasmuch as diverse of them, being pardoned, are alto- 

sgether destitute of maintenance, and driven to great 
extremitie through the same, (a great temptation for 
them to revolt, and a discouragement for others to fol- 
lowe their example of conversion, and a slander to the 
state,) I am moved with Christian pity and compassion, to 

»opray your lordship to move the better and wealthier sorte 
of the clergie within your dioces, to yelde some contribu- 
tion towards their releif, untill they may be otherwise 
provided for (as some of them are) and the same contri- 
bution to send unto me, with as convenient expedition as 

15 you may. Our adversaries plentifully rewarde and main- 
taine such as flye from us to them; and their preistes, 
whitest they remayned papistes, lacked nothing ; a great 
want of charity therefore, and shame it were for us, after 
their conversion, to suffer them to begge or else to dye, 

10 or to revoult for lack. If it were not for one or two, 
some of them had ben in that case ere nowe, who being 
no longer able to indure that charge, the poore sowles 
shal be driven to the before named extremities, without 
your charitable relief. The burden will be very easie 

35 divided among soe nianye, which otherwise is importable 
to such as do now sustayn yt, and therefore I hartelie 
pray you to have good consideration hereof, and to deale 
in this case as you would be dealt with in the like ; and 
soe with my verye hartie commendations I committ you 

30 to the tuition of Almighty God. From Lambeth the 9th 
of December m.d.xciii. 

Your lordship's loving brother in Christ, 

46 The couneiTt letter about recusants. [0X1. 


Archiepisc. Cant. Aiino Christi I^g. Anglis 

Job. Whitoift 1 1. 1594. Elizab. 36. 

The counciWs letter and instructions to the archbishop of 
Canterbury about recusants. — Reg. II. Whitgift, fol. 
113. a. 

AFTER our hartie commendations to your lordship 
and the rest. Whereas it is crediblie enformed, 
that there be sundry men's wives dwellinge within the 

T^ covncUVs letter] The statute 23 Eliz. c. i . entitled « An act to 
retain the queen's majesty's subjects in their due obedience" (see N0.5 
XCV.) was followed by the statute 29 Eliz. c. 6. " for the more speedy 
and due execution of certain branches of it," and in the year i594> by 
the statutes 35 Eliz. cc. i and 2 which imposed severe penalties upon 
recusants and nonconformists. The first of them (c. i.) enacted, that 
any persons obstinately refusing to come to church should be com- 10 
mitted to prison, and there remain without bail or mainprise ; and if 
not conforming within three months thereafter, should depart the 
realm ; and if found afterwards therein, should be guilty of felony 
without benefit of clergy. The second (c. 2.) confined recusants within 
^ve miles of their place of residence. Wives were bound by the provi- 15 
sions of this statute as well as husbands, with the exception of abju- 
ration of the realm ; it having been found, according to a well known 
principle, that women, in a greater degree than men, were feithful in 
their adherence to the old religion. For the full enforcement of these 
acts, at a time of peculiar danger, the authorities of the church were «o 
required by this order of council to furnish information. 

Puritans as well as Romanists were included under the penalties of 
the first statute, the queen having, as formerly, strictly forbidden the 
commons to exercise any judgment of their own in matters appertain- 
ing to the church. One important consequence of this change in the 25 
law was, that cases of nonconformitv were henceforward frequently 
tried before the judges of assize, instead of being taken before the 
queen's commissioners. See Stat at large. Strype, Ann. vol. iv. 
p. 367. Burn. Ecc. Law. vol. iii. p. 1 7 1. Hume, Hist. vol. v. p. 367. 
Hallam, Const. Hist. vol. i. p. 175. Lingard, vol. v. p. 513. 3® 

'594*] The councils letter about recusants. ^-T 

dioces of Cant, that refuse to come to the church ; aud 
that sundrie persons do entertayne, keepe, and releive 
servants, and others that be recusants, contrarye to the 
statute made in the last parliament ; sithence which time 

5 it is likewise notified unto us, that many have shewed 
themselves rather more obstinate in divers parts of this 
realme in matter of religion, then anie waies more trac- 
table or conformable; forasmuch as this matter doth 
verye much importe the true service of God, and the 

'<> estate of her majestic and her realm, and therefore ought 
with the greater care and diligence to be looked into; 
we have therefore thought it expedient to send your 
lordship in a schedule here inclosed, certeine notes and 
directions for the more exact and orderly proceeding 

'5 herein, subscribed by us and the clarke of the counsell, 
and do verie eamestlie require your lordship, etc. with all 
convenient expedition, to cause diligent enquirie to be 
made of all wyves, servants, and other recusants, within 
your lordships dioces and jurisdiction, according to the 

*® orders and directions prescribed in the said schedule, and 
to make perfect certificate thereof forthwith to us. So 
not doubtinge, but your lordship will have that regarde 
to the due execution herof, as apperteyneth, and as her 
majestie and our selves do expect, we byd your lordship, 

n etc. verye hartelie farewell. From the court at Windesore 
castle the 26th of August, m.d.xciv. 

Your lordships etc. verye loving frendes^ 

Joh. Puckering, CS. T. Buckhurst. 

W. Burghley. J. Wolley. 

30 Essex. J. Fortescue. 

C. Howard. 

To our very good loxde^ the Imd archbishop of Cant, and 
to our loving frends the deane^ ordinarie^ and officialls of 
that diocess. 


48 Notes and directions to the arehUshopy 4*<7. [OXI. 

Notes and directiofis to be observed by the lord archbishop, 
deane^ ordinarie, and officers of the diocess of Cant, in 
their enquiry after wyves and servants, recttsants, etc. 

THEY shall first cause diligent inquisition to be made 
in everje parish, what wyves be recusants, and shall 
certifie the names, and dwelling places of the husband 
and wief, and the condition and state of the husband, 
videlicet knight, esquire, gentleman, etc. They shall 5 
cause also enquirie to be made, who kepe or releeve any 
servants, or others, that be recusants within their families, 
or under their commandment, contrary to the statute the 
xxxv*^ of her majesties reigne ; and for the better know- 
ledge thereof, they shall take strict order, that curates, 10 
churchwardens, or sydemen of every parishe do make re- 
quest to every householder, man or woman, in her majes- 
ties name, keeping any number of servants, men or 
women, above the number of ten, to notifie the names of 
all the said servants ; and all the names so delyvered and 15 
put in writing, the said curate, churchwarden, or sydeman 
shall expresly require every the said servants to resorte 
to the church, according to the lawe, and of the time of 
this request to keep a note in writing; likewise after a 
nioneth next after such request the curate or church- ao 
wardens shall give notice to every one, that keepeth or 
releeveth any such servante, or other recusante, and hath 
not come to any parish church, or to usual place of com- 
mon prayer to hear divine service, but hath forborne the 
same for the space of a month, before such notice given, n 
without any reasonable cause. And the order, which the 
said curate shall use in his admonition, hereafter fol- 
loweth : I A. B., curate of the parish of C, doe give 
notice unto J. S. that the servant of R. N. doth obsti- 
nately refuse to come to any church, chappel, or usual 30 

'595*] Artieuli Lambethani. 49 

place of common prayer, to hear divine service, and hath 
forborne the same by the space of a month together last 
past, contrary to the lawes and statutes of this realm. 

Jo. Puckering, C. S. Ro. Cecyll. 

W. Burghley. Jo. WoUey. 

Essex. A. Achley. 
T. Buckhurst. 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno ('hristi Re^. Anglite 

Job. Whitoift 12. i5Q5- Klizab. 3;. 

Artieuli Lambethani compositi ah archiep. Cantuar, Rich. 
Fletcher^ episc. Lwidon. Ric. Vaughan^ Bangor, episc. 
Humphr. TyndalU decano Elien. Doct. Whitaker^ regio 
professore Cantahrig. — Ex Fuller. Eccles. Hist. 1. ix. 
p. S30. 


EUS ab fiBterno prsedestinavit quosdam ad vitam, 
quosdam reprobavit ad mortem. 

>o Artieuli Lambetkam] The predestinarian questions attracted attention 
in England at an early period after they had been brought into discus- 
sion by Calvin. His " Institutio Christianas religionis" was first printed 
at Basil in the year 1536, but did not become well known till after the 
year 1545, when it was printed at Geneva. The English reformers 

* 5 were too mach occupied with preliminary matters during the reign of 
Henry VIII. and the earlier years of Eidward VI. to arrive at specula- 
tions so far advanced as those of Calvin ; but they had certainly at- 
tracted notice and made converts in England as early as the year 1552. 
Before the end of that year the second service book of king Edward 

ao was in general use throughout the kingdom, and men of a speculative 
turn of mind were thereby set at liberty from their past discussions to 
enter into new fields of controversy. It was at that time (Sept. 9. 1 jsa) 
that Traheron, who was afterwards distinguished as an interpreter of 
the scriptures, wrote to Bullinger, informing him that many Englishmen 

^5 had adopted the opinions of Calvin, and asking for the judgment of the 
church at Zurich on the important points at issue. On the 3rd of 


50 Articuli Lambethani. [CXIl. 

II. Causa niovens aut efficiens pr^destinationis ad 
vitam non est provisio fidei, aut perseverantiae, aut bono- 
rum operum, aut ullius rei, quae insit in personis prse- 
destinatis ; sed sola voluntas beneplaciti Dei. 

III. Praedestinatorum praefinitus et certus est numeru8,5 
qui nee augeri nee minui potest. 

IV Qui non sunt prsedestinati ad salutem, necessario 
propter peccata sua damnabuntur. 

V. Vera, viva, et justificans fides et Spiritus Dei justi- 
ficantis non extinguitur, non excidit, non evanescit im© 
electis, aut finaliter aut totaliter. 

VI. Homo vere fidelis, id est, fide justificante prae- 
ditus, certus est plerophoria fidei de remissione peccato- 
rum suorum, et salute sempitema sua per Christum. 

March following Bullinger answered at some length "de providentia 15 
Dei, ej usque praedestinatione electione ac reprobatione, deque libero 
arbitrio, et quod Deus non sit auctor peccati," stating expressly in 
what respects he objected to the propositions of Calvin. Traheron re- 
plied on the 3rd of June to this effect ; "In prsedestinationis doctrina 
non per omnia cum Bullingero consentit. Caveat Bullingems nequidso 
hujus causa dissidii inter Calvinum et ipsum excitetur." (Hess, CataL 
vol. ii. pp. 62. 67. 75.) It is clear then without the mention of other 
evidence, that Calvinism, though probably in its sublapsarian and milder 
form, was known and embraced in England during the reign of Ed- 
ward VI. It would appear indeed on examination that the church 35 
generally was not of sufficient growth and developement for such in- 
quiries ; and that it was rather the spmt of speculation, than any ex- 
press opinion, which was condemned by the authorities of those times. 
" In these matters," said bishop Ridley at a subsequent period, " I am 
so fearful that I dare not speak further, yea almost none otherwise than 30 
the text doth, as it were, lead me by the hand ;" and again, " Sudden 
changes without substantial and necessary cause, and the heady setting 
forth of extremities, I did never love." (Abp. Laurence, Authent. 
Docum. pp. XXXV. xliii. Martyrs' Letters, p. 41 .) The next occasion for 
calling attention to this controversy in England was during the reign of 35 
queen Mary, when Bradford drew up a treatise in favour of sublapsarian 
opinions (dated Oct. 22, 1554), and sent it to Cranmer, Ridley, and 
Latimer in Oxford, stating at the same time that his fellow prisoners 
agreed with him in his views, and would openly signify their agreement. 

'595-] Articuli lAtmbethani, 51 

VII. Gratia salutaris non tribuitur, non communicatur, 
non conceditur universis hominibus, qua servari poasint, si 

VIII. Nemo potest venire ad Christum, nisi datum ei 
5 fiierit, et nisi pater eum traxerit ; et omnes homines non 

trahuntur a patre, ut veniant ad filium. 

IX. Non est positum in arbitrio aut potestate uniuscu- 
jusque hominis servari. 

Matthew Hutton, archbishop of York, did concur in 
lo his judgment vrith these divines, as appears by his letter: 

Accepi jampridem literas tuas, reverendissime prsesul, 
veteris illius benevolentiae, et amoris erga nie tui plenas; 

if those three reformers would set them the example. (See Trewe*s 
Narrative, Authent. Docum. p. 37.) During the reign of Elizabeth 

>5 there is abundant evidence of the existence of Calvinistic opinions to a 
great extent and in their more aggravated forms. Not to dwell on the 
extreme popularity of the Genevan version of the Bible and its notes, 
(see No. CV.) which though not thoroughly Calvinistic, are frequently 
tinged with the theology of that school, (as for instance, i Tim. iv. 10. 

«oHeb. X. 38. I Pet. ii. 8,) it must be observed that portions of the 
version were very frequently printed at this period (between 1570 and 
1610) with the commentaries of Calvin as accompaniments, and that 
Beza's Latin Testament was translated into English in the year 1576, 
under the patronage of secretary Walsingham, and appeared in several 

15 editions afterwards. From the year 1582, a catechism asserting the 
doctrine of absolute election and reprobation was attached to many of 
the editions of the English Bible, and as it was not removed from Bibles 
of the authorized translation till the year 1615, is a sufHcient token of 
the feeling entertained on the subject^ both among general readers, and 

30m places of authority. (Strype, Ann. vol. iii. P. i. p. 226. P ii. p. 238.) 
It was natural that those many persons of restless and ambitious minds, 
who adhered to the discipline of Geneva, should contract a partiality 
for its doctrines ; but after the discussions connected with the nature of 
the eucharist were at an end, there were other causes also, such as the 

35 love of abstract speculation, and the severe temper of the times, which 
would call forth less worldly-minded champions into the field of con- 
troversy, and predispose them for the ranks of Calvinism. Even 

E 2 

52 ArticuU Lamhetkani. [CX'H. 

in quibus efflagitas opinioneni moam de articiilis quibus- 
dam nuper Cantabrigiae agitatis, non sine aliqua piorum 
offensione, qui graviter molesteque ferunt matrem acade- 
miam, jam multitudine liberonim et quidem doctissimo- 
rum florentem, ea dissentione filiorum nonnihil contri8ta-5 
tarn esse. Sed fieri non potest, quin veniant offendicula, 
neque desinet inimicus homo inter triticum zizania semi- 
nare, donee eum Dominus sub pedibus contriverit. Legi 
artieulos et relegi, et dum pararem aliquid de singulis 

Hooker, the admirable defender of the church of Ehigland, had con- lo 
tracted many of the strong opinions of his favourite author St. Augus- 
tin, and though he graduaUy abandoned some of them, he seems at all 
times to have retained the doctrine of the indefectibility of grace. 
(Keble's Preface, p. ci. Comp. Wordsw. Eccl. Biog. vol. v. p. 478. 
note. Wood's Ann. vol. ii. p. 241.) 15 

Common as such persons were elsewhere, they seem to have been 
most distinguished in the university of Cambridge. A sermon ad 
clerum, preached there in the year 1595, against the Calvinistic points, 
led to judicial measures, which in their consequences induced the heads 
of the university to appeal to the archbishop against the preacher, «o 
entreating his grace at the same time to prevent any such discussions 
for the future, by requiring exact conformity of doctrine. The nine 
Lambeth articles were framed in consequence, and were sent down to 
Cambridge with a strict injunction, that the members of the university 
should regulate their judgments according to that model. The queen 15 
was greatly displeased with the publication of these articles, and seems 
to have threatened the archbishop with the punishment of a praemunire, 
until she was informed that they were not designed to be taken as 
canons or decrees of the church, but merely as articles of peace and 
private judgment. Nevertheless, although she appeared to be pacified, 30 
she ordered that they should be recalled and suppressed. If it seem 
surprising that the archbishop should have so exposed himself to the 
displeasure of his royal mistress, we must remember that he only 
declared what had for some time been the prevailing belief of the 
church, and that the successor to the throne, now not far from the 35 
actual occupation of it, had hitherto always expressed himself in fjetvour 
of Calvinistic opinions. Strype, Whitg. vol. ii. pp. 228-282. vol. iv. 
p. 320. Collier, vol. ii. p. 664. Neal, Purit. vol. i. p. 368. Walchii, 
Bibl. Theol. vol. i. p. 212. Cotton's List of Bibles, p. 17, &c. Abp. 
Laurence, Bamp. Lect. Hallam, vol. i. p. 434. Lingard, vol. vi. p. 20. 40 

'59^0 The archbUhop" 8 adim^nUion far preachers, 53 

dicere, visum est mihi multo potius de ipsa electione et 
reprobatione (unde ilia dissentio orta esse videtur) meam 
sententiam et opinionem paucis verbis explicare, quam 
singulis singillatim respondens, fratrum forsitan quo- 

srundam animas (quos in veritate diligo) exacerbare. 
Meminisse potes, ornatissime aiitistes, cum Cantabrigise 
una essemus, et sacras literas in scholis publicis inter- 
pretaremur, eandem regulam secuti, eam semper fuisse 
inter nos consensionem in omnibus religionis causis, ut ne 

10 minima quidem vel dissentionis, vel simultatis suspicio 
unqnam appareret. Igitur hoe tempore, si judicio domina- 
tionis tuse, id, quod pingui Minerva scripsi, probatum iri 
intellezero, multo mibi minus displicebo. Deus te diutis- 
sime servet incolumem, ut turn reginae serenissimae et 

i5toti regno fidelissimus consiliarius, tum etiam ecclesiae 
huic nostrae Anglicanae pastor utilissimus multos adhuc 
annos esse possis. Vale : e musseo meo apud Bisbop-thorp 
calend. Octob. anno Domini m.d.kcv. 



Archiepifc. Cant. Anno Chri>ti Reg. Angliae 

JoH. Whitoift 13. 1596. Elizab. 38. 

Archbishop*s letter for admonition for preachers. — Reg. II. 

Whitgift, fol. 145. 

" CI ALUTEM in Christo.*' Upon advertisement out of 
O all partes of the realme of the dearth of all manner 

Archlnshop's letter^ The scarcity which gave occasion to this and 
the following letter is prominently noticed by contemporaneous writers. 
The following extract from a report made to the lord treasurer from 
the county of Somerset between the dates of the two letters (Sep. 25, 
35 ^59^) will explain what is meant by the wastefulness of public houses. 
" The com that is wastefiilly spent and cousumed in alehouses by the 
lewd wandering people will find the greatest part of the poor .... It 
^eth out by experience that the alehouses of this land consume the 

54 The archbishop's admonition for freo/chers, [C X II I . 

of grayne, and that in moste parte of the realme the 
pryses therof are excessively risen ; her majestie, consi- 
dered how the same is inhansed, especiallie within these 
two or three months, doth impute the fault thereof 
aswell to the covetous disposition of the farmers and 5 
engrossers of come, that seeke all excessive and ungodly 
lucre by hording up of com, and making more scarcyty 
then there is, and in some part to the neglect of the 
execution of such good orders, as have been devised for 
the due serving of the markets, and avoiding these abuses lo 
that are practized by covetous persons to inhanse the 
prises of corne ; her majestie therefore, of the princely 
care she hath of the porer sorte of the people, doth con- 
sider, that they having these two last yeres suffered great 
penurie and hardnes by the dearth of come and othens 
victualls, whereby they have spent that little they had, 
should now by raysing of prises of com to so great rat^s 
be driven to very great misery and extremitie, if order 
should not be taken to redresse, as much as may be, 
these inconveniencies, hath, of her most princely care so 
she hath of her loving subjects, published a proclamation, 
and commanded the lordes and others of her majesties 
most honorable privy councell, in her name, to recom- 
mend by these lettres earnestly the execution of those 
orders, that were set forth the last yere to the sherifl&zs 
and justices of peace in the several counties of the 
realme ; who if they shall perform their duties to see 

greatest part of the barley : for upon a survey taken of the alehouses 
only of the town of Wells, leaving out the taverns and inns, it appeareth 
by their own confessions, that they spent this last year 1 2,000 bushels 30 
of barley malt ; which would have afforded to every market in this 
shire 10 bushels weekly, and would have satisfied a great part of the 
poor. A great part whereof is consumed by these wandering people : 
who being reduced to conformity, com no doubt will be much more 
plentiful." Strype, Ann. vol. iv. p. 409. Stowe, pp. 741. 768. 782.35 
Peck's Desid. Cur. vol. i. b. 5. p. 12. 

^59^0 Tke af\Mi8hcp*$ (idmanition/arprec^Aeris, 55 

the same observed, according to her majesties earnest 
desire, and as they ought to doe, there is good hope that 
there will be that plentie found in the realme, as may 
conveniently serve the land at reasonable prises : howheit 

5 forasmuch as this covetouse humor doth growe chiefly 
by want of that christian charity, which men ought to 
have, and for that alsoe of all other kinde of lucre that 
is most ungodly, that is gotten by pinching and starving 
of the poore people; it is most fit and necessarie that 

■othe preachers should generally in their sermons admonish 
the farmers, and owners of corne, of this dishonest and 
unchristian kinde of seeking gain by oppression of their 
|K)or neighbours, and recommend to the richer sorte 
keeping of hospitality, for the relief of the poore; and 

■5 likewise that howsekeepers being of wealth would be 
content in their own diet to avoid excesse, and to use 
fewer dishes of meate in this time of dearth, and to for- 
beare to have suppers in their howses on Wednesdaies, 
Frydaies, and fastinge daies, whereby much might be 

3o spared, that would be better bestowed a great deale on 
the relief of the poor ; and in like manner to admonishe 
gentlemen and others of meaner sorte, that keepe kennel 
of howndes, that they shold better to forbeare the keep- 
ing of dogges in theis tymes of dearth, and to convert 

2$ that they spend superfluously that way, to the relief of 
the poorer sorte ; and in no case to forget to reprove 
that untollerable excesse of eatinge and drinking, that is 
commonly used in alehouses, and other like places of 
common resort. Theis and other such like exhortations 

30 1 earnestly pray and require your lordship, in her ma- 
jesties name, to recommend to the preachers and minis- 
ters of your diocess, to be used with all earnestness and 
discretion, and alsoe that your lordship give order, that 
such as are beneficed reside upon their benefices, to give 

35 good example to others in using hospitalitie, almes, and 
relieving of the poor neighbours ; and that such as doe 

56 The arehbiskop^s letter [CXIV. 

not reside upon their benefices, give order to their 
farmers, that dwell upon them, to keepe howse therein, 
whereby the poor may be relieved : whereof, and of all 
the premises I doubt not but that you will have a due 
and special care. And soe I committ you to the tuitions 
of Almighty God. From Croydon, the 10th of August, 



Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Chmti Reg. Anglie 

JoH. Whitoift 14. 1596 Elizab. 39. 

The arc/ibishop^s letter to the bishop of London concerning 
fasting and prayers. — Reg. II. Whitgift, fol. 149. a. 

AFTER my hartie commendations to your lordship. 
Amongest all our sins, whereby we have provoked 
God justlie to plague us with this dearth and scarcitye, 10 
it is to be thought that none have been more forceable 
therunto, then our excesse and riot in diet, and the 
wastefull consuminge of his owne creatures ; for supply 
of which present scarcitie towardes the poorer sorte, the 
queues majestic hath every way shewed a most princely 15 
care, and gracious tender affection, not only by causing 
the marketts to be duly served, and greate store of 
graine to be provided from forraine partes freely, with- 
out paying any custome ; but alsoe a most virtuous and 
godly soveraign daylye studieth to quallify the mischief ao 
by taking away the cause of yt. Therefore for redresse 
of that abuse, and prevention 6f further puniisihment by 
like scarcity, her majestic hath straightly commanded 
me to signifie by my lettres, that it is her highnes ex- 
presse pleasure and absolute commandment, that pub- 35 
lique prayers, according to the book of Common Prayer, 
in every several parish church and chapi)el, be on all 
Wednesdaies and Frydaies hereafter devoutly used, and 

1 59^0 concerning fasting and prayers, 57 

diligeDtly frequented ; that such as be of better abilitie 
doe in the fear of God use a greater moderation then 
hertofore in their dyet; but namely, that by none, of 
what degree soever, anie fleshe be dressed or eaten on 
5 such daies, as by law stand already prohibited, other then 
such as by reason of infirmity be lawfully thereunto 
licensed ; and that not only on Fridaies, and other daies 
by lawe already appointed for fasting daies, noe suppers 
at all be provided and taken by anie, either for them- 
lo selves or housholde, but alsoe that every one not letted 
by gpeevous weaknes, do abstain from suppers altogether 
on each Wednesdaie at night, to the intent that what is 
by forbearance of that meale, and at other meales, by 
abstinency from all superfluous fere fruitfully spared, 
15 may presently, especially by the wealthier sorte, be cha- 
ritablie converted to the relief and comfort of the poor 
and needie ; so as notice therof may be taken, according 
to her majesties gracious expectation, at the handes of 
all such her dutifull subjectes, as be respective of her 
«o royal commandments. In this behalf your lordship is 
alsoe to geve special order, that the collections for the 
poore in every parish may be carefully made, and in re- 
spect of the great want charitablie by those, who be of 
good abilitie, increased, and duely and seasonably he- 
's stowed for the succour of the most distressed. It is 
further likewise required by her majestic, that those, 
which have housholds, do not for si)aring, dischardge anie 
of their houshold to shift for themselves, nor themselves 
to sojome from their usual habitation. And because the 
30 example of ecclesiastical persons may induce men, as 
well as their teaching in this behalf; all such as have 
benefices must be enjoyned to reside on their livings, to 
keep hospitality, and releive their neighbours ; and such 
as have pluralities, in conscience ought to do the like by 
35 their farmers, and such as rent their livinges at their 
handes ; but there must a verie watchfril eye be carried 

58 The Archbishop's letter c<mcerning/a8iinff and prayen. [GXIV. 

by the minister and churchwardens in every parish, or by 
such charitable discreet men, as they shall nominate and 
appoint, unto all inns, taverns, and victualing bowses, 
how both the keepers of them with their howsholde, and 
alsoe the gesse and resorters to their bowses do observes 
theis her majesties commandments. Now for the better 
publishing her highnes gracious pleasure in the premises, 
your lordship must take precise order, that every minister 
in the dioces do diligentlie recommend the observation 
of them unto the people in their several charges, andio 
also do from tyme to tyme, in their sermons and exhorta- 
tions, eamestlie and pythelie exhorte and stir up every of 
them to fervent prayer, both publique and private, to 
abstinencye, fasting, true humiliation, to forbeare all ex- 
cesse, to releive the poore and needy by good bowse- is 
keeping, by setting them on worke, and by other deeds 
of almes and brotherlye compassion. And considering 
the most princely and gratious care her majesty hath for 
their relief, and that all good meanes should be used for 
the succour and help of them in theis tyme of dearth ; 20 
the people must be duly taught to endure this scarcity 
with patience, and especiallie to beware how they geve 
eare to any perswasions or practises of discontented and 
idle brains, to move them to repine or swarve from the 
humble duties of good subjects, to the further oifenceas 
of God, and discontenting of her majestie, that hath so 
tender a care of their welfare. And for that her majestie 
would be enformed, how duely these orders shall be ob- 
served, as her special care is they should ; your lordship 
is therefore to procure a certificate, to be made unto you 30 
monthlie, by every the ministers and churchwardens, con- 
teyning as well the names of disobedient delinquents in 
anie the premises, as of those welldisposed persons, who 
have had a dutiful regard of her majesties commandment, 
and a charitable compassion for the relief of the poore ; 35 
to the intent that once evprv quarter the said certificates 

i6o3*] jiboui ceUbrcUing the 5th of August. 59 

being transmitted over unto me, I may satisfie her ma- 
jesties gracious expectation, touching the successe and 
fruicte arising by theis godly orders : but your lordship 
is to forsee and to geve special direction, that the pre- 

5 script of these letters be in every several parish observed, 
without calling or suffering persons of other parishes to 
assemble themselves, as some hertofore offensively of 
their own heads have attempted, under colour of general 
fiEistes. And thus I committ your lordship to Gods holye 

lo protection. From Lambehith this 27th of December, 


Your lordships loving brother in Christ. 


Archiepiac. Cant. Anno Christi R^. Angliai 

Job. Whitoift io. 1603. Jacob. 1. 1. 

The council's letter to the archbishop of Canterbury about 
celebrating the 5th of August year h/. — Ibid. fol. 151. a. 

AFTER our very hearty commendations to your lord- 
ship. As it pleased God many ways to bless our 

>5 sovereign lord the king, before his coming to this kingdom, 
and when he was possessed only of the realm of Scotland, 
(whereby it appeareth that the divine providence reserved 
him for the happy government of this state, and (as it is 
not to be doubted) for the perpetual establishment of 

«o peace and tranquillity amongst us,) so, forasmuch as by 
his succession to this crown we are now made partakers 
of the same blessings, and of the benefit thereof proceed- 
ing equally with his subjects of the Scottish nation, it is 

The counciTs letter] Strype, Whitg. vol. ii. p. 472. Collier, vol.ii. 
«5p. 663. Spotewooirs Ch. of Scotl. p. 461. Wood's Ann. vol.ii. p. 283. 

60 About celebrating the 5th of Afiguii. [CXV. 

very meet, that in equal degree and measure with thendt 
we should in all respects shew our gladness, and thankful 
acknowledgment of God's goodness, and our love to his 
majesty : among which said blessings there could not be 
any of greater note, or of more happiness unto us, than 5 
the preservation and delivery of his majesty from the 
traitorous and detestable attempt of the earl Gowrie, his 
brother, and other complices against his majesty's life and 
person. For which inestimable beneiits, forasmuch as his 
majesty's said subjects of Scotland have declared, and do lo 
still continue their joy and thankfulness, by solemnizing 
and celebrating the day of his majesty's said delivery, and 
for that cause, by a special act and perpetual statute 
made by the three estates of that kingdom (in a parlia- 
ment holden at Edinburgh in the month of November, 15 
MDC.) have ordained, that the memory of the said day 
(being the 5th day of August the year aforesaid) should 
be yearly solemnized by i)ublic assembly, prayer, and 
thanksgiving to God in all parish churches throughout 
that realm, by cessation from work and labour, and by all 20 
good and lawful means and signs of gladness, whereby 
God might be glorified, and the joy for so happy a de- 
livery continued in the memory of all posterity ; and 
sithence this especial cause of joy is now become common 
to all the subjects of this realm, and of the rest of his^s 
mm'esty's dominions, who had been deprived of the pre- 
sent comfort, and of all future happiness, conceived and 
hoped for by the establishment of his majesty's sacred 
person in the right of this kingdom, if God in his mercy 
had not prevented that most wicked and horrible mis- 30 
chief; we therefore, unto whom as the said cause of joy 
and gladness jointly with the rest of his majesty's sub- 
jects, so the direction for any certain rule and order 
therein to be observed, doth more properly appertain, not 
doubting but you, and all other his loving subjects, will .55 

i6o3-] AbwU ceUkrating the Bih of August, 61 

readily apprehend this occasion to acknowledge their own 
happiness, do pray and require your lordship to cause to 
be published, and made known in the parish churches 
throughout all the dioceses in your province, the said oc- 

5 casion of joy and thankfulness for his majesty's delivery, 
the order and course that was taken heretofore, and is 
continued by his subjects of the Scottish nation, as is 
afore mentioned ; and in like sort to prescribe the same 
rule and order of solemnizing and celebrating yearly the 

loday aforesaid, of God's mercy and our happiness in the 
preservation of his majesty, by public assembly, thanks- 
giving, and prayer in the parish churches, and in special 
commemoration of his majesty's said delivery, by cessa- 
tion from work and labour for that day, and by such other 

15 lawful signs and demonstrations of joy and gladness for 
the same, as may declare our thankfulness to God, and 
dutiful love to his majesty. The form and manner of 
which thanksgiving, how it may be best conceived, and 
delivered publicly in the churches, we refer to your 

so lordship's judgment and wisdom. And so we bid your 
lordship right heartily well to fare. From the court at 
Windsor the 12th of July mdciii. 

Your lordship^ s very loving friends^ 

Tho. Egerton. Leunoxe. Nottingham. 

35 Northumberland. Gilb. Shrewsbury. 

E. Worcester. Marre. T. Howarde. 

Rob. Cecyll. Montjoye. Will. Knowles. 

E. Wotton. J. Stanhope. Elphinstowne. 

OS ^ proclamation offaifist reformer$ in church matters. [CXVI< 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Anglias 

JoH. Whitoift 31. 1603. Jacob. I. i. 

A proclamation concerning such as seditiously seek re/or- 
mation in church matters. — (Bodl. CC. 25. Med.) 

AS we have ever from our infancy had manifold proofe 
of God's great goodness towards us in his protecting 
of us from many dangers of our person, very nearly 
threatening us, and none more notorious than his happy 
conducting of us in the late case of our succession to this 5 
crown, which contrary to most men's expectation we have 
received with more quiet and concurrency of good will 
of our people (otherwise perhaps of different dispositions) 
than ever in like accident hath been seen ; so do we 

A proclamation] The death of queen Elizabeth and the fears that 10 
were entertained of the Genevan tendencies of her successor, combined 
with the great and systematic exertions made by the puritans, created 
much anxiety on the part of the archbishop and the heads of the 
English church. The issuing of this proclamation contributed some- 
what to their relief, as may be seen from the following extract of a 15 
letter written soon afterwards (Dec. 12^ 1603.) by the archbishop to 
Cecil then lord Essenden. " Although our humorous and contentious 
brethren have made many petitions and motions correspondent to their 
natures, yet your lordship may perceive by the proclamation published, 
and to my comfort I am assured by his majesty's letters writ to me, 10 
that they have not much prevailed. Your lordship, I am sure, doth 
imagine that I have not all this while been idle, nor greatly quiet in 
mind. For who can promise himself rest among so many vipers ?" 
(Slrype, Whitg. vol. iii. p. 391.) But the seven months intervening 
between the accession of James to the crown of England and the 25 
issuing of this proclamation had satisfied him that the principles of 
government which he had held, but was not allowed to exercise, in 
Scotland, might safely and wisely be indulged among his new subjects. 
Already estranged from the discipline of Geneva, he brought with him 

1603.] ^ proclamation c^aimi reformers in church matters. 63 

think, that the memory of his benefits ought to be a 
continual solicitation to us to shew ourselves thankful to 
his divine majesty whereinsoever opportunity shall be 
offered us to do him service, but especially in things 

5 concerning his honour and service, and the furtherance 
of the gospel, which is the duty most beseeming royal 
authority. Wherefore after our entry into this kingdom, 
when we had received information of the state thereof at 
the decease of the queen our sister of famous memory, 

10 although we found the whole body thereof in general by 
the wisdom of herself, and care of those, who had the 
administration thereof under her, in such good state of 
health, as did greatly commend their wisdoms, as well in 
the politic part of it, as also in the ecclesiastical, whereof 

15 since we have understood the form and frame, we are 
persuaded that both the constitution and doctrine thereof 
is agreeable to God's word, and near to the condition of 
the primitive church ; yet forasmuch as experience doth 

a prepossession against the puritans that was strengthened during his 

ao progress by the contrast between their abrupt and vehement importu- 
nities and the respectful and even obsequious demeanour of the esta- 
blished clergy. In accordance with the wishes of the former, but with 
the more especial view of exhibiting his own learning, he issued his 
proclamation for the meeting, since known as the " Conference at 

15 Hampton Court ;" but great as was his taste for theological discussion, 
and willing as he was to adopt some of the opinions of the Calvinists, 
he toon shewed that he entertained as high a sense of prerogative as 
his predecessor, and would not admit of any alterations, which might 
either disturb the established order of church-government, or encourage 

30 a want of obedience to its authority. The king acted in this case agree- 
ably with the advice of lord Bacon, who was now advancing in royal 
finroor, and took care in recommending a conference, and overruling 
the objections of the clergy, to touch the principal chord in his master's 
character. " It is said that if way be given to mutation, though it 

35 be in taking away abuses, yet it may so acquaint men with sweetness of 
change, that it will undermine the stability even of that which is sound 
and good. This surely had been a good and true allegation in the 
ancient contentions and divisions between the people and the senate of 

64 A proclamation against reformers w church makers. [CXVI. 

shew daily, that the church militaDt is never so well con- 
stituted in any form of policy, but that the imperfections 
of men, who have the exercise thereof, do with time 
though insensibly, bring in some corruptions ; as also for 
that informations were daily brought unto us by divers, 5 
that some things used in this church were both scan- 
dalous to many seeming zealous, and gave advantage to 
the adversaries ; we conceived that no subject could be 
so fit for us to shew our thankiiilness to God, as upon se- 
rious examination of the state of this church, to redeem 10 
it from such scandals, as both by the one side and the 
other were laid upon it. For our instruction wherein, 
we appointed a meeting to be had before ourself and our 

Rome ; where things were carried at the appetites of multitudes, which, 
can never keep within the compass of any moderation : but these things 15 
being with us to have an orderly passage, under a king, who hath a 
royal power and approved judgment, and knoweth as well the measure 
of things as the nature of them, it is surely a needless fear. For they 
need not doubt but your majesty, with the advice of your council, will 
discern what things are intermingled like the tares amongst the wheat, ao 
which have their roots so enwrapped and entangled, as the one cannot 
be pulled up without endangering the other; and what are mingled but 
as the chaff and the com, which need but a fiEUi to sift and sever them." 
The king's displeasure against petitions, that appears in this proclama- 
tion, was occasioned principally by the well-known Millenary petition, 15 
so called from its very numerous signatures, and by the industry with 
which it had been circulated throughout the country, with the further 
statement that it had been very graciously received. But the same dislike 
had existed at an earlier period, as he afterwards acknowledged in the 
presence of his council. "The revolt in the Low Countries which had 30 
lasted ever since he was bom, and whereof he never expected to see an 
end, began first by a petition for matters of religion ; and so did all the 

troubles in Scotland. And he would hazard his crown, but he would 35 

suppress those malicious spirits." See Nos. CXIX. CXX. Strype, 
Whitg. vol. ii. p. 478. Collier, vol. ii. p. 672. Neal's Purit. vol. i. p. 
391. Spotswood, p. 478. Wood's Ann. ann. 1603-4. Burnet's Own 
Times, vol. i. p. 15. note, ed. Oxf. 1833. K. James' Works, p. 305, &c. 
Lord Bacon's Works, vol. ii. p. 528. Hallam, vol. i. p. 319. Peck's 
Desid. Cur. vol. i. b. 5. p. 44. 

1 603 .] A proclamation against reformers in church matters, 65 

eouncil» of divers of the bishops and other learned men, 
the first day of the next month, by whose information 
and advice we might govern our proceeding therein, if we 
found cause of amendment. But by reason of the sick- 

5 ness reigning in many places of our kingdom, the unsea- 
sonable time of the year for travel, and the incommodity 
of the place of our abode for such an assembly, we were 
constrained to defer it till after Christmas. At which 
consultation we shall both more particularly understand 

10 the state of the church, and receive thereby light tp 
judge, whether there be indeed any such enormities, as 
are pretended, and know how to proceed to the redress. 
But this our godly purpose we find hath been miscon- 
strued by some men's spirits, whose heat tendeth rather 

15 to combustion than reformation, as appeareth by the 
courses they have taken ; some using public invectives 
against the state ecclesiastical here established, some con- 
temning their authority and the processes of their courts, 
some gathering subscriptions of multitudes of vulgar per- 

aosons to supplications to be exhibited to us, to crave that 
reformation, which if there be cause to make, is more in 
our heart than in theirs. All which courses, it is appa- 
rent to all men, are unlawful, and do savour of tumult, 
sedition, and violence, and not of such a Christian mo- 

»s desty, as beseemeth those, who for piety's sake only de- 
sire redress of things they think to be amiss, and c<an- 
not but be the occasions of dissentious partialities, and 
perhaps of greater inconveniences among our people. 
For preventing whereof, we have thought it necessary 

50 to make public declaration to all our subjects, that as we 
have reason to think the estate of the church here esta- 
blished, and the degrees and orders of ministers govern- 
ing the same, to be agreeable to the word of God and 
the form of the primitive church, having found the same 

35 blessed in the reign of the late queen with great increase 
of the gospel, and with a most happy and long peace in 


66 A proclamation against reformers in church matters. [CXVI. 

the politic state, which two things, the true service of 
God, and happiness of the state, do commonly concur 
together; so are we not ignorant, that time may have 
brought in some corruptions, which may deserve a review 
and amendment, which if by the assembly intended by 5 
us we shall find to be so in deed, we will therein proceed 
according to the laws and customs of this realm by ad- 
vice of our council, or in our high court of parliament, or 
by convocation of our clergy, as we shall find reason to 
lead us ; not doubting, but that in such an orderly pro- »© 
ceeding we shall have the prelates and others of our 
clergy no less willing, and far more able to afford us their 
duty and service, than any other whose zeal goeth so fest 
before their discretion. Upon which our princely care, 
our pleasure is, that all our subjects do repose themselves, n 
and leave to our conscience, that which to us only apper- 
taineth, avoiding all unlawful and fectious manner of pro- 
ceeding ; for that hereafter if any shall either by gather- 
ing the subscriptions of multitudes to supplications, by 
contemptuous behaviour of any authority by the laws to 
resting in ecclesiastical persons, by open invectives and 
indecent speeches either in the pulpit or otherwise, or by 
disobedience to the processes proceeding from their juris- 
diction, give us cause to think, that he hath a more un- 
quiet spirit, than becometh any private person to havets 
toward public authority, we will make it appear by their 
chastisement, how far such a manner of proceeding is 
displeasing to us, and that we find that these reformers 
under pretended zeal affect novelty, and so confusion in 
all estates, whereas our purj)ose and resolution ever was, 50 
and now is to preserve the estate as well ecclesiastical as 
politic in such form, as we have found it established by 
the laws here, reforming only the abuses, which we shall 
apparently find proved, and that also to do by such ma- 
ture advice and deliberation, as we have above men- 35 
tioned. Wherefore we admonish all men hereby to take 

1^0 Arch^Uhop Whit^ft'8 letter, ^e, 67 

warning, as they will answer the contrary at their peril. 
Given under our hand at Wilton the 24th day of Oc- 
tober, of our reign of England, France, and Ireland 
the first, and of Scotland the thirtieth and seventh year, 
5 anno Domini mdciii. 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Angliie 

JoH. Whitoift ar. 1603. Jacob. I. 1. 

The archbishop of Canterbury/ s letter for contribution to 
be made for the city of Geneva. — Reg. III. Whitgift, 
foK 152. a. 

" O ALUTEM in Christo." I have received letters from 
O his most excellent majesty, the tenor whereof fol- 
loweth : Most reverend father in God, and right trusty 
and right well beloved counsellor, we greet you well. 
The city of Geneva of famous memory, for the zeal the 

10 inhabitants have ever had to religion, and for harbouring 
of many persecuted for the same, as well of other nations, 
as of this of England in time past, hath of late been put 
to great charges, by extraordinary occasions happened 
to them more than they are able to defray, and cannot 

15 preserve themselves from some imminent danger, except 
they be relieved by those their friends, who for com- 
munity of religion ought to hold the dangers threatening 

The archbishop of] " The duke of Savoy, who had several times en- 
deayoared the sabduing of Geneva to himself, had the last year (1602) 

to contrary to his oath surprised it, by besieging it suddenly, and scaling 
the walls thereof, though without success ; pretending the great reason 
moving him thereunto was the cause of religion, viz. to establish the 
catholic religion there." Str3rpe, Whitg. vol. ii. p. 475. A similar bene- 
volence had been levied in the year 1582 through the medium of the 

21 bishops: bat in this instance it was done in a more systematic and uni- 
form manner. 8trype, Grind, p. 415. 

F 2 

68 Archbishop WhUgifCs letter [CXVII. 

of people 80 well affected to be their own cause ; of which 
sort hoping that there be in this our realm a great num- 
ber, who being informed of their cause, and of our good 
will, that they should be relieved, will readily contribute 
towards the same such benevolence, as God shall put ins 
their hearts to do ; we have thought good to signify unto 
you, that we understand by their agent sent unto us, of 
their extremity, and how willing we are by way of bene- 
volence they may be relieved; and to require you to 
direct your letters, in our name, to the several bishops of'© 
your province, signifying the same to them ; and that our 
pleasure is, they shall give order to the parsons, vicarg, 
curates, and other incumbents of the several parishes in 
their dioceses, to make known so much to their parish- 
ioners at their assemblies on Sundays and holy-days, and 15 
how much it shall be to the commendation of their zeal 
and our good liking, that in this case they shew them- 
selves liberal and forward, and to accompany the same 
with such good exhortations, as they shall think meet to 
excite the people's devotion, to extend itself toward a«o 
city deserving so well of the common cause of religion. 
And for the receipt of such monies, as shall be contri- 
buted, the said bishop shall appoint the churchwardens 
and sidemen of each parish, with the privity of the incum- 
bents, to take care thereof, and at every month's end to n 
deliver the same to the archdeacon, or some other person 
of note or trust, by the diocesan to be appointed, who 
shall see the same safely conveyed unto him, and from 
the said diocesan the same to be conveyed unto your 
grace, within some reasonable time, to be by you ap-30 
pointed, after he shall have received it. And when the 
money, or any part thereof shall be sent to your hands, 
you shall acquaint us or our council with it, and by their 
advice deliver it to the agent of Geneva, or such other, as 
they shall appoint to receive it here, and make it over to 35 
them. The said collection we think meet to begin within 

1603.] for contrilnitian/ar Geneva. 09 

one month after the date of these our letters, and to con- 
tinue for the space of one year. Given uuder our signet 
at our city of Winchester the eighth day of October, in 
the first year of our reign of England, France, and Ire- 

5 land, and of Scotland the seven and thirtieth. The con- 
tents of which his majesty's said letters I doubt not but 
that you will perform accordingly; the intent and pur- 
pose being so charitable and Christian, and for relief of a 
city which maintains the gospel, and for professing thereof 

loendureth these troubles. This collection your lordship 
must give order to your archdeacons and other your 
officers, who are by his majesty's letters to receive the 
same monthly of the churchwardens, that they do send it 
unto you within such convenient time, as that I may re- 

15 ceive it at your lordship's hands at the end of every third 
month from the date hereof: provided always, that there 
be no deduction of charges made by any of your officers 
or apparitors, out of any of these collections. And so 
with my very hearty commendations I commit you to the 

«o protection of the Almighty. From Croydon this 26th of 
October, BCDcni. 

Your lordship's loving brother in Christy 

Jo. Cantuar. 


Archiepiac. Cant. Anno Chrisd Reg. Angliw 

JoH. Whitoift 21. 1603. Jacob. 1. 1. 

A proclamation commanding all Jesuits, seminaries, and 
other priests to depart the realm by a day appointed. 
(Bodl. 4to. CC. 25. Med.) 

HAVING after some time spent in settling the politic 
affairs of this realm, of late bestowed no small 

A proclamation] From the year 1579. when Campion and Parsons 
established a body of popish emissaries in England, (No. XCV,) procla- 

70 A proclamation commanding [OXVIII. 

labour in composing certain differences we found among 
our clergy about rites and ceremonies heretofore esta- 
blished in this church of England, and reduced the same 
to such an order and form, as we doubt not but every 
spirit, that is led only with piety and not with humour, 5 
shall be therein satisfied ; it appeared unto us in the de- 
bating of those matters, that a greater contagion to our 
religion, than could proceed from those light differences, 
was imminent by persons common enemies to them both, 
namely the great number of priests, both seminaries and 10 
Jesuits, abounding in this realm, as well of such as were 
here before our coming to this crown, as of such as have 
resorted hither since, using their functions and profes- 
sions with greater liberty, than heretofore they durst 
have done, partly upon a vain confidence of some innova-15 
tion in matters of religion to be done by us, which we 
never intended, nor gave any man cause to expect, and 
partly upon the assurance of our general pardon, granted 
according to the custom of our progenitors at our corona- 
tion, for offences past in the days of the late queen ; which *o 
pardon many of the said priests have procured under our 
great seal, and holding themselves thereby free from the 

mations had frequently been issued " for revocation of students from 
beyond the seas," " for denouncing Jesuits as traitors/' " against atter- 
ing bulls from the see of Rome," and " for proceeding against Jesuits ^5 
and secular priests." This proclamation, issued on the 23d of February 
1 604, gave occasion to the conspiracy which terminated in the plot of 
November the 5th in the following year. Another proclamation was 
issued on the i oth of June 1 606, describing " the late most horrible 
and almost incredible conjuration to blow up us, our children, and all .10 
the three estates in parliament assembled," and warning all Jesuits, 
seminaries, friars, and other Romish priests, to depart out of the king* 
dom before the first day of August following, but speaking with much 
mildness and forbearance of Romanists in general. The Hampton 
Court conference to which reference is made in the beginning of this 35 
paper, had taken place in the preceding month of January. Comp. 
Strype, Whitg. vol. ii. p. 520. Neal, Purit. vol. i. p. 406. 

1603.] tie departure of ail Jesuits. 71 

danger of the laws, do with great audacity exercise all 
o£Bces of their profession, both saying masses, persuading 
our subjects from the religion established, and reconciling 
them to the church of Rome, and by consequence se- 

5 ducing them from the true persuasion, which all subjects 
ought to have of their duty and obedience to us. Where- 
fore forasmuch as by way of providence to preserve their 
people from being corrupted in religion, piety, and obe- 
dience, is not the least part of royal duty, we hold ourself 

■o obliged both in conscience and in wisdom, to use all 
good means to keep our subjects from being infected with 
superstitious opinions in matter of religion, which are not 
only pernicious to their own souls, but the ready way and 
means to corrupt their duty and allegiance, which cannot 

15 be any way so surely performed, as by keeping from them 
the ministers and instruments of that infection, which are 
the priests of all sorts ordained in foreign parts by 
authority prohibited by the laws of this land ; concerning 
whom therefore we have thought it fit to publish to all 

20 our subjects this open declaration of our pleasure. That 
where there be of priests at this present within our king- 
dom, be they regular, or without rule, divei-s sorts, some 
in prison, some at liberty, and of both some having ob- 
tained our pardon under our great seal, and some having 

nuo such pardon: and again some that were here before 
our coming into this realm, and some come hither since : 
for all such as are in prison we have taken order that 
they shall be shipped at some convenient port, and sent 
out of our realm as soon as possibly may be, with com- 

30 mandment not to return again into any part of our domin- 
ions, without our license obtained, upon pain and peril of 
the laws being here in force against them ; and for all 
others, who are at liberty, whether having sued out our 
|iardon or not, which we do advertise them and all our 

35 subjects, that extending only to matters done before the 
death of the late queen, doth not exempt any priest from 

72 A proclamation cwnmanding [OX VIII. 

the danger of the law for his abode here since our suc- 
cession to the crown above the time by the statute 

We do hereby will and command all manner of Jesuits, 
seminaries, and other prients whatsoever, having ordination 5 
from any authority by the laws of this realm prohibited, 
to take notice, that our pleasure is, that they do before 
the nineteenth day of March next ensuing the date 
hereof, depart forth of our realm and dominions, and that 
for that purpose it shall be lawful to all officers of our«o 
ports, to suffer the said priests to depart from thence into 
any foreign parts, between this and the said nineteenth 
day of March ; admonishing and assuring all such Jesuits, 
seminaries, and priests of what sort soever, that if any of 
them shall be after the said nineteenth day taken within is 
this realm or any our dominions, or departing now upon 
this our pleasure signified, shall hereafter return into this 
realm or any our dominions again, that they shall be left 
to the penalty of the laws, here being in force concern- 
ing them, without hope of any favour or remission so 
from us. 

Wherefore we will and command all archbishops, 
bishops, lieutenants, justices of peace, and all other our 
officers and ministers whatsoever, to be vigilant and care- 
ful after the said nineteenth day of March past, to do«s 
their duties and diligence in discovering and apprehend- 
ing of all priests that shall remain here contrary to this 
our declaration. Which though perhaps it may seem to 
some to presage a greater severity towards that sort of 
our subjects, who differing in their profession from the 30 
religion by law established, call themselves " catholics,** 
than by our pn>ceedings with them hitherto we have 
given cause to expect ; yet doubt we not, but that when 
it shall be considered with indifferent judgment, what 
causes have moved us to use this providence against the 35 
said Jesuits, seminaries, and priests, all men will justify 

1603.] the departure o/all Jesuits. 73 

U8 therein. For to whom is it unknown*, into what peril 
our person was like to be drawn, and our realm unto 
confusion not manj months since, by a conspiracy first 
conceived by persons of that sort, who having prevailed 
5 with some, had undertaken to draw multitudes of others 
to assist the same by the authority of their persuasions, 
and motives grounded chiefly upon matter of conscience 
and religion: which when other princes shall duely 
observe, we assure ourselves they will no way conceive, 

10 that this alteration groweth from any change of disposi- 
tion now more exasperate than heretofore, but out of 
necessary providence to prevent perils otherwise inevit- 
able, considering that their absolute submission to foreign 
jurisdiction at their first taking of orders, doth leave so 

'5 conditional an authority to kings over their subjects, as 
the same power, by which they were made, may dispense 
at pleasure with the straitest band of loyalty and love 
between a king and his people. Amongst which foreign 
powers, although we acknowledge ourselves personally so 

20 much beholding to the now bishop of Rome for his kind 
offices*' and private temporal carriage towards us in many 

■ For to whom is it unknown] The conspiracy in which sir Walter 
Ralegh was engaged, a passage of king James' history, which has 
never been satisfactorily explained, is here said to have originated with 

35 papists; but it certainly included persons of other persuasions, and 
seems to have been conducted rather by men of desperate fortunes and 
lawless habits than by religious zealots. Of the three persons however 
who suffered death in consequence, two were popish priests. They 
were executed Nov. 29, 1603. Biog. Brit. art. Ralegh. Hume, Hist. 

30 vol. vi. p. 8. Spotswood, p. 478. Lingard, vol. vi. p. 10. 

^ bishop of Rome for his kind offices'] From a motive which seems 
to have consisted partly of fear for his own safety, and partly of love 
for the same arbitrary mode of government, king James was always 
desirous of conciliating the court of Rome, although he did not hesitate 

35 to express himself strongly against some of its doctrines. At this par- 
ticular time, as appears from the proclamation, he attributed the recent 
conspiracy to the machinations of the Jesuits, and had reason to re- 

74 A proclamation eommandinff [GXVIII. 

things, as we shall be ever ready to requite the same 
towards him, as bishop of Rome in state and condition 
of a secular prince ; yet when we consider and observe 
the course and claim of that see, we have no reason to 
imagine, that princes of our religion and profession cans 
expect any assurance long to continue, unless it might 
be assented by mediation of other princes Christian, that 
some good course might be taken by a general council 
free and lawfully called, to pluck up those roots of dan- 
gers and jealousies, which arise for cause of religion, as to 
well between princes and princes, as between them and 
their subjects, and to make it manifest that no state or 
potentate either hath, or can challenge power to dispose 
of earthly kingdoms or monarchies, or to dispense with 
subjects' obedience to their natural sovereigns : in which 15 

member the endeavours made by pope Clement VIII. to prevent his 
succeeding to the crown of England ; and yet he now speaks of the 
pope himself in the most conciliating manner, and in the speech that 
he delivered before the parliament in the following month (March 19, 
1 604) he acknowledged the Roman communion to be his mother-church, 90 
and expressed his anxiety to find out some terms of mutual agreement 
by which Chistendom could be again united in one body. His ex- 
pressions of personal esteem and obligation to the pope grew partly out 
of the private negociations which he had previously held with the papal 
court, and his earnest wish to obtain its assistance in his plans of policy 25 
for the future. He appears to have opened a communication with 
pope Clement immediately after his elevation to the papal chair. " To 
him/' says bishop Goodman in his Memoirs (vol. i. p. 82. ed. 1839), 
" king James did make suit to favour his title to the crown of Ekigland ; 
which as king James doth relate in his book 'Triplici nodo triplex 30 
cuneus,' the pope did promise to do. But then, as Bellarmine says, 
there was another promise from the king, that he would favour catho- 
lics. . . . The pope rejjlied that if it were for want of means, he would 
exhaust all the treasures of the church, and sell the plate to supply 
him." But the king's courteous language is more directly explained by 35 
a passage in the Memoirs of Sully (b. 15). *' Clement VIII., though 
before Elizabeth's death he had abetted the project of placing Arabella 
on the throne, thought it expedient, after this design had failed, to pay 

1603.] ^^ departure of all Jesuits, 75 

charitable action, there is no prince living, that will be 
readier than we shall be, to concur even to the uttermost 
of our power, not only out of particular disposition to 
live peaceably with all states and princes of Christendom, 

5 but because such a settled amity might by an union in 
religion be established among Christian princes, as might 
enable us all to resist the common enemy. Given at our 
palace of Westminster the 22d day of February, in the 
first year of our reign of England, France, and Ireland, 

10 and of Scotland the seven and thirtieth. 

some court to James, and had refused to accept the dedication of a 
work written against him, besides, probably, some other courtesies. 
There is a letter from the king addressed to the pope, and probably 
written in 1603, among the Cottonian MSS. (Nero, B. vi. 9), which 

15 shews his disposition to coax and coquet with the Babylonian, against 
whom he so much inveighs in his printed works. It seems that Cle- 
ment had so far presumed, as to suggest that the prince of Wales 
should be educated a catholic ; which the king refuses, but not in so 
strong a manner as he should have done." (Hallam, vol. i. p. 437. note.) 

loThc king's duplicity respecting Rome during the two negociations 
which took place subsequently for the marriage of prince Charles, 
amounted to a degree of dishonesty that is scarcely credible. And this 
popish disposition on the part of the king was requited with the most 
gracious demeanour on the part of the pontiff. " The intelligence," 

25 says Lingard, " that Watson and Clark had been engaged in the late 
conspiracy was received by him with regret. He ordered the nuncio 
at Paris to assure James of the abhorrence with which he viewed aU 
acts of disloyalty ; and he dispatched a secret messenger to the English 
court with an offer to withdraw from the kingdom every missionary, 

30 who might be an object of suspicion to the council." Vol. vi. p. 19. 
Bomet's Own Times, vol. i. p. 13. Spotswood's Hist. p. 463. Neal, 
Purit. vol. i. p. 407. King James' Works, p. 484. Collier, vol. ii. p. 686. 
Laing, Hist, of Scotl. 3. 59. Rushworth, vol. i. p. 166. 

76 A prodamaiioa awthtnizimg [OX IX. 


Sede (.ant. Anno Christi Reg. Angliae 

vacante. 1603. Jacob. I. i. 

A proclamation for the authorizing and uniformity of the 
book of Common Prayer to be used throughout the realm. 
(Bodl. 4to. CC. 25. Med.) 

ALTHOUGH it cannot be unknown to our subjects 
by the former declarations we have pubh'shed, what 
our i)urpo8es and proceedings have been in matters of 
religion since our coming to this crown ; yet the same 
being now by us reduced to a settled form, we haves 
occasion to repeat somewhat of that which hath passed ; 
and how at our very first entry into the realm being 
entertained and importuned with informations of sundry 
ministers, complaining of the errors and imperfections of 
the church here, as well in matter of doctrine, as of lo 
discipline, although we had no reason to presume that 
things were so far amiss as was pretended, because we 
had seen the kingdom under that form of religion, which 
by law was established in the days of the late queen of 
famous memory, blessed with a peace and prosperity, "5 
both extraordinary and of many years* continuance, (a 
strong evidence that God was therewith well pleased,) 
yet because the importunity of the complainers was great, 
their affirmations vehement, and the zeal, wherewith the 
same did seem to be accompanied, very specious, we 20 
were moved thereby to make it our occasion to discharge 
that duty, which is the chiefest of all kingly duties, that 
is, to settle the affairs of religion and the service of God 

A proclamation^ See No*. CXVI. CXX. Strype, Whitg. vol. ii. 
p. 520. Ncal, Purit. vol. i. p. 404. Collier, vol. ii. p. 683. King James' 35 
Works, p. 485. 

1603.] ^^ ^* ^/ Common Prayer, 77 

before their own ; which while we were in hand to do, as 
the contagion of the sickness reigning in our city of 
London and other places would permit an assembly of 
persons meet for that purpose, some of those who mis- 

5 liked the state of religion here established, presimiing 
more of our intents than ever we gave them cause to do, 
and transported with humour, began such proceedings, 
as did rather raise a scandal in the church, than take 
offence away. For both they used forms of public serving 

foof God not here allowed, held assemblies without autho- 
rity, and did other things carrying a very apparent show 
of sedition, more than of zeal ; whom we restrained by a 
former proclamation in the month of October last, and 
gave intimation of the conference we intended to be had 

15 with as much speed as conveniently could be, for the or- 
dering of those things of the church ; which accordingly 
followed in the month of January last, at our honour of 
Hampton court, where before ourself and our privy council 
were assembled many of the gravest bishops and prelates 

»oof the realm, and many other learned men, as well of those 
that are conformable to the state of the church esta- 
blished, as of those that dissented ; among whom, what 
our pains were, what our patience in hearing and reply- 
ing, and what the indifferency and uprightness of our 

35 judgment in determining, we leave to the report of those 
who heard the same, contenting ourself with the sincerity 
of our own heart therein. But we cannot conceal, that 
the success of that conference was such as happeneth to 
many other things, which moving great expectation be- 

30 fore they be entered into, in their issue produce small 
effects. For we found mighty and vehement informations 
supported with so weak and slender proofs, as it appeared 
unto us and our council, that there was no cause, why 
any change should have been at all in that, which was 

35 most impugned, the book of Common Prayer, containing 

78 A proclatnatha authorizing [CXIX. 

the form of the public service of God here established ; 
neither in the doctrine, which appeared to be sincere, 
nor in the forms and rites, which were justified out of 
the practice of the primitive church. Notwithstanding 
we thought meet, with consent of the bishops and others 
learned men there present, that some small things might 
rather be explained, than changed ; not that the same 
might not very well have been borne with by men, who 
would have made a reasonable construction of them, but 
for that in a matter concerning the service of God we lo 
were nice or rather jealous, that the public form thereof 
should be free not only from blame, but from suspicion, 
so as neither the common adversary should have advan- 
tage to wrest aught therein contained to other sense, than 
the church of England intendeth, nor any troublesome or 15 
ignorant person of this church be able to take the least 
occasion of cavil against it: and for that purpose gave 
forth our commission under our great seal of England to 
the archbishop of Canterbury and others, according to 
the form, which the laws of this realm in like case pre-«o 
scribe to be used, to make the said explanation, and to 
cause the whole book of Common Prayer, with the same 
explanations, to be newly printed. Which being now 
done and established anew after so serious a deliberation; 
although we doubt not but all our subjects, both min-35 
isters and others, will receive the same with such rever- 
ence as appertaineth, and conform themselves thereunto 
every man in that, which him concemeth ; yet have we 
thought it necessary to make known by proclamation our 
authorizing of the same, and to require and enjoin all 30 
men, as well ecclesiastical as temporal, to conform them- 
selves unto it, and to the practice thereof, as the only 
public form of serving of God, established and allowed to 
be in this realm. And the rather, for that all the learned 
men, who were there present, as well of the bishops, as 35 

1603.] the book of Common Prayer, 79 

others, promised their conformity in the practice of it, 
only making suit to us, that some few might be borne 
with for a time. 

Wherefore we require all archbishops, bishops, and all 

5 other public ministers, as well ecclesiastical as civil, to 
do their duties in causing the same to be obeyed, and in 
punishing the offenders according to the laws of the 
realm heretofore established for the authorizing of the 
said book of Common Prayer. And we think it also neces- 

losary, that the said archbishops and bishops do each of 
them in his province and diocese take order, that every 
parish do procure to themselves within such time, as they 
shall think good to limit, one of the said books so ex- 
plained. And last of all we do admonish all men, that 

»5 hereafter they shall not expect nor attempt any further 
alteration in the common and public form of God's ser- 
vice, from this which is now established ; for that neither 
will we give way to any to presume, that our own judg- 
ment having determined in a matter of this weight, shall 

«obe swayed to alteration by the frivolous suggestions of 
any light spirit; neither are we ignorant of the incon- 
veniences, that do arise in government, by admitting 
innovation in things once settled by mature deliberation ; 
and how necessary it is to use constancy in the upholding 

«5 of the public determinations of states ; for that such is 
the unquietness and unsteadfastness of some dispositions, 
affecting every year new forms of things, as, if they should 
be followed in their inconstancy, would make all actions 
of states ridiculous and contemptible : whereas the stead- 

30 fast maintaining of things by good advice established, 
is the weal of all commonwealths. Given at our palace 
of Westminster the fifth day of March, in the first year 
of our reign of £ngland, France, and Ireland, and of 
Scotland the seven and thirtieth, anno Domini, mdciii. 

80 A produmat'wn for eonfiurmity. [GXX. 


Setle Caiit. Anno Chriiiti Reg. AngluR 

vacante. 1604. Jacob. 1. 1. 

A proclamation e^ijoining conformity to the form of the 
service of God established. — (Bodl. 4***. CC. 25. Med.) 

THE care, which we have had, and pains, which we 
have taken to settle the affairs of this church of 
England in an uniformity as well of doctrine, as of go- 
vernment, both of them agreeable to the word of God, 
the doctrine of the primitive church, and the laws here- 5 
tofore established for those matters in this realm, maj 

A proclamation] See No». CXVIII. CXIX. The feeling, which 
king James had brought from Scotland^ of respect for a monarchical 
form of church-government, and dislike and irritation against repub- 
lican platforms, had been constantly acquiring strength and consistency 10 
in England, and appears at the time of this proclamation to have 
amounted to the strictest views of supremacy and obedience, and a per- 
sonal disgust and offence against the puritans. In his proclamation of 
the 5th of March (N®. CXIX.) he enjoined the use of the new book of 
Common Prayer on his own authority, without waiting for the sanction 15 
of the convocation or the parliament ; and in his speech before parlia- 
ment (March 2 2d) he denounced the puritans as "fond of levelling/* 
and ** scarcely to be endured in a well-regulated commonwealth." He 
found however, notwithstanding his injunction to the contrary, that 
petitions were proposed, both in the house of commons and in the so 
lower house of convocation, for further alterations in the book of Com- 
mon Prayer, and in the established order of church- government ; and 
that many ministers retained their appointments who were favourable 
to the ritual and discipline of Geneva. This proclamation therefore 
was issued, requiring them to conform, and fixing the last day of No- 15 
vember next ensuing as the limit of time allowed them. The test of 
conformity was doubtless subscription wiUingly and ex animo to the 
three articles of the thirtv-sixth canon, and observance of the other 
canons, which had been approved by the recent convocation and rati- 
fied by the king. Collier, vol. ii. p. 686. Neal, Purit. vol. i. p. 416. 30 

1604.] ^ proelamatian for amfonnity. 81 

sufficiently appear by our former actions. For no sooner 
did the infeetion of the plague, reigning immediately after 
our entry into this kingdom, give us leave to have any 
assembly, but we held at our honour of Hampton Court 

5 for that purpose a conference between some principal 
bishops and deans of this church, and such other learned 
men as understood or favoured the opinions of those that 
seek alteration, before ourself and our council. Of which 
conference the issue was, that no well grounded matter 

10 appeared to us or our said council, why the state of the 
church here by law established, should in any material 
point be altered. Nor did those that before had seemed 
to affect such alteration, when they heard the contrary 
arguments, greatly insist upon it, but seemed to be satis- 

■sfied themselves, and to undertake within reasonable time 
to satisfy all others, that were misled with opinion that 
there was any just cause of alteration. Whereupon we 
published by our proclamation what had been the issue 
of that conference, hoping that when the same should be 

so made known, all reasonable men would have rested satis- 
fied with that which had been done, and not have moved 
further trouble or speech of matters, whereof so solemn 
and advised determination had been made. Notwith- 
standing at the late assembly of our parliament there 

S5 wanted not many, that renewed with no little earnestness . 
the questions before determined, and many more as well 
about the book of Common Prayer, as other matters of 
church-government, and importuned us for our assent to 
many alterations therein ; but yet with such success, as 

30 when they had heard both our own speeches made unto 
them at sundry times, shewing the reasons of our former 
proceedings in those matters, and likewise had had con- 
ference with some bishops and other lords of the upper 
house about the same, they desisted from further prosecu- 

35tion thereof; finding that of all things that might any 
way tend to tlie furtherance of religion, and establish- 

VOL. II. o 

82 A proelamatum far can/armity. [GX X. 

ment of a ministry fit for the same, we had before with 
the advice of our council had such consideration, as the 
present state of things would bear, and taken order how 
the same should be prosecuted by such means, as might 
be used without any public disturbance or innovation : 5 
and so the end of all their motions and overtures falling 
out to be none other in substance, than was before at the 
conference at Hampton Court, that is, that no apparent or 
grounded reason was shewed, why either the book of 
Common Prayer, or the church discipline here by lawio 
established, should be changed, which were unreasonable, 
considering that particular and personal abuses are reme- 
diable otherwise, than by making general alterations ; we 
have thought good once again to give notice thereof to 
all our subjects by public declaration, who we doubt not 15 
but will receive great satisfaction, when they shall under- 
stand that after so much impugning, there appeareth no 
cause, why the form of the service of Grod, wherein they 
have been nourished so many years, should be changed ; 
and consequently to admonish them all in general to con-«o 
form themselves thereunto, without listening to the trou- 
blesome spirits of some persons, who never receive con- 
tentment, either in civil or ecclesiastical matters, but in 
their own fantasies, especially of certain ministers, who 
. under pretended zeal of reformation, are the chief authors n 
of divisions and sects among our people. Of many of 
which, we hope that now, when they shall see that such 
things, as they have proposed for alteration, prove upon 
trial so weakly grounded, as deserve not admittance, they 
will out of their own judgment conform themselves to 30 
better advice, and not omit the principal and substantial 
parts of their duties, for shadows and semblances of zeal, 
but rather bend their strength with our intent to join in 
one end, that is the establishing of the gospel, and reco- 
vering of our people seduced out of the hands of the 35 
common adversaries of our religion, which shall never be 

1 604 .] J proclamation for conformity, 83 

well performed but by an uniformity of our endeavours 
therein. But if our hope herein fail us, we must adver- 
tise them, that our duty towards God requireth at our 
hands, that what untractable men do not perform upon 
•^admonition, they must be compelled unto by authority; 
whereof the supreme power resting in our hands, by 
God's ordinance, we are bound to use the same in no- 
thing more, than in preservation of the church's tran- 
quillity, which by God's grace we are fully purposed to 

"«>do. And yet by advice of our council, and opinion of the 
bishops, although our former proclamations, both before 
the conference and since, ought to be a sufficient warning 
and admonition to all men who are within the danger of 
them, we have thought good to give time to all ministers 

■5 disobedient to the orders of the church, and to ecclesias- 
tical authority here by law established, and who for such 
disobedience, either in the days of the queen our sister of 
famous memory deceased, or since our reign have incurred 
any censures of the church, or penalties of laws, until the 

«o last of November now next ensuing, to bethink themselves 
of the course they will hold therein. 

In which mean time both they may resolve either to 
conform themselves to the church of England, and obey 
the same, or else to dispose of themselves and their 

«5 families some other ways, as to them shall seem meet : 
and the bishops and others whom it concerneth, provide 
meet persons to be substitutes in the place of those, who 
shall wilfully abandon their charges upon so slight causes ; 
assuring them, that after that day, we shall not fail to do 

30 that, which princely providence requireth at our hands ; 
that is, to put in execution all ways and means that may 
take from among our people all grounds and occasions of 
sects, divisions, and unquietness : whereof as we wish 
there may never be occasion given us to make proof, but 

35 that this our admonition may have equal force in all 
men's hearts, to work an universal conformity ; so we do 

o S 

84 The king*8 letter to the Ushcp of London. [GXXI. 

require all archbishops, bishops, and other ecclesiastical 
persons, to do their uttermost endeavours by conferences^ 
arguments, persuasions, and by all other ways of love and 
gentleness to reclaim all that be in the ministry, to the 
obedience of our church laws : for which purpose only we 5 
have enlarged the time formerly prefixed for their remove 
or reformation, to the end that if it be possible, that uni- 
formity, which we desire, may be wrought by clemency 
and by weight of reason, and not by rigour of law. And 
the like advertisement do we give to all civil magistrates, ro 
gentlemen, and others of understanding, as well abroad in 
the counties, as in cities and towns, requiring them also, 
not in any sort to support, favour, or countenance, any 
such factious ministers in their obstinacy ; of whose en- 
deavours we doubt not but so good success may follow, 15 
as this our admonition, with their endeavours, may pre- 
vent the use of any other means to retain our people in 
their due obedience to us, and in unity of mind, to the 
service of Almighty Grod. 

Given at our manor of Otelands the l6th day of to 
July, in the second year of our reign of England, France* 
and Ireland, and of Scotland the seven and thirtieth, anno 
Domini mdciv. 


Sede Cant. Anno Chrfnti lUg. Anglki 

vBcante. 1604. Jacob. I. 2. 

The king*s letter to the bishop of London about translating 
the Bible.— Reg. III. Vhitgift, fol. 155. 

AFTER my hearty commendations unto your lordship. 
I have received letters from his most excellent ma- n 

The king* 8 letter] The determination to make a new translation of the 
Bible grew out of the proceedings at Hampton Court, in the ^nd day's 

1604.] The Jkinp^M letter to the bishop of L/mdon. 86 

je8ty> the tenor whereof followeth : Right trusty and well- 
beloved, we greet you well. Whereas we have appointed 
certain learned men, to the number of four and fifty, for 
the translating of the Bible, and that in this number, 
5 divers of them have either no ecclesiastical preferment at 
all, or else so very small, as the same is far unmeet for 
men of their deserts, and yet we of ourself in any conve- 
nient time cannot well remedy it; therefore we do hereby 
require you, that presently you write in our name as well 

■oto the archbishop of York, as to the rest of the bishops 
of the province of Cant., signifying unto them, that we 
do will, and straitly charge every one of them, as also the 
other bishops of the province of York, as they tender our 
good favour towards them, that (all excuses set apart) 

•5 when any prebend or parsonage, being rated in our book 
of taxations, the prebend to twenty pound at the least, 
and the parsonage to the like sum and upwards, shall 
next upon any occasion happen to be void, and to be 
either of their patronage and gift, or the like parsonage 

30 conference ; when Dr. Rainolds proposed it, alleging that " those 
translations which were allowed in the reigns of king Henry VIII. and 
Edward VI. were corrupt and not answerable to the truth of the origi- 
nal." It appears from what passed at the time, that the bishops did 
not think it desirable to engage in such an undertaking ; and from 

95 the 80th canon, which was adopted in the ensuing convocation, enjoin- 
ing that the Bishops' Bible should be provided for all parish churches, 
it may be inferred that they did not expect the undertaking to be carried 
so promptly into execution. But the king had not only expressed him- 
self in favour of it, and with much show of learning, when it was first 

30 proposed, but had also stated at the same time his general views as to 
the plan on which it was to be conducted. He accordingly took the 
proper means for carrying it into effect, and all his proceedings con- 
nected with this matter display great knowledge and judgment. The 
translation appears to have been delayed by the death of one of its 

35 principal conductors, and was not actually published till the year 161 1. 
See No. CXXIV. Lewis, Hist, of Transl. p. 306. Todd's Vindication. 
Barlow's Conference, 2nd day. Wood's Ann. an. 1604. Strype,Whitg. 
vol. ii. p. 5 37. 

86 The king*8 letter to the bUAop of lAmdan. [CXXI. 

so void to be of the patronage and gift of any person 
whatsoever, they do make stay thereof, and admit none 
unto it, until certifying us of the avoidance of it, and of 
the name of the patron (if it be not of their own gift) we 
may commend for the same some such of the learned 5 
men, as we shall think fit to be preferred unto it ; not 
doubting of the bishop's readiness to satisfy us herein, or 
that any of the laity, when we shall in time move them 
to so good and religious an act, will be unwilling to give 
us the like due contentment and satisfaction ; we our- 10 
selves having taken the same order for such prebends 
and benefices as shall be void in our gift. What we 
write to you of others, you must apply it to yourself, as 
also not forget to move the said archbishop and all the 
bishops, with their deans and chapters of both provinces, 15 
as touching the other point to be imparted otherwise by 
you unto them. Furthermore we require you, to move 
all our bishops to inform themselves of all such learned 
men within their several dioceses, as having especial skill 
in the Hebrew and Greek tongues, have taken pains, in*© 
their private studies of the scriptures, for the clearing of 
any obscurities either in the Hebrew or in the Greek, or 
touching any diflliculties or mistakings in the former 
English translation, which we have now commanded to 
be thoroughly viewed and amended, and thereupon teas 
write unto them, earnestly charging them, and signifying 
our pleasure therein, that they send such their observations 
either to Mr. Lively, our Hebrew reader in Cambridge, 
or to Dr. Harding, our Hebrew reader in Oxford, or to 
Dr. Andrews, dean of Westminster, to be imparted to the 30 
rest of their several companies; that so our said intended 
translation may have the help and furtherance of all our 
principal leanied men within this our kingdom. Given 
under our signet at our palace of Westm. the two and 
twentieth of July, in the second year of our reign of 35 
England, France, and Ireland, and of Scotland xxxvn. 

1604.] Letter of the bishop of Ijmd<m, ^^ 

Your lordship may see, how careful his majesty is for the 
providing of livings for these learned men ; I doubt not 
therefore, but your lordship will have a due regard of his 
majesty's request herein, as it is fit and meet, and that 
5 you will take such order both with your chancellor, 
register, and such your lordship's officers, who shall have 
intelligence of the premises, as also with the dean and 
chapter of your cathedral church, whom his majesty like- 
wise requireth to be put in mind of his pleasure herein, 

10 not forgetting the latter part of his majesty's letter, 
touching the informing yourself of the fittest linguists 
within your diocese for to perform, and speedily to return 
that, which his majesty is so careful to have faithfully 
performed. I could wish your lordship would, for my 

>5 dischai^, return me in some few lines, the time of the 
receipt of these letters, that I may discharge that duty, 
which his majesty, by these his letters, hath laid upon 
me : and so I bid your lordship right heartily farewell. 
Fmm Fulham the Slst of July, mdciv. 

ao Your lordship's loving friend and brother^ 

B. London. 

The bishop of London's letter about the expenses in trans- 
lating the Bible.— Reg. III. Whitgift, fol. 156. 

" O ALUTEM in Christo." My very good lord, as 

O touching that clause in his majesty's letter, which 

is referred to my relation, this it is : there are many, as 

your lordship perceiveth, who are to be employed in this 

95 translating of the Bible, and sundry of them must of 
necessity have their charges borne, which his majesty was 
very ready of his most princely disposition to have borne, 
but some of my lords, as things now go, did hold it in- 
convenient ; whereupon it was left tb me, to move all my 

30 brethren the bishops, and likewise every several dean and 

88 LeUer against the non'con/armiiant. [CXX II. 

chapters, to contribute toward this work. Accordingly 
therefore to my duty, I heartily pray your lordship, not 
only to think yourself what is meet for you to give for 
this purpose, but likewise to acquaint your dean and 
chapter not only with the said clause of his majesty's let-s 
ter, but likewise with the meaning of it, that they may 
agree upon such a sum, as they mean to contribute. I do 
not think that a thousand marks will finish the work, to 
be employed as is aforesaid, whereof your lordship, with 
your dean and chapter, having due consideration, I most to 
require you in his majesty's name, according to his good 
pleasure in that behalf, that as soon as possibly you can, 
you send me word, what shall be expected from you and 
your said dean and chapter; for I am to acquaint his 
majesty with every man's liberality towards this most is 
godly work. And thus not doubting of your especial 
care for the accomplishing of the premises, and desiring 
your lordship to note the date to me of your receipt of 
this letter, I commit your lordship unto the tuition of 
the Almighty God. From Fulham this 31st of July," 


Your lordship's very loving friend and brother y 

R. London. 


Arcliiepisc. Cant. Anno OhrisCi Reg. Angliv 

Ric. Bancroft I. 1604. Jacob. I. 2. 

The counciVs letter for proceeding against the non-coi^ 
formitans of the cleryy. — Reg. Bancroft, fol. 127. a. 


" OALUTEM in Christo.*' I have received a letter 
from the lords of his majesty's most honourable ^5 

The rouncirs letter] This letter, together with the directionB of the 
archbishop on the same subject and of the same date, and his letter of 

1604.] Letltr offomtt the nan-^san/ormitam. 89 

privy council) whereof your lordship is to take notice, the 
copy whereof followeth word for word : After our hearty 
commendations to your lordship. Forasmuch as the 
time is now expired, which by his majesty's late pro- 

5 clamation, dated the sixteenth day of July last, was pre- 
scribed and limited to all those of the clergy, for the 
conforming of themselves unto the laws and orders of the 
church government established within this realm, that 
have heretofore, under a pretended zeal of reformation, 

>obut indeed of a factious desire of innovation, refused to 
]rield their obedience and conformity thereunto ; by means 
whereof, all such as persist in that wilful disobedience are 
subject to the penalty of deprivation from their benefices, 
and other church livings, of deposition from their min- 

'sistry, and other censures of the church, which were as 
well at all times heretofore, as presently, in vigour and 
force; although his majesty' maketh no doubt, but that 
your lordship throughout your province, and the rest of 

the following March, form an important epoch in the history, not only 

*o of the church, but also of the state of England. The puritans were now 
a numerous and powerful body, and being many of them unwilling, from 
a conscientious feeling, to separate themselves altogether from the 
church, were determined to resist, by every lawful method, the exact 
conformity required by the canons of the recent convocation: Confi- 

'5 dent that they should be supported by the house of commons, as many 
of its members were of their religious persuasion, they called into ques- 
tion the powers of the high court c^ commission, and denied that the 
crown bad any right to enact laws for the government of the church 
without the consent of parliament. But Bancroft, who was confirmed 

50 in the primacy on the 1 oth of December 1 604, was not a prelate to be 
alarmed by the number, or baffled by the ingenuity, of his opponents. 
" He understood the church exceUently," says lord Clarendon (Hist. 
vol. i. p. 1 34. ed. 4to. 1816)," and had almost rescued it out of the hands 
of the Calvinian p«ity, and very much subdued the unruly spirit of the 

3S nonconformists by and after the conference at Hampton Court, .... and 
if he had lived, would quickly have extinguished all that fire in England, 
which had been kindled at Geneva." The first act of the crown in 
oonnection with the church after his appointment, was to summon the 

90 Letter against the nan-confarmitans. [CX XII. 

the bishops, every one in his own diocese, will have re- 
gard to the execution of the said laws and constitutions 
in such sort, as is meet and necessary for the uniformity 
of the church discipline; nevertheless such is the great 
care and zeal of his most excellent majesty, for a dues 
proceeding to be had in a matter of so great consequence, 
as this is, of redressing and reforming all offensive and 
scandalous divisions in the church, as also to remove an 
ill-grounded opinion and conceit, wherewith, as it seemeth, 
divers have nourished and flattered their own disobedi-io 
ence, presuming on a further enlargement of time and 
toleration, than hath been granted or is intended by his 
majesty; as we cannot omit both to assist your own readi- 
ness with our advice and concurrence of judgment, and 
that which is much more, to give you knowledge of the *s 
expectation his majesty hath of your proceedings herein. 
For although it be much more agreeat)Ie to his most gra- 
cious mind and clemency, to heal and cure such distem- 
peratures by lenity and gentleness, than by severity ; as 

judges into the star chamber, and to require their sentence on the fol- to 
lowing questions : i . Whether the deprivation of puritan ministers by 
the high commissioners for refusing to conform themselves to the cere- 
monies appointed by the last canons was lawful ? a. Whether a prohi- 
bition he grantable against the commissioners upon the statate of 
2 Henry V. if they do not deliver a copy of the libel to the party ? 19 
3. Whether it were an offence punishable, and what punishment they 
deserved, who framed petitions and collected a multitude of hands 
thereto, to prefer to the king in a public cause, as the puritans had 
done, with an intimation to the king, that if he denied their suit, many 
thousands of his subjects would be discontented." It appears from the 30 
archbishop's directions (p. 95), that the opinions of the chief justice (sir 
John Popham) and the attorney general (sir Eldward Coke) had already 
been obtained as to the powers possessed by the bishops under the statate 
of uniformity i Eliz., and were favourable to the wishes of the coort. 
It appears also from the archbishop's letter (p. 97) that, before the time 55 
when it was written, the deliberate sentence of the judges and the privy 
council had been required on the same subject, and with the same suc- 
cess. This sentence consisted doubtless of the answers to the three 

1604.] Letter againet the noncon/t/rmitans. 91 

hath well appeared by the conferences that his majesty 
heretofore hath ordained to be had in his own presence, 
by the course of advice and persuasion, that be hath pre- 
scribed to be holden by those, that are of chief place and 

5 authority in the church, and lastly by giving time and 
respite, more than once, unto such persons either misled 
or unresolved, to conform themselves upon better advise- 
ment ; nevertheless his majesty is well pleased to have it 
known, that he is as far from alteration of his purpose to 

10 work an uniformity, as they are importunate in their un- 
just desire of innovation, and expecteth that from hence- 
forth, without delay, where advice prevaileth not, author- 
ity shall compel, and that the laws shall be put in execu- 
tion, where admonition taketh not effect; the penalty 

•5 whereof they that will incur, must impute it unto their 
own obstinacy, being guilty of disobedience to his ma- 
jesty, of uncharitableness unto any cure or charge that 
they have, and in dutifulness might hold, and to them- 
selves for any grievance, or loss that they shall sustain ; 

10 but as it is necessary, where unity is to be effected, there 

questions stated above, which we find from the reports of sirGreorge Croke 
were given after Michaelmas term 1604, and^ with the exception of a 
point respecting prohibitions, were decisive as to the complete authority 
of the crown. It cannot be doubted, and it was shewn in the imme- 

*5 diate conseqilences. that these proceedings gave additional force to the 
strong opinions already entertained at court respecting the prerogative, 
placing the government of the church completely in the hands of the 
sovereign, and encouraging him to look for passive obedience in his 
government of the state. 

50 Tlie number of puritan ministers silenced or deprived at this period 
is vnriously reported. The author of the *' Altar of Damascus" states 
that they amounted to three hundred ; but the rolls delivered in by the 
archbishop some years afterwards shew that not more than forty- nine 
had been deprived on any account whatever. It is clear however, that 

35 the impression made on all ranks, both for good and for evil, was great 
and permanent. Biog. Brit. art. Bancroft. Croke's Reports, 2 Jac. 
p. 37. Collier, vol. ii. p. 687. Neal. Purit. vol. i. p. 416. Heylin, Aer. 
RediviY. p. 376. Hallam, Cons. Hist. 4to. vol. i. p. 426. 

9S Letter against the nan-can/armitaM. [C XX 1 1. 

men of unquiet and factious spirit should not have place, 
so because by the removing and displacing of them, op- 
portunity and advantage may be taken by men of a cor- 
rupt mind and disposition (having the patronage and 
donation of some of the benefices so made void) to prefers 
ignorant and insufficient men into their places ; his ma- 
jesty therefore hath commanded us, in his name, to require 
you all, to take this especial charge upon you, that who- 
soever shall present any person to be admitted, not only 
in the rooms of any that shall be deprived, but in all lo 
others, your lordship shall duly inform yourself of the 
party's learning and integrity, and to be as well answer- 
able for his sufficiency to instruct his people, as to be 
conformable to his laws ; a matter wherein the depend- 
ency upon the judgment of inferior officers hath brought 15 
great inconveniences, and whereof more especial care 
would now be had, seeing divers turbulent persons have 
mixed their complaints with this affirmation, that the 
names of good and understanding ministers shall now be 
supplied with idle drones and dumb images; which great ao 
enormity, as his majesty himself should abhor more than 
any other, so he doubteth not but your lordship, and the 
rest will be most careiiil to extirpate all scandal and 
peril of any such effects of his religious cure and wise 
directions, of which we need to use no further enlarge»si 
ment. What we have written in the premises to your 
lordshij), his majesty requireth you forthwith to impart 
by your letters to all the bishops of your province, charg- 
ing them, as they will answer the contrary at their perils, 
to omit no occasion, diligence, and care for the due exe-io 
cution of this charge and duty thus committed and com- 
mander!, in his majesty's name, unto them : and so we 
bid your lordship very heartily farewell. From White- 
hall the tenth of December, mdciv. Your very loving 
friends T. Ellesniere, cane. T. Dorset, Lenox, Nottiog-35 
ham, Sufiblk, Northumberland, E. Worcester, H. North* 

i(04-] Jip.B^mtcfa/f 8 direeii&il^ touching no9^ 93 

amptou» Cranbome, E. Zoache» W. Knollys, E. Wotton, 
Jo. Stanhope, Jo. Herbert. Your lordship having pe- 
rused this letter, cannot but greatly rejoice at his ma- 
jesty's constant resolution, and most honourable inclina- 
5 tion of their lordships ; and I doubt not but you will with 
all care, faith, and diligence accomplish the effect thereof. 
I have furthermore sent you herewith, not without some 
direction, the manner of such proceedings with the obsti- 
nate of the ministry, as I think fit to be generally ob- 
lo served by your lordship, and the rest of our brethren ; for 
it vnll much further the service committed unto us, if we 
concur together in that course. And so with my very 
hearty commendations, I commit your lordship unto the 
tuition of Almighty God. At Lambeth the 22d of De- 
is cember, mdctv. 

Your lordship* s very loving friend and brother ^ 

B. Cantuae- 

The archbishop of Canterbury's directions to the same 
purpose. — Reg. Bancroft, fol. 127. b. 

** O ALUTEM in Christo." Your lordship perceiving 

O his majesty's pleasure and constant resolution by 

the letter sent to me from the lords, I have thought good 

to advertise you of such a course, and uniform kind of 

M proceeding with the disobedient and obstinate ministers, 
as I think fit to be observed by myself, by your lordship, 
and by the rest of my brethren, the bishops of this 

Of such disobedient ministers some are already placed 

%$ in the church, some are not ; touching the second sort 
not placed, I doubt not, but that you will strictly observe 
the xxxvi*** and xxxvii*** canons made the last convoca- 
tidi, so as none of them be admitted hereafter to execute 

94 j^ip. Banero/Fs directions Umehing ntm-^onfirmitU. [CXXII. 

any ecclesiastical function without subscription, according 
to the tenor of the said canons : for the others already 
placed, as aforesaid, they are of two kinds, and might 
both of them, having heretofore subscribed, be (as re- 
volters from the same) by an ordinary course of justice, 5 
deposed from the ministry; the one offeretb and pro- 
miseth conformity, but is as yet unwilling again to sub- 
scribe ; the other in his obstinacy will be induced to jrield 
to neither. Touching such as will be contented to observe 
the orders and ceremonies prescribed in the communion 10 
book, and fully to conform themselves accordingly to the 
use of their ministry ; forasmuch as the near affinity 
between conformity and subscription doth give apparent 
hope, that being men of sincerity, they will in a short 
time frame themselves to a more constant course, and 15 
subscribe to that again, which they by their practice 
testify not to be repugnant to the word of God, your 
lordship may (an act being made to remain upon record 
of such their offer and promise) respite their subscription 
for some short time ; advertising me of the names of 20 
every such person, with all convenient speed, that there- 
upon such further order may be taken, as shall be thought 
expedient in that behalf. Concerning those that utterly 
refuse both conformity and subscription, they are either 
curates, or stipendiary preachers, commonly called lee- 95 
turers, or men beneficed ; for the two first, the interest 
they have in their places is only by license from their 
ordinary, and they are no longer to enjoy them "nisi 
quamdiu se bene gesseriut," so as upon such their refusal, 
your lordship is to suspend them "ab officio;' which is 30 
in effect a deprivation to them, and consequently by the 
law they are not to be restored, until they shall both 
conform themselves and subscribe. As touching the third 
sort, for that it would not much trouble them, nor work 
the conformity that is desired, to put them to silence, if 35 
they might enjoy their benefices, because I suppose they 

i6o4*] ^ip» Bamero/IPB direetiom touehing n(mr<xmform%tU. 95 

have been heretofore particularly admonished by your 
lordHbip, but especially by his majesty's proclamation ^ 
dated the I6th of July, mdciv. either to conform them- 
selves to the church, and obey the same, or else dispose 

5 of themselves and their families some other way, as being 
men unfit, for their obstinacy and contempt, to occupy 
such places, they are in another sort to be proceeded 
with ; for in refusing to conform themselves to the use of 
the communion book, or in derogating or depraving any 

lo thing therein contained, or any part thereof, they fall 
within the compass of divers laws, and particularly of the 
statute " primo Elizabethae*' entituled " An act for uni- 
formity" etc. and so are subject to deprivation. I wish 
your lordship diligently to peruse the said act, being 

■sprinted with the communion book, and for your better 
satisfaction herein, do advertise you, that the lord chief 
justice, and Mr. attorney general being conferred with, 
are very resolute, that you may lawfully, by virtue 
thereof, so proceed against such obstinate persons. The 

Mform, which is to be used in their deprivation, your chan- 
cellor very well knoweth ; only let me put you in mind 
of the cxxii^ canon, that your lordship in your own 
person pronounce the sentence ; and if any by you so 
deprived shall appeal to me, I will be careful to execute 

15 the xcviii*^ constitution for stay thereof, until the party 
shall subscribe: not doubting but that his majesty, if 
there be cause, will take the like order for the delegates. 
Furthermore, if any of the said disordered persons shall 
willingly transgress any of the first twelve canons, or of 

30 the three last, let the penalty therein mentioned, bo duly 
and respectively inflicted upon them. I have not hitherto ^ 

« proclamatum dated the 16th] See N**. CXX. 

^ / have not hitherto] The apology of the ministers of the diocese of 
Lincoln who refiised to suhscribe and conform, was presented to the 
^ king on the ist of December, 1604. See the " Abridgment" printed 

96 ArcMiehop Bancro/Vs letter Umehing recuMcmU. [CXXII. 

greatly liked of any severe course; but perceiving by 
certain instructions lately cast abroad, that the present 
opposition so lately prosecuted, doth rather proceed from 
a combination of sundry factious, who in the pride of 
their mind are loath to be foiled (as they term it) than 5 
of any religious care or true conscience ; I have thought 
it very necessary, for the repressing of such irregular 
designments, earnestly to commend to your lordship the 
careful execution of these directions. And so with my 
very hearty commendations, I commit your lordship unto «o 
the tuition of the Almighty. At Lambeth the 2S. of 
December, mdciv. 

Your lordship's very loving friend and brother , 

R. Cantuar. 

The archbishop of Canterbury's letter touching recusants. — 

Reg. Bancroft. 129. b. 

" Cl ALUTEM in Christo." I have written to your 
O lordship before concerning your proceeding with 
your factious ministers, and that you should not desist 
by depriving one, two, or three at once, until you have '5 
purged your diocese of them ; now I am to Bignify unto 
you, that his most excellent majesty hath^, with the 

c his most excellent majesty hath'] This refers probably to a speech 
made by the king to the privy council on the day before the judges 
gave their sentence in the star chamber. It is reported thus by sir so 
George Croke (Rep. Jac. 2. p. 37.) ** Before the breaking up of the 
assembly [in the star chamber] many of the lords declared that some 
of the puritans had raised a false rumour of the king, how he intended 
to grant a toleration to papists ; which offence the judges conceived to 
be heinously finable by the rules of the common law, either in the 25 
king's bench, or by the king in council ; or now, since the statute of 
3 Henry VII. in the star chamber. And the lords severally declared, 
how the king was discontented with the said false rumour, and had 
made but the day before a protestation unto them, that he never in- 

i6o4.] ArcUnskop Bancroft $ letter touching recusants. 97 

admiration of all that heard him, most fully, rarely, and 
resolutely declared himself (as often heretofore) touching 
such courses, as he wisheth should be held with popish 
recusants, being most desirous to rid his kingdom as well 

5 of these ]>estiferous adversaries, as of the former; to 
which purpose he hath dealt very thoroughly and privily 
both with the lords of his right honourable privy council, 
and with his judges ; expecting likewise that we, who are 
bishops, should not be negligent in discharging of our 

loduties, so far as lieth in us, for the furthering and effect- 
ing of so royal and so religious a designment. As there- 
fore my place requireth, and not without due and careful 
deliberation, I do commend to your good lordship (as I 
also have done to the rest of our brethren) these par- 

i5ticular points following to be thoroughly by you ob- 
served: first, your lordship is not to depend altogether 
upon the cxiv^** canon, expecting still the minister's dili- 
gence in presenting of recusants, but to use yojir own 
best endeavour, by the labour and means of all your 

so officers and friends, to inform yourself as well of the 
number, as of the qualities of them; and the same to 
certify unto me vnth all convenient speed: secondly, 
because order and discretion in all proceedings are prin- 
cipally to be observed, (whereof without my advice, your 

95 tended it, and that he would spend the last drop of his hlood in his hody 
before he would do it ; and prayed that before any of his issue should 
maintain any other religion than what he truly professed and main- 
tained, God would take them out of the world." The ministers of the 
king had already information (March 1605) respecting the conspiracy 

JO that was forming, and was fomented by the Romanists. A remarkable 
letter written in October 1605 at Paris, shews how extensive and 
desperate were their machinations : " Our priests are very busy about 
petitions to be exhibited to the king's majesty at this parliament, and 
some further designs upon refusal. These matters are secretly managed 

S$ by intelligence with their colleagues in those parts where you reside, 
aad with the two nuncios. I think it were necessary for his majesty's 
service that yon found means to have privy spies amongst them, to 

VOL. n. H 

C8 ArclihUhap Bancrofts Uti^ touehinp reeusanis. [CXXII. 

lordship will bo sufficiently inindftil) and for that there 
being differences in the dispositions of the said popish 
recusants, and cannot all of them be reformed together, 
your lordship is to take notice by all the means before 
expressed, first, of all the recusants in your diocese, who 5 
they be, that are the most busy in seeking to seduce 
others either abroad, or at home to their own families, 
by bringing up their children in popery, and refusing to 
entertain any to serve them, especially in places of trust, 
that are not recusants; secondly, of all such persons of '<> 
any note, who are become recusants, since his majesty's 
coming into £ngland, and of them that are the most 
insolent, as the manner of those usually is, who are 
newly seduced: thirdly, these three observations thus 
premised, your lordship is to procure, as much as in you «5 
lieth, that for the faithful accomplishment of the lxvi*** 
canon, no pains may be spared in conferring with the 
said rqcusants, especially with the two sorts before 
mentioned, who are the heads and leaders of the rest, 
that thereby (if it be possible) they may be reduced from »<* 
their errors, and no sweet or kind means omitted for the 
recovering of them to the truth : fourthly, in this con- 
ference you are to do your best for the reclaiming of 
those, that are already excommunicated in their private 
parishes, with whom if such travail will nothing prevail, «5 

discover their negociations. Something is at present in hand amongst 
these desperate hypocrites, which, I trust, God shall divert, by the 
vigilant care of his majesty's faithful servants and friends abroad, and 
prudence of his council at home." (Birch's Negociat. of sir T. Edmondes, 
p. 233.) There can be little doubt that Cecil had acted upon this sug- 30 
gestion long before the discovery of the gunpowder plot in the No- 
vember following ; and there is reason to believe that he had intimation 
of the plot itself and communicated it to his royal master, before the 
receipt of the letter written to lord Monteagle, the interpretation of 
which has commonly been taken as a decisive proof of the king's 35 
sagacity. Winwood, Memor. 2. 170. Lodge, Illustrations, 3.301. 
Hallam, vol i. p. 438. Lingard, vol. vi. p. 51. 

i6o4*] AreUnskop Bancroft 9 letter touching rectimnts. 99 

because it is either obstinately rejected, or wilfully con- 
temned, then let them be publicly denounced in your 
cathedral church for excommunicate persons, without 
any forbearance or i)artiality, according to the lxv-** 

5 canon, if happily such a notorious punishment may be a 
means to bring them to repentance : fifthly, if you have 
in your diocese sundry of the first sort, of the said busy 
and seducing recusants, not yet excommunicated (with 
whom conference will prevail no more, than with the 

10 former beforementioned) then call two or three of the 
chiefest of them (for dignity, place, and perverseness, such 
as are heads and leaders of the rest) forthwith by your 
ordinary authority; and if either they will not appear, 
after sufficient admonition to be carefully executed, so as 

15 they may not plead any probable ignorance, or appearing, 
shall obstinately refuse to go to church, (as our phrase is,) 
let them be " in scriptis" excommunicated, and after 
forty days certified unto the chancery. This direction, 
touching the said first sort, will serve for the second, 

10 such as are of latter years revolted. Sixthly, of those that 
before stood excommunicated, and so have been publicly 
denounced according to the said canon, if there be 
amongst them any of the said two sorts, then let two or 
three of the principallest of them, as is aforesaid, that 

15 have stood excommunicated forty days, be presently cer- 
tifie<l unto the said court. And for your better encourage- 
ment herein, if you shall advertise me of any such certifi- 
cate, I will use my uttermost endeavour to procure the 
writ " De excommunicato capiendo," and take such order 

30 as that the same shall be fiiithfully and speedily served; 
that so they, who have not learned how to use their 
former liberty, may be better instructed by chastisement 
in prison. Your lordship knoweth, that the people are 
commonly carried away by gentlemen recusants, land- 

35 lords, and some other ringleaders of that sort, so as the 
winning or punishing of one or two of them is a reclaim- 

H 2 

100 Jrekbukop BaMmffi tetter tawAina reeu9ami$. [GXXII. 

ing, or kind of bridling of manT, that do depend upon 
them ; which hath induced me to prescribe to your lord- 
ship bv the directions precedent such a moderation and 
course, as I think fit to be generally pursued; hoping 
that when they, who have been seduced under pretences 
of toleration, or I know not what Tain imagined thing, 
shall hereby find that such disobedient persons are no 
longer to be borne with, but that the laws, made in that 
behalf, are carefully to be executed, they will be better 
advised, and reform themselves; and that the rest ofio 
such simple people will be more heedful hereafter, that 
they be not misled and carried away by lewd persuasions 
of any person whatsoever. Lastly, we that are bishops, 
being all of us (as is supposed) justices of the peace, it is 
much marvelled, that so many priests and Jesuits range is 
about in our dioceses, without any impeachment or regard 
almost had of them ; we ourselves seldom or never seek- 
ing after them ; it is said, that our remissness therein 
doth discourage the rest of the justices of peace from 
taking such pains in that behalf, as heretofore they haveio 
been accustomed, and that they would be as ready as 
they were to join with us in that service, if they might 
see our willingness thereunto, either by effecting some- 
thing ourselves, or by our intelligence (having all the 
ministers of our diocese at our commandment) would '5 
give them our best directions, where those impostors 
might be met with, and apprehended. These things, I 
fear, may justly be objected against some of us ; and I 
am driven now and then into some straits, how to excuse 
such our security. I do therefore very heartily pray 30 
your lordship, to think thereof, not that I have any cause 
to 8usi)ect you to be one of the number (if I shall speak 
properly), but rather to inform you what is expected at 
our hands, that with better discouragement we may 
therein discharge our duties. And thus not doubting, 3s 
but that your lordship will have due regard both of this 

i6o5-] ArekUthap Baneroffs vmtatian articles. 101 

last pointy and likewise of all the premises, and letting 
you understand, that I keep the copy of this my letter, 
that if any of our brethren shall neglect them, or any 
part of them, I may have the same for my discharge, 
5 and every one of us be driven to bear his own burden ; 
I commit your lordship, with my hearty commendations, 
unto the tuition of Almighty God. From Lambeth the 
twelfth of March, mdciv. 

Your lardship^s very loving friend and brother^ 
■<> R. Cantuar. 

Postscript. After I had written this letter, I received, 
upon occasion, this direction from his majesty, that when 
your lordship depriveth any of your factious ministers for 
their obstinacy, you shall take such order with the next 
15 incumbent, as that the party so deprived may have two or 
three months' liberty to remain still in the parsonage or 
vicarage house, if he have no other of his own ; that so 
he may have that time to provide for himself, and not 
be thrust out into the streets upon a sudden. 


Archiepitc. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Aiigliae 

Ric Baitceoft I. 1605. Jacob. I. 3. 

Articles to be inquired of in the first metropolitical visita- 
tion of the most reverend father Richard, archbishop of 
Canterbury 9 in tJie year of our Lord God 1605. 

«o rriHE tenor of the oath to be ministered to the church- 
A wardens and swommen. You shall swear that all 

Articles to be] These articles were provided for the following dioceses, 
viz. Exeter^ Harwich^ Chichester, St. David's, Uandaff. Hereford, Wor- 
cester, Bristol, Bath and Wells, Coventry and Lichfield, and they seem 
H to have been framed more especially for the purpose of enforcing the 

102 Archbishop Bancrofts visitation artides, [CXXII*. 

affection, favour, hatred, hope of reward and gain, or fear 
of displeasure or malice set aside, you shall, upon due 
consideration of the articles given you in charge, present 
all and every such person of or within your parish, as 
hath committed any offence or fiEiult, or made any defaults 
mentioned in these or any of these articles ; or which are 
vehemently suspected and defamed of any such offence, 
fault, or default : wherein you shall deliver uprightly and 
according to truth, neither of malice presenting any con- 
trary to truth, nor of corrupt affection sparing to present lo 
any, and so conceal the truth : having in this action God 
before your eyes, with an earnest zeal to maintain truth 
and to suppress vice. So help you God and the contents 
of this book. 

Imprimis, Whether have you in your several churches 15 
and chapels the book of constitutions or canons ecclesias- 
tical, ready to be read by your minister according to his 
majesty's pleasure, published by his highness' authority, 
under the great seal of £ngland : and whether hath your 
minister read the same or any part thereof, upon Sun-ao 
days and holidays in the aflbemoon, before divine service 
accordingly ; yea or no. 

2. Item, Whether is there any within your parish that 
hath or doth impugn the king's majesty's supremacy and 
authority in causes ecclesiastical ; or do any way or in is 
any part impeach the same, being restored to the crown 
by the laws of this realm established in that behalf. 

3. Item, Whether is there any in your parish that 
denyeth the church of England, by law established under 
the king's most excellent majesty, to be a true and ana© 
apostolical church, teaching and maintaining the doctrine 
of the apostles. 

observance of the canons which had recently been passed by the con- 
vocation and ratified by the king. These articles are taken from a 
copy of the original edition of 1605 now preserved in the Bodleian. 3S 
(Douce A- '»^'' > 

1605O Arehhishop Bancroffs v^Uitation articles. 103^ 

4. Item, Whether is there any in your parish that 
doth impugn any of the articles of religion agreed upon 
in anno 1562, and established in the church of England. 

5. Item, Whether doth your minister use to pray for 
5 the king's majesty king James, and for the queen's 

majesty, the prince, and all their royal progeny, with addi- 
tion of such style and titles, as are due and appertaining 
to his majesty; and exhort the people to obedience to 
his highness, and other magistrates being in authority 
•o under him. 

6. Item, Whether is there any in your parish that do 
impugn or speak against the rites and ceremonies esta- 
blished in the church of England or the lawful use of 
them. You shall present their names. 

•5 7. Item, Are there any in your parish that do impugn 
the government of the church of England under the 
king's most excellent majesty, by archbishops, bishops, 
deans, archdeacons, and the rest that bear office in the 
same ; affirming that the same is anti-christian or repug- 

ao nant to the word of God. 

8. Item, Is there any in your parish that doth impugn 
the form of consecrating and ordaining of archbishops,, 
bishops, priests, or deacons; affirming that the same is 
repugnant to the word of God, or that they who are so 

25 onlained in that form are not lawfully made. 

9. Item, Is there any in your parish that doth hold or 
frequent any conventicles or private congregations; or 
any that do either make or maintain any constitutions 
agreed upon in any such private conventicles or assem^ 

30 blies. 

10. Item, Whether any persons have lurked and tip- 
pled in taverns or alehouses upon Sundays or other holi- 
days, or used his or their manual craft or trade upon the 
said days or any of them, and especially in the time o£ 

35 divine service. 

11. Item, Are there any in your parish that do or 


104 Archbishop Bancrofts visitation articles. [CXXII** 

have pro&ned (since bis majesty's last general pardon) 
the Lord's day called Sunday, or other holidays, contrary 
to the orders of the church of England prescribed in that 

12. Item, Whether is the prescript form of divines 
service used by your minister upon Sundays and holidays 
according to the book of Common Prayer : and whether 
doth your minister duly observe all the orders, rites, and 
ceremonies prescribed in the said book of Common Prayer, 
as well in reading public prayers, the litany, as also in lo 
administering the sacraments in such manner and form 
as in the book of Common Prayer is enjoined. 

13. Item, Whether hath any person in your parish 
quarrelled or stricken, or used any violence unto, or with, 
your minister or any other in the church or churchyard ; is 
or used himself disorderly in the church by filthy and 
profane talk, or any other rude and immodest behaviour. 

14. Item, Whether is that due reverence and humble 
submission used within your church or chapel in the time 
of divine service, as by the 18th constitution is pro- to 
scribed : whether each one in the church or chapel do 
apply and order himself there in time of divine service, 
as by the latter part of the same constitution is most 
commendably enjoined. 

15. Item, Whether the churchwardens and questmen's 
from time to time do their diligence in not suffering any 
idle persons or loiterers to abide either in the churchyard 
or church-porch in service or sermon time : but causing 
them either to come into the church, to hear divine ser- 
vice, or to depart, and not to disturb such as are hearers 30 

16. Item, Whether the churchwardens do provide 
against every communion, with the advice of the minist'er, 
a sufficient quantity of fine white bread, and of good and 
wholesome wine for the number of the communicants 55 
that shall receive; and that to be brought in a clean 

1605.] Arekbiakop Bancro/i's vintatian articles, 105 

and sweet standing pot of pewter, or of other pure 

17. Item, Whether doth your minister administer the 
boly communion so often and at such times, as that every 

5 parishioner may receive the same at the least thrice in 
every year, whereof once at Easter, as by the book of 
Common Prayer is appointed : and whether doth your 
minister receive the same himself on every day that he 
administreth it to others, and use the words of the insti- 

■ctution, according to the Book, at every time that the 
bread or wine is renewed, in such manner and form, as by 
the proviso of the 21st canon is directed ; or wherein is 
he faulty : and whether is warning given by him before- 
hand for the communion, as the 22d canon requireth. 

15 18. Item, Whether hath your minister admitted any 
notorious offenders or schismatics to the communion, con- 
trary to the 26th and 27th constitutions. 

19- Item, Whether the minister, together with the 
churchwardens and questmen, do take diligent heed and 

«ocare, not only that all and every of your own parishioners 
do receive thrice in every year as aforesaid, but also that 
no strangers of any other parish do come often and com- 
monly to your church from their own parish church : and 
you are now to present the names of all those, who being 

n sixteen years of age or upwards, have not in their own 
parish received the communion at or since Easter last. 

20. Item, Have any in your parish been godfathers or 
godmothers to their own children : or whether your own 
minister or any other godfathers and godmothers have 

abused or do use any other form, answer, or speech in bap- 
tism, than is in the book of Common Prayer appointed : 
or whether any which have not communicated, be admit- 
ted to be godfathers or godmothers. 

21. Item, Whether doth your minister use to sign the 
35 children with the sign of the cross, when they are bap- 
tized, according to the book of Common Prayer : and 

106 Archbishop Bancrofts visitation articles. [CXXIl*. 

whether he liath referred or wilfully refused to baptize 
any infant in his ])ari8h being in danger, having been 
duly informed of the weakness thereof: and whether the 
child hath died in his default without baptism. 

22. Item, Whether is your minister continually residents 
with you upon his benefice : or for how long time hath 
he been absent : and where is he resident for the most 
part, and what other benefice hath he. 

23. Item, Whether doth your minister preach usually, 
according to the constitutions, either in his own cure«o 
with you, or else in some other church or chapel near 
adjoining, where no preacher is: or how often hath he 
been negligent in this behalf. 

24. Item, Whether is your minister a preacher allowed: 
if yea, then by whom ; if not, whether doth he procure '5 
sermons to be preached among you once in every month 
at the least, by such as are lawfully licensed. 

25. Item, 'Whether hath your minister another bene- 
fico ; and whether doth he supply his absence by a curate 
that is sufficiently licensed to preach in that cure of his, *® 
whereon he himself is not resident : or otherwise in case 
he doth not find a preaching minister there, by reason of 
the smallness thereof, whether doth he preach at both of 
his benefices usually himself. 

26. Item, Whether is your curate licensed to serve by«s 
the bishop of this diocese or any other : and by whom. 

27. Item, Whether doth your minister or curate serve 
any more cures than one : if yea, then what other cure 
doth he also serve. 

28. Item, If your minister be not licensed to preach as 3© 
aforesaid, whether doth he take upon him to expound 
the scriptures, either in his own cure or elsewhere : if 
yea, then you are to present him, and specify the place 
where he so hath preached. 

29. Item, Whether hath any person been admitted to 35 
preach within your church or chapel, but such as you 

i6o5*] ArehbUhop Bancroft 9 vmtaiim articles. 107 

have well known to be sufficiently licensed : whom have 
you so admitted, you shall present their names, and how 
often have any such been so admitted to preach, and by 
whose procurement : and whether have you caused any 

5 strange preacher, licensed or not licensed, to subscribe 
his name, together with the day when he preached : and 
if he were licensed, then by whom was he licensed : and 
whether have they or any other preached in your church, 
not being soberly or decently apparelled. 

»o 30. Item, Whether doth your lecturer and preacher 
read divine service and administer the sacraments in his • 
own person twice every year, observing all the ceremonies 
in the book of Common Prayer established. 

81. Item, Is there any in your parish that do refuse to 

«5have their children baptized, or themselves to receive the 
communion at the hands of your minister because he is 
no preacher : you shall present their names : and if your 
minister sithence the publishing of the said book of 
canons hath received any such persons (being not of his 

«oown cure) to the communion, or baptized any of their 
children, you shall likewise present him. 

32. Item, Whether doth your minister wear the sur- 
plice whilst he is saying the public prayers, and minister- 
ing the sacraments : and if he be any graduate, whether 

J5 then doth he also wear upon his surplice, during the 
times aforesaid, such a hood as by the orders of his uni- 
versity is agreeable to his degree. 

33. Item, Whether doth your minister every Sunday 
and holiday before evening prayer, for half an hour and 

30 more, examine and instruct the youth and ignorant per- 
sons of his parish in the Ten Commandments, Articles of 
Belief, and in the Lord's Prayer, as also in the Catechism 
set forth in the book of Common Prayer : and whether 
do all fathers, mothers, masters and mistresses, cause their 

35 children, servants, and apprentices to come thither to 
hear and to be instructed and taught therein ; and those 

108 Arehbish^^ BancroftB f>UUaHmi ar^^ [CXXII^ 

that do not their duties herein you shall present their 

34. Item, Whether hath your minister without license 
from the archbishop, bishop of the diocese, or his chan- 
cellor, solemnized marriage betwixt any parties, the 5 
banns not being three several Sundays or holydays first 
published in time of divine service, in the several churches 
or chapels of their several abode, according to the book 
of Common Prayer ; and that also betwixt the hours of 

8 and 12 in the forenoon : and furthermore, whether hath •© 
your minister since the last canons published, solemnized 
any marriage betwixt any persons being under the age of 
twenty-one years, although the banns be thrice asked, 
before such time as the parents have made known unto 
him their consent thereunto: and whether hath he mar- 15 
ried any of another diocese : who are they : and by what 
authority: and when. 

35. Item, Whether doth your minister every Sunday 
bid holidays and fasting days, as by the book of Common 
Prayer is appointed. »o 

36. Item, Whether doth your minister every six 
months denounce in his parish all such of his parish as 
do persevere in the sentence of excommunication, not 
seeking to be absolved : and whether hath he admitted 
into the church any person excommunicate, without ass 
certificate of his absolution from the ordinary or other 
competent judge. 

37. Item, Whether doth your minister, being a 
preacher, endeavour and labour diligently to reclaim the 
popish recusants in his parish from their errors, if there 30 
be any such abiding : and whether is he painful in visit- 
ing the sick according to the book of Common Prayer. 

38. Item, Whether is your parson, vicar, or curate used 
to frequent or to be over-conversant with, or a favourer of, 
recusants, whereby he is suspected not to be sincere in 35 

i6o.5-] ArehhUhop Bancrofts tisitatian articles, 109 

89. Item, Whether do you know or have heard of any 
payment, composition, or agreement to or with the bishop, 
chancellor, or any inferior officer ecclesiastical, for sup- 
pressing or concealing of excommunication, or other 

5 ecclesiastical censure, of or against any recusant: what 
sum of money or other consideration hath been received 
or promised, by or to, any of them in that respect ; by 
whom ; and with whom ; and for what sum or other con- 

«o 40. Item, Whether is there in your church or chapel 
one parchment register book provided for christenings, 
marriages, and burials, and whether is the same duly and "^ 
exactly kept according to the constitutions on that behalf 
provided . 

«5 41. Item, Whether hath your minister or any other 
preacher baptized children, solemnized marriage, churched 
any woman, or ministered the holy communion in any 
private house or houses, otherwise than as by law is 
allowed, yea or no : if yea, then where ; whom ; when and 

lohow often hath he offended in any of the premises. 

42. Item, Whether hath your minister taken upon him 
to appoint any public or private fasts, prophecies, or ex- 
ercises not approved and established by law or public 
authority : or hath he attempted upon any pretence either 

>5 of possession or obsession, by fasting and prayer to cast 
out devils, yea or no. 

43. Item, Whether hath your minister, or any other 
person or persons within your parish, used to meet in 
any private house or other place, there to consult toge- 

3other, how to impeach or deprave the book of Common 
Prayer, or the doctrine or discipline of the church of 
England; if yea, then you shall present them all. 

44. Item, Whether doth your minister use such de- 
cency and comeliness in his apparel as by the 74th con- 

35Stitution is enjoined. 

45. Item, Whether do you know any in your parish 

110 Archbishop Bancrofts tmUaiion ariicUt. [CXXI I *. 

that having heretofore taken upon him or them the 
order of priesthood or of a deacon, hath since relinquished 
the same, and betaken himself in the course of his life as 
a layman neglecting his vocation ; if yea, then you shall 
present his name and the place of his abode. 5 

46. Item, Doth any take upon him to teach school in 
your parish without special license of his ordinaiy: and 
whether doth your schoolmaster bring his scholars to the 
church to hear divine service and sermons. 

47. Item, Whether is your minister noted or defamed «» 
to have obtained his benefice by simony ; or reputed to 
be an incontinent person, a common drunkard, a common 
gamester, or player at dice, or faulty in any other crime 
punishable by the ecclesiastical censures, whereby he is 
offensive and scandalous to his function or ministry. »5 

48. Item, Whether have you provided the book of 
Common Prayer lately set forth by his majesty*8 author- 
ity, and the book of Homilies : and whether have you in 
your church or chapel a font of stone set up in the 
ancient usual place ; a convenient communion table with ^ 
a carpet of silk, or some other decent stuff, and a fair 
linen cloth to lay thereon at the communion time : and 
whether is the same table then placed in such convenient 
sort within the chancel or church, as that the minister 
may be best heard in his prayer and administration, and *5 
that the greater number may communicate : and whether 
are the Ten Commandments set upon the east end of 
your church or chapel, where the people may best see 
and read them, and other sentences of holy scripture 
written on walls likewise for that purpose. 30 

49. Item, Whether have you a convenient seat for 
your minister to read service in, together ydt\k a comely 
pulpit set up in a convenient place with a decent cloth 
or cushion for the same, a comely large surplice, a fair 
communion cup of gold, silver, or other pure metal, and 35 
a cover agreeable for the same, with all other things and 

i6o5«] ArcMndiap Bancroft 9 visitation articles. 111 

ornaments necessary for the celebration of divine service 
and administration of the sacraments. 

50. Item, Whether are your churches and chapels, 
with the chancels thereof, and your parsonage or vicarage 

5 house, and all other housing thereto belonging in good 
reparations, and decent and comely kept, as well within 
as without, the seats well maintained, a sure coffer with 
three locks and keys for the safe keeping of your register 
book, your churchyards well fenced and kept without 

10 abuse: if not, then through whose default and what 
defects are. 

51. Item, Whether have you or your predecessors, 
churchwardens there, suffered since the last pardon any 
plays, feasts, banquets, churchales, drinkings, or any other 

»5 profane usages to be kept in your church, chapel, or 
churchyard, or bells to be rung superstitiously upon holi- 
days or days abrogated by law. 

52. Item, How many inhabitants within your parish, 
men or women, above the age of sixteen years, do refuse 

loto frequent divine service established by public authority 
of this realm, or to receive the holy communion : what 
be their names, and of what degree, state, or trade of 
life are they: you are to present them all of both 

S5 53. Item, Whether do any of the inhabitants of your 
said parish entertain within their house any sojourners, 
lodgers, or any common resorters and guests, who refuse 
to frequent divine service, or receive the holy communion 
as aforesaid : what be their names, of what quality or 

30 condition they are. 

54. Item, Whether are any of the said popish recusants 
of insolent behaviour, not without public offence, or do 
boldly busy themselves in seducing and withdrawing 4 
others, either abroad or in their own families, by instruct- 

Sfing their children in popish religion, or by refusing to 
entertain any, especially in place of greatest service or 

lis Archbishop Bancrofts visitation arddes. [CXXII*. 

trust, but such as concur with them in opinion of 

55. Item, How long the said popish recusants have 
obstinately abstained either from divine service, or from 
the communion, as is aforesaid: whether of any longs 
time, or only since his majesty's reign. 

56. Item, Whether is your minister a preacher suf- 
ficiently qualified : and if he be, whether doth he from 
time to time, offer quiet and temperate conference to 
reclaim the said popish recusants from their errors : and lo 
whether they or any of them do refuse such conference 
with your minister or any other preacher who shall pre- 
sent unto them his diligence in that behalf. 

57. Item, What persons aforesaid within your parish, 
either for the offence aforesaid, or for any other contu- 15 
macy or crime, do remain excommunicate : what be their 
names ; and for what cause ; and how long they have so 
stood excommunicate. 

58. Item, Whether were you, the churchwardens, 
and questmen chosen by the consent of the minister 20 
and parishioners; and whether have the churchwardens 
before you given up a just account for their time, and 
delivered to you, their successors, whatsoever money or 
other things of right belonging to the church, which was 
in their hands: and whether do you, and every of you,«5 
diligently see that all the parishioners do duly resort 
to their church every Sunday and holiday, and there 
continue the whole time of divine service, and none to 
walk or stand idle or talking in church, or church-porch, 
or churchyard, during that time: and whether do all 30 
the parishioners and their families accordingly, frequent 
their parish church, and there behave themselves soberly, 
attentively, and decently, all the time of divine service, 
yea or no : if no, then you shall present their names. 

59. Item, Whether do all persons above the age 
sixteen years usually resort to hear divine service upon 

1605.] jfrMishop Bancro/fs visitcUion articles, IIS 

Sundays and holidays approved ; and whether hath each 
one of your parishioners (being above the age of sixteen 
years aforesaid) received the holy communion thrice this 
last year, chiefly once at Easter in your parish church 
5 kneeling: if no, then you shall present their names 
which have not so done. 

60. Item, Whether have you a fit parish clerk, aged 
twenty years at least, of honest conversation, and suffi- 
cient for reading and writing : and whether he be paid 

»ohis wages without fraud, according to the most ancient 
custom of your parish : if not, then by whom he is so 
defrauded and denied ; and whether he be chosen by the 
parson or vicar, or by whom. 

61. Item, Whether have any in your parish been 
15 married within the prohibited degrees forbidden by the 

law of Grod, and expressed in a certain table published 
by authority in anno 1563 : if yea, then you shall present * 
their names : and whether have you the said table pub- 
licly set up in your church and fastened to some con- 
«o venient place there. 

62. Item, Whether doth any heretofore divorced keep 
company with any other at bed and at board: what be * 
their names: when and where were they married. 

63. Item, Doth your minister use the form of thanks- 
«s giving to women after childbirth : and whether hath he 

admitted any thereunto that was begotten with child 
in adultery or fornication, without license of his ordinary : 
and whether have any married wives refused to come to 
church according to the book of Common Prayer, to 
30 give God thanks after childbirth : if any be faulty herein, 
you shall present their names. 

64. Item, Whether have you any in your parish, 
which heretofore being popish recusants or sectaries, 
have since conformed themselves, and come to church to 

35 hear divine service, and receive the sacraments : if yea, 
then who they are, and how long sithence have they so 
VOL. n. I 

114 Archbishop Bancrofts vUUaHon artieUs. [OXXII*. 

conformed themselves : and whether do they still remain 
and abide in that conformity. 

65. Item, What recusant papists are there in your 
parish, and whether do they or any of them keep any 
schoolmaster in their house which cometh not to church 5 
to hear divine service and receive the holy communion : 
what is his name, and how long hath he taught. 

66. Item, Whether have you any in your parish, to 
your knowledge, or by common &me and report, which 
have committed adultery, fornication, or incest, which to 
have not been publicly punished to your knowledge : if 
yea, then with whom : are there any which are, or by 
common fame and report are reputed and taken to be 
common drunkards, blasphemers of God's holy name, 
common and usual swearers, filthy speakers, usurers, is 
simoniacal persons, fighters, brawlers, or quarrellers in 
church or churchyard : you shall not fail to present their 

67. Item Whether have any in your parish received 
or harboured any woman gotten with child out of wed- » 
lock, and suffered them to depart again without punish- 
ment first inflicted on them by their ordinary : you shall 
truly present, as well the party harbouring, as harboured : 
and who is suspected to be father of her child. 

68. Item, Whether hath any person within your«s 
parish promised or paid any sum of money, or other 
reward, directly or indirectly, by himself or any other, or 
commuted his or her penance for any incest, adultery, 
fornication, or any other ecclesiastical crime : if so, then 
with whom; when; and for what; and how hath the 30 
same been employed. 

69. Item, Whether is your chancellor, and every 
other inferior ecclesiastical judge, a master of arts or 
bachelor of laws at the least, and learned and practised 
in the civil and ecclesiastical laws, a man of good life 35 
and conversation, and zealously affected in religion. 

1605.] Arehiishop Bancroft's visitcUion articles. 115 

70. Item, Whether any person or persons suspected or 
detected heretofore of incontinency, and therefore depart- 
ing out of your parish for a season, is now returned again, 
or in what place else is he or she now abiding to your 

5 knowledge, or as you have heard : you shall not fail to 
present the whole truth in that behalf. 

71. Item, Whether are there in your parish any wills 
not yet proved, or the goods of the dead, dying intestate, 
left unadministered by authority of the ordinary in that 

10 behalf : you shall not fail to present the executors and 
all others faulty and culpable therein. 

72. Item, Hath any chancellor, commissary, arch- 
deacon, official, or any other exercising ecclesiastical juris- 
diction within this your diocese ; or any register, appa^ 

i^ritor, or minister belonging to the same ecclesiastical 
courts, exacted extraordinary or greater fees than here- 
tofore of late have been accustomed : and whether is 
there a table of the rates of all fees set up in their 
several courts and offices : and whether they or any of 

aothem have taken upon them the office of informers or 
promoters to the courts, or any other way abused them- 
selves in their offices, contrary to the law and canons 
in that case provided. 

78. Item, Do any of or within your parish affirm, or 
have they affirmed, that the sacred synod of this nation 

n assembled by the king's authority, is uot the true church 
of England by representation : or hath or doth any of 
your parish affirm that no persons either of the clergy 
or laity that were not pertinently present in the said late 
synod are subject to the decrees thereof in causes eccle- 

3osiast]cal, made and ratified by the king's supreme au- 
thority, because they gave not up their voices unto them: 
ye shall present their names. 

74. Item, Is there any among you that have or do 
deprave the foresaid late synod, saying or affirming that 

35 the same was a company of such persons as did conspire 


116 Certain articles of ixlnues to be [CXXIII. 

together against godly and religious professors of the 
gospel ; and that therefore both they and their proceed- 
ings in that behalf are and ought to be despised and con- 
temned, or words to the like effect : you shall not fail to 
present their names. 5 

75. Item, What number of apparitors hath every 
several judge ecclesiastical ; and wherein and in what 
manner is the country overburdened and grieved by the 
said apparitors. 

76. Item, Whether do you know of any other matter ><> 
of ecclesiastical cognizance, worthy the presentment in 
your judgment, above not expressed, which you hold fit 
to be reformed : and if you do, you shall likewise present 
the same by virtue of your oaths. 


Archiepisc. Cant Anno Chruti 'Reg. AngKa 

Ric. Bancroft I. 1605. Jacob. 1. 3. 

Certain Articles of abuses^ which are desired to he reformed 
ifi granting of prohibitions ; ea^hibited by Richard Ban- 
crofly archbishop of Canterbury ^ in the name of the whole 
clergy^ to the lords of the privy council. — Coke's 11. 
Institut. fol. 601. seqq. 

I. " TT IS majesty hath power to reform abuses in pro- is 

AJL hibitions." The clergy well hoped, that they 
had taken a good course in seeking some redress at his 

Certain articles of abuses] Connected with the claims advanced at 
this period by the lovers of prerogative was the attempt made by tl^ 
archbishop in these articles to ensure to the ecclesiastical courts the right «o 
of *• interpreting all statute laws concerning the clergy." The articles 
were '* exhibited in Michaelmas term anno 3 Jacobi regis to the lords 
of the privy council against the judges of the realm ; and the answers 
thereunto upon mature deliberation and consideration, in Blaster term 

1 605.] reformed in granting prohibitions. 117 

niajcsty's hands concerning sundry abuses offered to his 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction, by the over frequent and undue 
granting of prohibitions ; for both they and we supposed 
(all jurisdiction both ecclesiastical and temporal being 
5 annexed to the imperial crown of this realm) that his 
highness had been held to have had sufficient authority 
in himself, with the assistance of his council, to judge 
what is amiss in either of his said jurisdictions, and to 
have reformed the same accordingly ; otherwise a wrong 

»o course is taken by us, if nothing may be reformed, that is 
now complained of, but what the temporal judges shall of 
themselves willingly yield unto. This is therefore the 
first point, which upon occasion lately offered before your 
lordships by some of the judges, we desire may be cleared ; 

IS because we are strongly persuaded, as touching the valid- 
ity of his majesty's said authority, and do hope we shall 
be able to justify the same, notwithstanding any thing 
that the judges or any other can allege to the contrary. 
II. " The forms of prohibitions prejudicial to his ma- 

^ojesty's authority in causes ecclesiastical." Concerning the 
form of prohibitions, forasmuch as both the ecclesiastical 
and temporal jurisdictions be now united in his majesty, 

following, by all the judges of England and the barons of the exche- 
qaer, were with one unanimous consent under their hands (resolutions 

25 of highest authorities in law) deUvered to the lords of the council." 
" Which answers and resolutions although they were not enacted by 
authority of parliament (as our statute of Articuli cleri in 9 £dw. II. 
¥ras), yet being resolved unanimously by all the judges of England and 
barons of the exchequer, are for matters in law of highest authority 

30 next unto the court of parliament." " It was resolved by all the 
judges of England that the interpretation of all statutes concerning the 
clergy, being parcel of the laws of the realm, do belong to the judges 
of the common law." Coke's Inst. P. 2. pp. 601, 618. See also 
Collier, vol. ii. p. 688. Hallam, vol. i. p. 349. The archbishop made 

35 another attempt in favour of his articles in the year 1608; but the 
opposition of the judges was so strong, that the king was unwilling to 
support him. (Rapin, vol. ii, p. 176.) The ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
and the mode of exercising it were matter of constant complaint on the 

118 Certain articles of abuies to be [CXXIII. 

which were heretofore " de fkcto" though not " de jure'* 
derived from several heads, we desire to be satisfied by 
the judges, whether, as the case now standeth, the former 
manner of prohibitions heretofore used, importing an ec- 
clesiastical court to be " aliud forum a foro regio," and 5 
the ecclesiastical law not to be " legem terrae," and the 
proceedings in those courts to be " contra coronam et dig- 
nitatem regiam," may now without offence and derogation 
to the king's ecclesiastical prerogative be continued, as 
though either the said jurisdictions remained now so dis- 10 
tinguished and severed, as they were before, or that the 
laws ecclesiastical, which we put in execution, were not 
the king's and the realm's ecclesiastical laws, as well as 
the temporal laws. 

III. "A fit time to be assigned for the defendant, if 15 
he will seek a prohibition." As touching the time when 
prohibitions are granted, it seemeth strange to us, that 
they are not only granted at the suit of the defendant in 
the ecclesiastical court after his answer, whereby he 
affirmeth the jurisdiction of the said court, and submitteth ao 
himself unto the same, but also after all allegations and 
proofs made on both sides, when the cause is fully in- 

part of the house of commons, and made an important addition to the 
Hst of grievances presented hy them to the king in the year 1610 (see 
No. C XXVI.) But the rudest shock, which that power experienced 35 
during the reign of James, was in the year 161 1, when sir Edward 
Coke, then chief justice of the common pleas, refused to sit as a mem- 
her of the high commission, and the superior jurisdiction of the common 
law courts was successfully maintained hefore the privy comicil in a case 
of adultery by the firmness of his court. On that occasion " the king 30 
declared that by the advice of the council, and by the advice of the 
justices of the king's bench, and the barons, he would reform the high 
commission in divers points, and reduce it to certain spiritual causes. 
And the lord treasurer (Cecil, earl of Salisbury) said that the principal 
feather was plucked from the high commissioners, and nothing but 35 
stumps remaining ; and that they should not intermeddle with matters 
of importance, but of petit crimes." Coke's 12 Report, pp. 82. 84. 
Instit. 1. 4. c. 74. p. 335. 

1 605.] reformed in ffranting prohiiitions. 119 

structed and furnished for sentence; yea after sentence, 
yea after two or three sentences given, and after execu- 
tion of the said sentence or sentences, and when the party 
for his long continued disobedience is laid in prison upon 
5 the writ of " De excommunicato capiendo ;" which 
courses, forasmuch as they are against the rules of the 
common law in like cases, as we take it, and do tend so 
greatly to the delay of justice, vexation and charge of the 
subject, and the disgrace and discredit of his majesty's 

"ojurisdiction ecclesiastical, the judges, as we suppose, not- 
withstanding their great learning in the laws, will be 
hardly able in defence of them to satisfy your lordships. 

IV. "Prohibitions unduly awarded heretofore in all 
causes almost of ecclesiastical cognizance." Whereas it 

IS will be confessed, that causes concerning testaments, 
matrimony, benefices, churches, and divine service, with 
many offences against the i. 11. iii. iv. v. vii. ix. and x. 
commandments, are by the laws of this realm of eccle- 
siastical cognizance ; yet there are few of them, wherein 

so sundry prohibitions have not been granted, and that more 
ordinarily of latter times, than ever heretofore ; not be- 
cause we, that are ecclesiastical judges, do give greater 
cause of such granting of them, than before have been 
given, but for that the humour of the time is grown to 

15 be too eager against all ecclesiastical jurisdiction. For 
whereas (for example's sake) during the reign of the late 
queen of worthy memory, there have been 488. prohibi- 
tions, and since his majesty's time 82. sent into the court 
of the arches ; we humbly desire your lordships, that the 

30 judges may be urged to bring forth one prohibition of ten, 
nay, the twentieth prohibition of all the said 488. and but 
2. of the said 82. which upon due considerations with the 
libels in the ecclesiastical court, they shall be able to 
justify to have been rightly awarded: we suppose they 

35 cannot; our predecessors and we ourselves have ever 
been so careful not to exceed the compass and limits of 

1 20 Certain articles of abuBes to be [CX XIII. 

the ecclesiastical jurisdiction ; which if they shall refuse 
to attempt, or shall not be able to perform, then we refer 
ourselves to your lordships' wisdoms, whether we have not 
just cause to complain, and crave restraint of this over- 
lavish granting of prohibitions in every cause without 5 
respect. That which we have said of the prohibitions in 
the court of the arches, we verily persuade ourselves may 
be truly affirmed of all the ecclesiastical courts in Eng- 
land, which does so much the more aggravate this abuse. 

V. "The multiplying of prohibitions in one and the«« 
same cause, the libel being not altered." Although it 
hath been anciently ordained by a statute, that when a 
consultation is once duly granted upon a prohibition made 
to the judge of holy church, the same judge may proceed 
in the cause, by virtue of that consultation, notwithstand- '5 
ing any other prohibition to him delivered, provided that 
the matter in the libel of the same cause be not engrossed, 
enlarged, or otherwise changed ; yet notwithstanding pro- 
hibitions and consultations in one and the same cause, the 
libel being no ways altered according to the said statute, ^^ 
are lately so multiplied, as that in some one cause, as 
aforesaid, two, in some three, in some other six prohibi- 
tions, and so many consultations have been awarded, yea, 
divers are so granted out of one court. As for example, 
when after long suit a consultation is obtained, it is '5 
thought a sufficient cause to send out another prohibition 
in revocation of the said consultation, upon suggestion 
therein contained, that the said consultation, ^^ minus 
commode emanavit." By which pretty device the judges 
of those courts, which grant prohibitions, may, notwith-3o 
standing the said statute, upon one libel not altered, grant 
as many prohibitions as they list, commanding the eccle- 
siastical judges in his majesty's name, not to proceed in 
any cause, that is so divers times by them prohibited ; 
whereby the poor plaintiffs do not know, when their con-S5 
sultations, procured with great charge, will hold, and so 

i6o5-] reformed in granting prohiUtions, 121 

finding such and so many difficulties, are driven to go 
home in great grief, and to leave the causes in Westmin- 
ster hall, the ecclesiastical judges not daring to hold any 
plea of them. Now may it please your lordships, the 

5 premises being true, we humbly desire to hear, what the 
judges are able to produce for the justifying of these their 

VI. " The multiplying of prohibitions in divers causes, 
but of the same nature, after consultations formerly 

lo awarded." We suppose, that as well his majesty's eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction, as also very many of his poor but 
dutiful subjects are greatly prejudiced by the granting of 
divers several prohibitions and consultations in causes of 
one of the same nature and condition, and upon the self- 

15 same suggestions. For example, in case of beating a 
clerk, the prohibition being granted upon this suggestion, 
that all pleas " de vi et armis" belong to the crown, etc. 
notwithstanding a consultation doth thereupon ensue; 
yet the very next day after, if the like suggestion be 

pomade upon the beating of another clerk, even in the 
same court another prohibition is awarded. As also 
where 570 prohibitions have been granted since the late 
queen's time into the court of arches, as before is men- 
tioned, and but 113 consultations afterwards upon so 

n many of them obtained ; yet it is evident by the said con- 
sultations, that in effect all the rest of the said prohibi- 
tions ought not to have been awarded, as being grounded 
upon the same suggestions, whereupon consultations have 
been formerly granted: and so it foUoweth, that the 

30 causes, why consultations were awarded upon the rest of 
the said prohibitions, were for that either the plaintiffs in 
the court ecclesiastical were driven for saving of further 
charge to compound, to their loss, with their adversaries, 
or were not able to sue for them ; or being able, yet 

35 through strength of opposition against them, were con- 
strained to desist ; which is an argument to us, that the 

1^ certain arHdes of aiusei to be [CXXIII. 

temporal judges do wittingly and willingly grant prohibi- 
tions, whereupon they know beforehand, that consulta- 
tions are due: and if we mistake any thing in the 
premises, we desire your lordships, that the judges, for 
the justification of their courses, may better inform us. 5 

VII. " New forms of consultations, not expressing the 
cause of the granting of them/' Whereas upon the 
granting of consultations, the judges in times past did 
therein express and acknowledge the causes so remitted 
to be of ecclesiastical cognizance, which were precedents •» 
and judgments for the better assurance of ecclesiastical 
judges, that they might afterward hold plea in such cases, 
and the like ; and were also some bar as well to the tem- 
poral judges themselves, as also to many troublesome and 
contentious persons from either granting or seeking pro-»5 
hibitions in such cases, when so it did appear unto them 
upon record, that consultations had been formerly granted 
in them ; they the said temporal judges have now altered 
that course, and do only tell us, that they grant their 
consultations " certis de causis ipsos apud Westm. mo- » 
ventibus," not expressing the same particularly according 
to their ancient precedents. By means whereof the tem- 
poral judges leave themselves at liberty without prejudice, 
though they deny a consultation, at another time ; upon 
the same matter contentious persons are animated, finding's 
no cause expressed, why they may not at another time seek 
for a prohibition in the same cause, and the ecclesiastical 
judges are left at large to think what they list, being no 
way instructed, of the nature of the cause, which procured 
the consultation: the reason of which alteration in such 30 
consultations, we humbly entreat your lordships, that the 
Judges, for our better instruction, may be required to 

VIII. " That consultations may be obtained with less 
charge and difficulty." The great expenses and manifold 35 
difficulties in obtaining of consultations are become veiy 

1^5*] reformed in granting prohiUiions. 123 

buidensoine to those that seek for them ; for nowadays 
through the malice of the plaintiffs in the temporal courts, 
and the covetous humours of the clerks, prohibitions are 
so extended and enlarged, without any necessity of the 

5 matter (some one prohibition containing more words and 
lines, than forty prohibitions in ancient times) as by 
means thereof the party in the ecclesiastical courts against 
whom the prohibition is granted, becomes either unwill- 
ing or unable to sue for a consultation, it being now 

lo usual and ordinary, that in the consultations must be 
recited " in eadem verba" the whole tenor of the prohi- 
bition, be it never so long ; for the which (to omit divers 
other fees which are very great) he must pay for a 
draught of it in paper Sd. the sheet, and for the entry of 

15 it lid. the sheet. Furthermore the prohibition is quick 
and speedy; for it is ordinarily granted out of court by 
anyone of the judges in his chamber; whereas the consul- 
tation is very slowly and hardly obtained, not without 
(oftentimes) costly motions in open court, pleadings, de- 

9omurrers, and sundry judicial hearings of both parties, and 
long attendance for the space of two or three, nay some- 
times of eight or nine years before it be obtained. The 
inconvenience of which proceedings is so intolerable, as 
we trust such as are to grant consultations, will by your 

IS lordships' means not only do it expeditely, and moderate 
the said fees, but also reform the length of the said con- 
sultations, according to the forms of consultations in the 

IX. "Prohibitions not to be granted upon frivolous 

50 suggestions." It is a prejudice and derision to both his 
majesty's ecclesiastical and temporal jurisdictions, that 
many prohibitions are granted upon trifling and frivolous 
suggestions, altogether unworthy to proceed from the 
one, or to give any hinderance or interruption to the 

35 other; as upon a suit of tithes brought by a minister 
against his parishioner, a prohibition flieth out upon sug- 

124 CeHain articles of ahuMB to he [CXXIII. 

gestion, that in regard of a special receipt, called a cup of 
buttered beer, made by the great skill of the said parish- 
ioner, to cure a grievous disease called a cold, which 
sorely troubled the said minister, all his tithes were dis- 
charged. And likewise a woman being con vented fors 
adultery committed with one, that suspiciously resorted 
to her house in the night time, the suggestion of a prohi- 
bition in this case was, that ^' omnia placita de noctumis 
ambulationibus" belong to the king, etc. Also where a 
legatary sued for his legacy given in a will, the prohibi- »<> 
tion was ^' quia omnia placita de donis et concessionibus 
spectant ad forum regium, et non ad forum ecclesiasticum, 
dummodo non sint de testamento et matrimonio ;" as if a 
legacy were not " donatio de" or " in testamento ;" with 
many other of like sort. The reformation of all which ^5 
frivolous proceedings so chargeable notwithstanding to 
many poor men, and the great hinderance to justice, we 
humbly refer to your lordships' consideration. 

X. " No prohibition to be granted at his suit, the who 
is plaintiff in the spiritual court." We suppose it to be *o 
no warrantable nor reasonable course, that prohibitions 
are granted at the suit of the plaintiff in the ecclesiastical 
court, who having made choice thereof, and brought his 
adversary there into trial, doth by all intendment of law 
and reason, and by the usage of all other judicial places ^5 
conclude himself in that behalf; and although he cannot 
be presumed to hope for help in any other court by way 
of prohibition, yet it is very usual for every such person 
so proceeding, only of mere malice, for vexation of the 
p«irty, and to the great delay and hinderance of justice, 30 
to find favour for the obtaining of prohibitions, sometimes 
after two or three sentences, thereby taking advantage 
(as he must plead) of his own \\Tong, and receiving aid 
from that court, which by his own confession, he before 
did contemn ; touching the equity whereof we will exi>ecti5 
the answer of the judges. 

1 605.] reform^ in gra/iding pro/iibitians, 125 

XI. " No prohibition to be granted but upon due con- 
sideration of the libel." It is, we are persuaded, a great 
abuse, and one of the chief grounds of the most of the 
former abuses and many other, that prohibitions are 

5 granted without sight of the libel in the ecclesiastical 
court ; yea sometimes before the libel be there exhibited ; 
whereas by the laws and statutes of this realm, as we 
think, the libel (being a brief declaration of the matter in 
debate between the plaintiff and defendant) is appointed 

10 as the only rule and direction for the due granting of a 
prohibition ; the reason whereof is evident, viz. upon 
diligent consideration of the libel it will easily appear, 
whether the cause belong to the temporal or ecclesiastical 
cognizance; as on the other side, without sight of the 

15 libel the prohibition must needs range and rove with 
strange and foreign suggestions, at the will and pleasure 
of the devisor, nothing pertinent to the matter in demand : 
whereupon it cometh to pass, that when the judge eccle- 
siastical is handling a matter of simony, a prohibition is 

90 grounded upon a suggestion, that the court trieth " placita 
de advocationibus ecclesiarum et de jure patronatus." 
And when the libel containeth nothing but the demand 
of tithe wool and lamb, the prohibition surmiseth a 
custom of paying of tithe pigeons. So that if it may be 

»s made a matter of conscience to grant prohibitions only 
where they do rightly lie, or to preserve the jurisdiction 
ecclesiastical, united to his majesty's crown, it cannot, we 
hope, but seem necessary to your lordships, that due con- 
sideration be first had of the libel in the ecclesiastical 

30 court, before any prohibition be granted. 

XII. "No prohibition to be granted under pretence, 
that one witness cannot be received in the ecclesiastical 
court to ground a judgment upon." There is a new 
devised suggestion in the temporal courts commonly re- 

35ceived and allowed, whereby they may at their will and 
pleasure draw any cause whatsoever from the ecclesi- 

126 Certain articles o/abftses to be [CXXIII. 

astical court. For example ; many prohibitions have 
lately come forth upon this suggestion, that the laws ec^ 
clesiastical do require two witnesses, where the common 
law accepteth of one ; and therefore it is " contra legem 
terrse" for the ecclesiastical judge to insist upon twos 
witnesses to prove his cause: upon which suggestion, 
although many consultations have been granted, the same 
being no way as yet able to warrant and maintain a pro- 
hibition ; yet because we are not sure, but that either by 
reason of the use of it, or of some future construction it lo 
may have given to it more strength than is convenient, 
the same tending to the utter overthrow of all ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction, we most humbly desire, that by your 
lordships' good means, the same may be ordered to be no 
more used. 15 

XIII. " No good suggestion for a prohibition, that the 
cause is neither testamentary nor matrimonial.*' As the 
former device last mentioned endeavoureth to strike 
away at one blow the whole ecclesiastical jurisdiction, 
so there is another as usual, or rather more frequent thanso 
the former, which is content to spare us two kind of 
causesto deal in, viz. testamentary and matrimonial : and 
this device insultetli mightily in many prohibitions, com- 
manding the ecclesiastical judge, that be the cause never 
so apparently of ecclesiastical cognizance, yet he shall 15 
surcease ; for that is neither a cause testamentary nor 
matrimonial ; wliich suggestion, as it grew at the first 
upon mistaking and omitting the words *^ de bonis et 
cataliis," etc. as may appear by divers ancient prohibitions 
in the register, so it will not be denied, but that besides jo 
those two, divers and sundry other causes are notoriously 
known to be of ecclesiastical cognizance, and that consul- 
tations are as usuallv awarded, if suit in that behalf be 
prosecuted, notwithstanding the said suggestion, as their 
prohibitions are easily granted: which as an injuiyjs 
marching with the rest to wound poor men, protract 

1 605.] reformed in gramting prohibitions, 1 27 

suits, and prejudice the courts ecclesiastical, we desire 
that the judges will be pleased to redress. 

XIV. ** No prohibition upon surmise only, to be 
granted either out of the king's bench or common pleas, 

shut out of the chancery only." Amongst the causes, 
whereby the ecclesiastical jurisdiction is oppressed with 
multitude of prohibitions upon surmises only, this hath a 
chief place, in that through encroachment, as we suppose, 
there are so many several courts and judges in them, that 

10 take upon them to grant the same, as in the king's bench 
five, and in the common pleas as many, the one court 
oftentimes crossing the proceedings of the other ; whereas 
we are persuaded that all such kind of prohibitions, being 
original writs, ought only to issue out of the chancery, 

15 and neither out of the king's bench, nor common pleas. 
And that this hath been the ancient practice in that be- 
half, appeareth by some statutes of the realm, and sundry 
judgments at the common law ; the renewing of which 
practice carrieth with it an apparent show of great benefit 

«®and conveniency both to the church and to the subject. 
For if prohibitions were to issue only out of one court, 
and from one man of such integrity, judgment, sincerity 
and wisdom, as we are to imagine the lord chancellor of 
England to be endued with, it is not likely that he would 

«5 ever be induced to prejudice and pester the ecclesiastical 
courts with so many needless prohibitions, or after a con- 
sultation to send out in one cause, and upon one and the 
same libel not altered, prohibition upon prohibition, his 
own act remaining upon record before him to the con- 

jotrary. The further consideration whereof, when upon 
the judges' answer thereunto, it shall be more throughly 
debated, we must refer to your lordships' honourable 
direction and wisdom. 

XV. " No prohibition to be awarded under a false 
35 pretence, that the ecclesiastical judges would hold no plea 

for customs for tithes." Amongst many devices, whereby 

128 Certain articles of abuses to be [GXXIII. 

the cognizance of causes of tithes is drawn from eccle- 
siastical judges, this is one of the chiefest, viz. conceming 
the trial of customs in payment of tithes, that it must be 
made in a temporal court; for upon a quirk and false 
suggestion in Edward the Fourth his time, made by somes 
Serjeants, a conceit hath risen, which hath lately taken 
greater strength than before, that ecclesiastical judges 
will allow no plea of custom or prescription either " in 
non decimando," or " in modo decimandi ;" and thereupon 
when contentious persons are sued in the ecclesiastical lo 
court for tithes, and do perceive, that upon one good 
proof, judgment will be given against them, even in their 
own pleas, sometimes for customs, do presently (knowing 
their own strength with jurors in the country) fly unto 
Westminster hall, and there suggesting that they pleaded «5 
custom for themselves in the ecclesiastical courts, but 
could not be heard, do procure thence very readily a pro- 
hibition. And albeit the said suggestion be notoriously 
felse, yet the party prohibited may not be permitted 
to traverse the same in the temporal court, directly*® 
contrary to a statute made in that behalf; neither may 
the judge prohibited proceed without danger of an at- 
tachment, though himself do certainly know, either that 
no such custom was ever alleged before him, or being 
alleged, that he did receive the same, and all manner >s 
of proofs offered thereupon : which course seemeth the 
more strange unto us, because the ground thereof, laid 
in Edward the Fourth his time, as aforesaid, was alto- 
gether untrue, and cannot with any sound reason be 
maintained. Divers statutes and judgments at the com- 30 
mon law do allow the ecclesiastical courts to hold plea 
of such customs : all our books and general learning do 
therewith concur, and the ecclesiastical courts, both then 
and ever since even until this day, have and still admit 
the same, as both by our ancient and recent records it 35 
doth and may to any most manifestly appear : and 

i6o50 reformed in gnmting prohibiUom. 1 9Q 

besides there are some consultations to be shewed in 
this very point, wherein the said surmise and suggestion, 
that the ecclesiastical judges will hear no plea of cus- 
toms, is affirmed to be insuflScient in law to maintain 

5 any such prohibition : and therefore we hope, that if we 
shall be able, notwithstanding any thing the judges shall 
answer thereunto, to justify the premises, your lordships 
will be a means, that the abuses herein complained of, 
having so false a ground, may be amended. 

»o XVI. " The customs for tithes are only to be tried in 
the ecclesiastical courts, and ought not to be drawn 
thence by prohibitions." Although some indiscreet eccle- 
siastical judges, either in the time of king Edward the 
Fourth, or Edward the Sixth, might against law have 

■5 refused in some one cause to admit a plea of custom of 
tithes, to the prejudice of some person, whom he favoured, 
and might thereby peradventure have given occasion of 
some one prohibition (but whether they did so or no, the 
suggestion of a lawyer for his fee is no good proof); yet 

ao forasmuch as by three statutes made since that time, 
wherein it is ordained, viz. both that tithes should be 
truly paid, according to the custom, and the trial of such 
payments according to custom, upon any default or oppo- 
sition, should be tried in the king's ecclesiastical courts, 

f 5 and by the king's ecclesiastical laws, and not otherwise, 
or before any other judges than ecclesiastical ; we most 
humbly desire your lordships, that if according to the 
said laws, we be most ready to hear any plea of customs, 
your lordships would be pleased, that the judges may not 

30 be permitted hereafter to grant any prohibitions upon 
such false surmises; or if they shall answer, that we 
mistake the said statutes, that then the said three statutes 
may be thoroughly debated before your lordships; lest 
under pretence of a right which they challenge to ex- 

35 pound these kind of statutes, the truth may be overborne, 
and poor ministers still left unto country trials, there to 

VOL. n. K 

130 Certain artioUs o/aiuses to be [CXXIII. 

justify the right of their titles before unconscioiiable 
jurors in these cases. 

XVII. " No prohibition to be granted, because the 
treble value of tithes is sued for in the ecclesiastical 
court." Whereas it appeareth plainly by the tenor of 5 
the statute of Edw. VI. cap. 18. that judges ecclesiastical 
and none other are to hear and determine all suits of 
tithes and other duties of the same, which are given by 
the said act ; and that nothing else is added to former 
laws by that statute, but only certain penalties, for«o 
example, one of treble value; forasmuch as the said 
penalty, being only devised as a means to work the 
better payment of tithes, and for that there are no words 
used in the said statute to give jurisdiction to any tem- 
poral court; we hold it most apparent, that the said '5 
penalty of treble value, being a duty given in the said 
statute for non-payment of tithes, cannot be demanded 
in the temporal court, but only before the ecclesiastical 
judges, according to the express words of the said statute; 
and the rather we are so persuaded, because it is most m 
agreeable to all laws, and reason, that where the principal 
cause is to be decided, there all things incident and 
necessary are to be determined. Besides it was the 
practice of all ecclesiastical courts in this realm, imme- 
diately after the making of the said statute, and hath«5 
continued so ever since, to award treble damages (when 
there hath been cause) without any opposition, until 
about ten years past, when or about which time, notwith- 
standing the premises, the temporal judges began to hold 
plea of treble value, and do now accompt it so proper 30 
and peculiar to their jurisdictions, as by colour thereof 
they admit suits originally for the said penalty, and do 
make thereby (very absurdly) the penalty of treble value 
to be principal, which is indeed but the accessory, and 
the cognizance of tithes to be but the accessory, which in 35 
all due construction is most evident to be the principal. 

ifio5-] reformed in granting prohibitions. ISl 

thereby wholly perverting the true meaning and drift of 
that statute; whereupon if in the spiritual court the 
treble value be now demanded by the libel as a duty, 
according to that statute, or that sentence be awarded 
5 directly and sincerely upon the said libel, presently, as 
contentious persons are disposed, a prohibition is granted, 
and some sharp words are further used, as if the ecclesi- 
astical judges were in some further danger for holding of 
these kind of pleas : and therefore we most humbly de- 

losire, that if the judges shall insist in their answers upon 
such their straining of the said statute, your lordships 
will be pleased to hear the same further debated by us 
with them. 

XVIII. " No prohibition to be awarded, where the 

15 person is stopped from carrying away of his tithes by him 
that setteth them forth." As the said statute of Edward 
the Sixth, last mentioned, assigneth a penalty of treble 
value, if a man upon pretence of custom, which cannot be 
justified, shall take away his com, before he hath set out 

tohis tithes; so also in the said statute it is provided, that 
if any man having set out his tithes, shall not afterwards 
suffer the parson to carry them away, etc. he shall pay the 
doable value thereof so carried away, the same to be re- 
covered in the ecclesiastical court. Howbeit the clearness 

»5 of the statute in this point notwithstanding, means are 
found to draw this cause also from the ecclesiastical court; 
for such as of hatred towards their ministers are disposed 
to vex them with suits at the common law, where they 
find more favour to maintain their wrangling, than they 

50 can hope for in the ecclesiastical court, will not fail so set 
out their tithes before witnesses, but not with any mean- 
ing or intent, that the parson shall ever carry them away ; 
for presently thereupon they will cause their own ser- 
vants to load them away to their own barns, and leave 

35 the parson, as he can, to seek his remedy; which if he do 
attempt in the ecclesiastical court, out cometh a pro- 

K 2 

182 Cgfiam ariidei of abu$e$ to he [CXXIII. 

hibition, suggesting that upon seyerance and setting forth 
of the tenth part from the nine, the same tenths were 
presently by law in the parson's possession, and being 
thereupon become a lay chattel, must be recovered by an 
action of trespass at the common law; whereas the wholes 
pretence is grounded upon a mere perverting of the 
statute, which doth both ordain, that all tithes shall be 
set forth truly and justly without fraud and guile, and 
that also the parson shall not be stopped or hindered 
from carrying them away; neither of which conditions lo 
are observed, when the farmer doth set them forth, 
meaning to carry them away himself (for that is the 
fraudulent setting of them out) and also when accord- 
ingly he taketh them away to his own use ; for thereby 
he stoppeth the parson to carry them away; and con- '5 
sequently the penalty of this offence is to be recovered in 
the said ecclesiastical courts, according to the words of 
the said statute, and not in any court temporal : where- 
fore we most humbly desire your lordships, that either 
the judges may make it apparent to your lordships, that m 
we mislike this statute in this point, or that our eccle- 
siastical courts may ever hereafter be fi'eed frt)m such 
kinds of prohibitions. 

XIX. " No prohibition to be granted upon any inci- 
dent plea in an ecclesiastical cause.'' We conceive it to H 
be great injury to his majesty's ecclesiastical jurisdiction, 
that prohibitions are awarded to his ecclesiastical courts 
upon every by, and every incident plea or matter alleged 
there in bar, or by way of exception, the principal cause 
being undoubtedly of ecclesiastical cognizance. For^o 
example : in suit for tithes in kind, if the limits of the 
parish, agreements, compositions, and arbitraments, as 
also whether the minister that sueth as parson, be indeed 
parson or vicar, do come in debate by way of bar, 
although the same particulars were of temporal cogni-35 
zance (as some of them we may boldly say are not) yet 

i6o5-] re/mned in praniinff prohiiitums, 1S8 

they were in this case examinable in the ecclesiastical 
court, because they are matters incident, which come not 
in that case finally to be sentenced and determined, but 
are used as a mean and furtherance for the decision of 
5 the main matter in question. And so the case standeth 
in other such incident pleas by way of bar ; for otherwise 
either party in every cause might at his pleasure, by 
pleading some matter temporal by way of exception, 
make any cause ecclesiastical whatsoever subject to a 

lo prohibition ; which is contrary to the reason of the com- 
mon law, and sundry judgments thereupon given, as we 
hope the judges themselves will acknowledge, and there- 
upon yield to have such prohibitions hereafter restrained. 
XX. " That no temporal judges, under colour of au- 

'Sthority to interpret statutes, ought, in favour of their 
prohibitions, to make causes ecclesiastical to be of tem- 
poral cognizance/' Although of late days it hath been 
strongly held by some, that the interpretation of all 
statutes whatsoever do belong to the judges temporal, 

loyet we suppose by certain evil effects, that this opinion 
is to be bounded within certain limits ; for the strong 
conceit of it hath already brought forth this fruit, that 
even those very statutes, which do concern matters merely 
ecclesiastical, and were made of purpose with great cau- 

«5 tion to preserve, enlarge, and strengthen the jurisdiction 
ecclesiastical, have been by colour thereof turned to the 
restraining, weakening, and utter overthrow of the same, 
contrary to the true intent and meaning of the said 
statutes. As for example : besides the strange inter- 

jopretation of the statutes before mentioned for the pay- 
ment of tithes, when parties have been sued in the eccle- 
fiiastical courts in case of an incestuous marriage, a pro- 
hibition hath been awarded, suggesting under pretence 
of a statute in the time of king Henry VIII. that it 

35 appertaineth to the temporal courts and not to the eccle- 
aiastical^ to determine what marriages are lawful, and 

134 Certain articles o/aiuses to be [GXXIII. 

what are incestuous by the word of Grod. As also a 
minister being upon point of deprivation for his insuf- 
ficiency in the ecclesiastical court, a prohibition was 
granted upon suggestion, that all pleas of the fitness, 
learning, and suflSciency of ministers belong only to the 5 
king's temporal courts, relying, as we suppose, upon the 
statute of 13 Eliz. by which kind of interpretation of 
statutes, if the naming, disposing, or ordering of causes 
ecclesiastical in a statute shall make the same to be of 
temporal cognizance, and so abolish the jurisdiction of to 
the ecclesiastical court, without any further circumstances 
or express words to warrant the same, it followeth, that 
forasmuch as the common book and articles of religion 
are established and confirmed by several acts of parliament, 
the temporal judges may challenge to themselves an au-is 
thority to end and determine all causes of fiEdth and reli- 
gion, and to send out their prohibitions, if any eccle- 
siastical judge shall deal or proceed in any of them: 
which conceit, how absurd it is, needeth no proof, and 
teacheth us, that when matters merely ecclesiastical are>* 
comprised in any statute, it doth not therefore follow, 
that the interpretation of the said matters doth belong to 
the temporal judges, who by their profession, and as they 
are judges, are not acquainted with that kind of learning. 
Hereunto when we shall receive the answer of the judges, >$ 
we shall be ready to justify every part of this article. 

XXI. "That persons imprisoned upon the writ of 
' De excommunicato capiendo ' are unduly delivered and 
prohibitions unduly awarded for their greater security." 
Forasmuch as imprisonment upon the writ of " De ex- 30 
communicato capiendo" is the chicfest temporal strength 
of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and that by the laws of the 
realm none so conmiitted for their contempt in matters 
of ecclesiastical cognizance, ought to be delivered, until 
the ecclesiastical courts were satisfied, or caution given 11 
in that behalf; we would gladly be resolved by what 

1 605.] rrfcrmed in granting prohibitions, 1 S5 

authority the temporal judges do cause the sherifis to 
bring the said parties into their courts, and by their own 
discretions set them at liberty, without notice thereof 
first given to the ecclesiastical judges, or any satisfaction 

5 made either to the parties, at whose suit he was im- 
prisoned, or the ecclesiastical court, where certain lawful 
fees are due. And after all this, why do they likewise 
send out their prohibitions to the said court, command- 
ing that all censures against the said parties shall be 

10 remitted, and that they be no more proceeded with, for 
the same causes in those courts? Of this our desire 
we hope your lordships do see sufficient cause, and will 
therefore procure us from the judges some reasonable 

»5 XXII. " The king's authority in ecclesiastical causes 
is greatly impugned by prohibitions." We are not a little 
perplexed touching the authority of his majesty in causes 
ecclesiastical, in that we find the same to be so im- 
peached by prohibitions, that it is in effect thereby 

so almost extinguished ; for it seemeth that the innovating 
humour is grown so rank, and that some of the temporal 
judges are come to be of opinion, that the commissioners 
appointed by his majesty for his causes ecclesiastical 
having committed unto them the execution of all eccle^ 

sssiastical jurisdiction annexed to his majesty's imperial 
crown, by virtue of an act of parliament made in that 
behalf, and according to the tenour and effect of his 
majesty's letters patents, wherein they are authorized to 
imprison and impose fines, as they shall see cause, cannot 

30 otherwise proceed, the said act and letters patents not- 
withstanding, than by ecclesiastical censures only. And 
thereupon of latter days, whereas certain lewd persons, 
two for example's sake, one for notorious adultery and 
other intolerable contempts, and another for abusing of 

35 a bishop of this kingdom with threatening speeches and 
sundry railing terms no way to be endured, were there- 

136 Certain artieUs of abmei to be [CXXIII. 

upon fined and imprisoned by the said commissioners, 
till they should enter into bonds to perform further 
orders of the said court; the one was delivered by an 
** Habeas corpus " out of the king's bench, and the other 
by a like writ out of the common pleas; and sundry $ 
other prohibitions have been likewise awarded to his 
majesty's said commissioners upon these suggestions, vis. 
that they had no authority either to fine or imprison any 
man ; which innovating conceit being added to this that 
followeth, that the writ of " De excommunicato capi- :o 
endo" cannot lawfully be awarded upon any certificate 
or " Significavit" made by the said commissioners, we 
find his majesty's said supreme authority in causes eccle- 
siastical (so largely amplified in sundry statutes) to be 
altogether destitute in efiect of any means to uphold it, 15 
if the said proceedings by temporal judges shall be by 
them maintained and justified ; and therefore we most 
humbly desire your lordships, that they may declare 
themselves herein, and be restrained hereafter (if there 
be cause found) from using the king's name in theirs 
prohibitions, to so great prejudice of his majesty's said 
authority, as in debating the same before your lordships 
will hereafter more fully appear. 

XXIII. '' No prohibitions to be granted under pre- 
tence to reform the manner of proceedings by the eccle- 15 
siastical laws in causes confessed to be of ecclesiastical 
cognizance." Notwithstanding that the ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction hath been much impeached heretofore 
through the multitude of prohibitions, yet the sugges- 
tions in them had some colour of justice, as pretend- 30 
ing that the judges ecclesiastical dealt with temporal 
causes ; but now, as it seemeth, they are subject to the 
same controlments, whether the cause they deal in be 
either ecclesiastical or temporal, in that prohibitions of 
late are wrested out of their own proper course, in the 35 
nature of a writ of error, or of an appeal. For whereas 

i6o5*] reformed m granting prohibitions. 187 

the tme and only use of a prohibition is to restrain the 
judges ecclesiastical from dealing in a matter of temporal 
cognizance; now prohibitions are awarded upon these 
surmises, viz. that the libel, the articles, the sentence, 

ft and the ecclesiastical court, according to the ecclesiastical 
laws, are grievous and insufficient, though the matter 
there dealt withal be merely ecclesiastical ; and by colour 
of such prohibitions, the temporal judges do alter and 
change the decrees and sentences of the judges eccle- 

losiastical, and do moderate the expenses taxed in the 
ecclesiastical courts, and do award consultations upon 
conditions. As for example; that the plantiff in the 
ecclesiastical court shall accept of the one-half of the 
costs awarded, and that the register shall lose his fees ; 

15 and that the said plaintiff shall be contented with the 
payment of his legacy, which was the principal sued for, 
and adjudged due unto him at such day, as they the said 
temporal judges shall appoint, or else the prohibition 
must stand. And also where his majesty's commissioners 

30 for causes ecclesiastical, have not been accustomed to 
give a copy of the articles to any party before he hath 
answered them ; and that the statute of Henry V. touch- 
ing the delivering of the libel, was not only publicly 
adjudged in the king's bench not to extend to the deli- 

isverance of articles, where the party is proceeded with 
**ex officio," but likewise imparted to his majesty, and 
afterwards divulged in the starchamber, as a fiill resolu- 
tion of the judges ; yet within four or five months after 
a prohibition was awarded to the said commissioners out 

30 of the king's bench, upon suggestion, that the party ought 
to have a copy of the articles, being called in question 
*• ex officio," before he should answer them ; and not- 
withstanding that a motion was made in full court 
shortly after for a consultation, yet an order was entered, 

35 that the prohibition should stand until the said party 
had a copy of the said articles given him : which novel 

188 Certain artides of causes to be [GXXIIL 

and extraordinary courses do seem very strange unto 
us, and are contrary not only to the whole course of his 
majesty's laws ecclesiastical, but also to the very maxims 
and judgment of the common law, and sundry statutes 
of this realm, as we shall be ready to justify before yours 
lordships, if the judges shall endeavour to maintain these 
their proceedings. 

XXIV. " That temporal judges are sworn to defend 
the ecclesiastical judges' jurisdiction." We may not 
omit to signify unto your lordships, as we take it, theio 
temporal judges are not only bound by their ancient 
oath, that they shall do nothing to the disherison of the 
crown, but also by a latter oath unto the king's supre- 
macy, wherein they do swear ; that to their power they 
will assist and defend all jurisdictions, privileges, pre- is 
eminences, and authorities united and annexed to the 
imperial crown of this realm ; in which words the ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction is specially aimed at ; so that whereas 
they do oftentimes insist upon their oath, for doing of 
justice in temporal causes, and do seldom make mention ^^ 
of the second oath taken by them for the defence of the 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction, with the rights and immunities 
belonging to the church ; we think, that they ought to 
weigh their said oaths better together, and not so far to 
extend the one, as that it should in any sort prejudice's 
the other. The due consideration whereof (which we 
most instantly desire) would put them in mind, any sug- 
gestion to the contrary notwithstanding, to be as careful 
not to do any thing that may prejudice the lawful pro- 
ceedings of the ecclesiastical judges in ecclesiastical 3© 
causes, as they are circumspect not to suffer any impeach- 
ment or blemish of their own jurisdictions and proceedings 
in causes temporal. 

XXV. *' That excommunication is as lawful as pro- 
hibition, for the mutual preservation of both his majesty's ^ 
supreme jurisdictions." To conclude : whereas for the 

1 605.] reformed in granting proMUiions. 1 39 

better preserving of bis majesty's two supreme jurisdic- 
tions before mentioned, viz. the ecclesiastical and the 
temporal, that the one might not usurp upon the other, 
two means heretofore have of ancient time been ordained, 

5 that is to say, the censure of excommunication, and the 
writ of prohibition ; the one to restrain the encroach- 
ment of the temporal jurisdiction upon the ecclesiastical, 
the other of the ecclesiastical upon the temporal. We 
most humbly desire your lordships that by your means 

'othe judges may be induced to resolve us, why excommu- 
nications may not as freely be put in ure for the preser- 
vation of the jurisdiction ecclesiastical, as prohibitions 
are under pretence to defend the temporal, especially 
against such contentious persons, as do wittingly and 

•5 willingly upon false and frivolous suggestions, to the delay 
of justice, vexation of the subjects, and great scandal 
of ecclesiastical jurisdictions, daily procure, without fear 
either of God or men, such undue prohibitions, as we 
have heretofore mentioned. 

IW Kif^ James' orders far trantlaHng As Biih. [OXXIY. 

ArcfaiepiBC. Cant. 
Ric. Bakcroft 3. 


Anno Chritti 

ELeg. AngUa 
Jacob. I. 5. 

An order set doum by king James the First for translating 
of the Bible. — Burnet's Hist. Reform, vol. ii. app. p. 366. 

THE places and persons agreed upon for the Hebrew, 
with the particular books by them undertaken. 


Pentateuchon. The** 

story from Joshua 

to the first book of 

Chronicles exclu- 



Mr. Dean of Westm. ' 
Mr. Dean of Pauls, 
Mr. Dr. Saravia, 
Mr. Dr. Clark, 
Mr. Dr. Leifield, 
Mr. Dr. Teigh, 
Mr. Burleigh. 
Mr. King, 
Mr. Thompson, 
Mr. Beadwell, 

An order set down] See No. CXXI. 

Mr. Dean of WestrnJ] Dr. Lancelot Andrews, master of Pembroke 
hall, Camb. successively bishop of Chichester, Ely and Winchester; 15 
died. Sept. 21, 1626. 

Mr. Dean of PauTs] Dr. John Overall, master of Catherine hall, 
Camb. successively bishop of Lichfield and Norwich ; died. May 1 2, 

Mr, Dr. Saravia"] Dr. Hadnan de Saravia, prebendary of Canter- 20 
bury; the friend of Hooker and archbp. Whitgift; died, Jan. 15, 

Mr. Dr. Clark] Dr. Richard Clark, fellow of Christ's college, Camb. 
one of the six preachers, Canterb. 

Mr. Dr. Leifield] Dr. John Layfield, fellow of Trin. coll. Camb. 25 
rector of St. Clement Danes, Westm. Being skilled in architecture, 
his judgment was much relied on for the fabric of the tabernacle and 
temple. (Collier, vol. ii. p. 693.) 

i6oj.] KinpJam08^ arder$ far tramlating the Bible. 



Mr. Lively, 
Mr. Richardson, 
Mr. Chatterton, 
Mr. DilliDgham, 
Mr. Harrison, 
Mr. Andrews, 
Mr. Spalding, 
Mr. Binge, 

From the first of 
the Chronicles with 
the rest of the story 
and the Hagiogra- 
phy; videlicet, Job, 
Psalms, Proverbs, 
Canticles, Ecclesi- 
J astes. 

Mr. Dr. Teigh] Dr. Robert Tighe, vicar of All Hallows, Barking, 
lo and archdeacon of Middlesex, called by Fuller, Lewis, and others, Dr. 
Leigh ; bat see Wood, Ath. Oxon. vol. ii. p. 206. ed. Bliss, and New- 
court's Repert. vol. i. p. 82. 

Mr. Burleigh] He was probably the Dr. Francis Burley, who was 
one of the first fellows of Chelsea college. 

15 Mr, King] Supposed to be Mr. Geoffry King, fellow of King*s coll. 
Camb. and regius professor of Hebrew. 

Mr. Tkampson] Of Clare hall, Camb. nothing further known of 

Mr. Beadwell] Mr. William Bedwell, vicar of Tottenham, a cele- 
tohrated Arabic scholar. (Ath. Ox. vol. iii. p. 329. ed. Bliss.) 

Mr. Lively] Fellow of Trin. coll. regius professor of Hebrew, Camb. 
Mr. Lively is mentioned by name in the king's letter of 1 604 ; (No. 
CXXL) but he died in May 1605. 

Mr. Richardson] Dr. John Richardson, successively master of Peter- 
's hooae and of Trin. ColL Camb. 

Mr. Chaiterion] Laurence Chaderton, master of Emmanuel coll. 
Camb. Appeared for the puritans at Hampton Court, 1603 ; resigned 
his headship 1622. 

Mr, Dillingham] Fellow of Christ's coll. Camb. Parson of Dean in 

Mr. Harrison] Vice-master of Trin. coll. Camb. 

Mr. Andrews] Dr. Roger Andrews, brother of bishop Andrews, and 
master of Jesus coll. Camb. ; died in 1632. 

Mr. Spalding] Dr. Robert Spalding, fellow of St John's coll. Camb. ; 
35 succeeded Mr. Lively as Hebrew professor. 

Mr, Binge] Dr. Andrew Byng, fellow of Peter-house Camb., after- 
wards Hebrew professor, and archdeacon of Norwich. 

142 King James* orders /of* transUUina tks BiNe. [CXXIV. 


Dr. Harding, 
Dr. Reynalds, 
Dr. Holland, 
Dr. Kilbye, 
Mr. Smith, 
Mr. Brett, 
^ Mr. Fairclough, 

The four or greater 
Prophets with the 
Lamentations V and 
the twelve lesser s 


Dr. Duport, 
Dr. Branthwait, 
Dr. Radcliffe, 
Mr. Ward, 
Mr. Downs, 
Mr. Boyes, 
L Mr. Ward, reg. 

The prayer of Ma- lo 
-nasse and the rest 
of the Apocrypha. 

Dr, Harding'] Dr. John Harding, regius professor of Hebrew and »S 
president of Magd. coll. Oxf. 

Dr. Reynolds] Dr. John Rainolds, president of Corp. Chr. coll. Oxf. 
Appeared for the puritans at Hampton Coort 1603, and recommended 
a translation to be made ; died in May 1607. 

Dr. Holland] Dr. Thomas Holland, regios professor of divinity, and^ 
rector of Exeter coll. Oxf. ; died in March 1612. 

Dr. Kilbye] Dr. Richard Kilbye, rector of Lincoln colL Oxf. and 
regius professor of Hebrew ; died in November 1620. 

Mr. Smith] Dr. Miles Smith, of Brasen Nose coU. Oxf. The writer 
of the preface, and the person to whom, with bishop Bilson, the finales 
revision of the whole work was entrusted. He was afterwards bishop 
of Gloucester; and died Oct. 20, 1624. 

Mr. Brett] Dr. Richard Brett, fellow of Lincoln coll. Oxf. afterwards 
rector of Quainton, Bucks ; died in April 1637. 

Mr. Fairclough] Richard Fairclough, feUow of New College, Oxf., 30 
became rector of Bucknell, Oxf. in 1593, and died there in 1638. 

Dr. Duport] Dr. John Duport, prebendary of Eily, and master of 
Jesus coll. Camb. ; died in 1617. 

Dr. Branthwait] Dr. William Branthwait, master of Cains coll. 
Camb. ; died in Feb. 1618. 35 

Dr. Radcliffe] Dr. Jeremiah Radcliffe, fellow of Trin. coll. Camb. 

Mr, Ward] Dr. Samuel Ward, master of Sidney coU. Camb., and 
Lady Margaret professor. 

Mr. Downs] Andrew Downs, fellow of St. John's coll. Camb., and 
regius professor of Greek. 4© 

i6oy.1 Kinff James* orders far translating the Bible. 



The places and persons agreed upon for the Greek 
with the particular books by them undertaken. 

Mr. Dean of Christ-' 

Mr. Dean of Winches- 

Mr. Dean of Worces- 

Mr. Dean of Windsor, 

Mr. Savile, 

Dr. Peme, 

Dr. Ravens, 
I Mr. Hanner, 


The four Gospels, 
Acts of Apostles, 



Mr. Bttifes] John Boyes, feUow of St. John's coll. Camh. prehendary 
IS of E3y and rector of Boxworth ; died in Jan. 1643. 

Mr, Ward, Reg,'] Dr. Ward of King's coll. Camh. prebendary of 
Chichester, and rector of Bishop's Waltham . 

Mr, Dean of Christ Church"] Dr. Thomas Ravis ; consecrated March 
19, 1605, bishop of Gloucester ; translated May 18, 1607, to London; 
30 died Dec. 14, 1609 ; succeeded in the deanery of Ch. Ch. Aug. 4, 1605, 
by Dr. John King. 

Mr. Dean of Winchester] Dr. George Abbot, master of Univ. colL 
Oxf. ; successively bishop of Lichfield and London, and archbishop of 
Canterbury ; died Aug. 4, 1633. 
^S Mr, Dean of Worcester'^ This appears to be Dr. Richard Eledes, 
being so mentioned by name in Fuller. He died in November 1 604, 
and being succeeded in the same year by Dr. James Montague, the 
latter person has been taken by Lewis and others to be the translator 
described as the dean of Worcester. 
30 Mr, Dean of Windsor] Dr. Giles Thompson, previously fellow of All 
Souls' coll. Oxf. afterwards bishop of Gloucester ; died June 14, 161 2. 
Mr, Savile] Sir Henry Savile, warden of Merton coll. Oxf., provost 
of Eton; died Feb. 19, 1622. 

Dr, Peme] Dr. John Perin, fellow of St. John's coll. Oxf., regius 
35 professor of Greek ; appointed canon of Ch. Ch. Nov. 34, 1604 ; died 
May 9, 1615. 

Dr. Ravens] This name does not appear in the list given by Wood, 
Ann. vol. ii. p. 283. Dr. Ralph Ravens, fellow of St. John's coll. Oxf. 
died in 1616, rector of Eyston Magna, (Ath. Oxf. vol. 4. col. 797. ed. 
40 Bliss.) having previously been vicar of Dunmow. 

Mr, Harmer] Dr. John Harmer, fellow of New Coll. Oxf., regius 
professor of Greek, warden of Winchester ; died Oct. 11, 161 3. 

144 King James' ordenfor translaHnff iAs Bible, [CXXIV; 


Dean of Chester, 
Dr. Hutchinson, 
Dr. Spencer, 
' Mr. Fenton, 
Mr. Rabbett, 
Mr. Sanderson, 
Mr. Dakins, 

The Epistles of 
St. Paul. 

The canonical 5 

Dean of Chester] Dr. William Barlow, successiTely bishop of Ro- 
chester and Lincoln ; died Sep. 7, 161 3. 

Dr. Hutchinson] Is this Mr. William Hutchinson, who resigned the le 
rectory of St. Botolph*s Bishopsgate, in i599> and was archdeacon of 
St. Albans ? See Newc. Repert. vol. i. p. 95. 

Dr. Spenser] Is this Dr. John Spenser, who was one of king James' 
chaplains, and afterwards president of Corp. Chr. colL Ozf. ? He died 
Apr. 3, 1614. IS 

Mr. Fenton] Is this Dr. Roger Fenton, rector of St. Stephen Wal- 
brook, who died Jan. 15, 161 5 ? He is called a person excellently well 
learn'd pious and beloved. See Stow, Survey, p. 245. Newcourt's Rep. 
vol. i. p. 197. Fuller's Worthies, Lane. p. 116. 

Mr. Rabbeif] A Mr. Michael Rabbet is mentioned by Newcourt (Rep. 90 
vol. i. p. 565) as rector of St. Vedast Foster from 1603 to 161 7. 

Mr. Sanderson] A Mr. Thos. Sanderson is mentioned by Newcourt 
(Rep. vol. i. p. 201) as rector of All Hallows in 1603, and archdeacon 
of Rochester in 1 606. 

Mr. Dakins] Mr. William Dakins, fellow of Trinity coll Camb. and 35 
professor of divinity in Gresham college, died in Feb. 1607. (Ward's 
lives, p. 44.) 

This list does not exactly correspond either with the date 1604, 
which is commonly assigned to it, or with the date 1607. which 
Wilkins and others have thought the more correct one. It is evident jo 
from the king's letter, which bears date July 22, 1604, (N®. CXXI.) 
that 54 persons had already been appointed for the purpose of making 
the new translation ; but it is also evident that Dr. Barlow (who is 
known to have been one of the party selected) could not have been de- 
scribed at that time as the dean of Chester, as he was not appointed to 35 
that office before the month of December 1604. Neither does the list 
correspond exactly with the year 1607, because Mr. Lively the Hebrew 
professor at Cambridge, whose name appears in the list, had died be> 
fore that time. Other instances might also be given to the same 
effect. But this is what would naturally be expected, as the list of 40 
persons engaged in the work would unavoidably undergo changes 
during the progress of it. See some differences in Wood's Ann. voL ii. 

1607.] Kimg Jamiti ordenfor trandaiiug the Bible, 14>5 

7%^ rules to be observed in the translation of the Bible. 

I. The ordinary Bible read in tlie church, commonly 
called " the bishops' Bible,'* to be followed, and as little 
altered, as the truth of the original will permit. 

n. The names of the prophets, and the holy writers, 
5 with the other names of the text to be retained, as nigh 
as may be, accordingly as they were vulgarly used. 

III. The old ecclesiastical words to be kept, videlicet, 
the word ** Church** not to be translated " Congrega- 
tion,** etc. 
"o IV. When a word hath divers significations, that to be 
kept, which has been most commonly used by most of 
the ancient fathers, being agi*eeable to the propriety of 
the place, and the analogy of the faith. 

V. That the division of the chapters be altered either 
■5 not at all, or as little as may be, if necessity so require. 

VI. No marginal notes at all to be affixed, but only 
for the explanation of the Hebrew or Greek words, which 
cannot without some circumlocution so briefly and fitly 
be expressed in the text. 

^ VII. Such quotations of places to be marginally set 
down, as shall serve for the fit reference of one scripture 
to another. 

VIII. Every particular man of each company to take 
the same chapter or chapters, and having translated or 

S5 amended them severally by himself, where he thinketh 

p. 283, where the new names of Dr. John Aglionby principal of 
Edm. Hall, and Dr. Leonard Hutton, canon of Ch. Ch., are substitutes 
for the names of Dr. E^es and Dr. Ravens. The list here published 
from bishop Burnet was compared by Mr. Baker with a copy some 

M> time belonging to Dr. Jegon, who was bishop of Norwich from 1602 to 
1618. (see Lewis, Hist, of Transl. p. 310.) and bishop Burnet himself 
took his list from a copy belonging originally to bishop Ravis. Comp. 
Newcome, Hist, of Transl. p. 91. Todd's Vindic. pp.49* &c. Collier, 
vol. ii. p 693. Burnet, Hist. Ref. vol. ii. p. 813. and P.ii. p. 513- Le 

35 Neve's Fasti. Newcourt's Repert. Peck's Dcsid. Cur. vol. ii. b. 8. 


VOL. n. L 

146 King Jamei orders for irandating the BiUe. [CXXIV. 

good, all to meet together, confer what they have done, 
and agree for their parts, what shall stand. 

IX. As any one company hath dispatched any one 
book in this manner, they shall send it to the rest to be 
considered of seriously and judiciously ; for his majesty iss 
very carefnl in this point. 

X. If any company upon the review of the book so 
sent, doubt or differ upon any place, to send them word 
thereof, note the place, and withal send the reasons ; to 
which if they consent not, the difference to be com- to 
pounded at the general meeting, which is to be of the 
chief persons of each company, at the end of the work. 

XI. When any place of special obscurity is doubted of, 
letters to be directed by authority to send to any learned 
man in the land for his judgment of such a place. >5 

XII. Letters to be sent from every bishop to the rest 
of his clergy, admonishing them of this translation in 
hand, and to move and charge as many as be skilful in 
the tongues, and have taken pains in that kind, to send 
his particular observations to the company either at West-*© 
minster, Cambridge, or Oxford. 

XIII. The directors in each company to be the dean of 
Westminster and Chester for that [)lace, and the king^s 
professors in the Hebrew or Greek in either university. 

These translations to 
be used when they 
agree better with the 
text than the bishops* 
Bible; videlicet 

Tindall, '5 





XIV. Besides the said directors before mentioned, three 3» 
or four of the most ancient and grave divines in either of 
the universities, not employed in translating, to be as- 
signed by the vice-chancellor, upon conference with the 
rest of the heads, to be overseers of the translations as 
well Hebrew as Greek, for the better observation of the 35 
fourth rule above specified. 

i6to.] Aprodamattonagaingtrecuaanta. 147 


Archiepiac. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Anglise 

Ric. Bancroft 6. 1610. Jacob. I. 8. 

A proclamation for the due ea^ecution of aU former laws 
against reaisants^ giving them a day to repair to their 
own dwellings^ and not afterwards to come to the courty 
or within ten miles of London without special license ; 
and for disarming them as the law requireth. Afid 
withal that all priests and Jesuits shall depart the land 
by a day^ no more to return into the realm ; afid for 
the ministering of the oath of allegiance according to 
the law. 

THOUGH the principal care that a reh'gious and wise 
king ought to have, should be for the maintenance 
and propagation by all godly, lawful, and honest means, 
of the true catholic and Christian religion, and to that 
5 effect as he must plant good seed with the one hand, so 
to displant and root out with the other, as far as he can, 
the cockle and tares of heresy, that do ordinarily grow 
up amongst the Lord's wheat ; yet hath our nature been 
ever so inclined to clemency, especially we have ever 

10 A proclamation] The king had been much embarrassed in his plans 
respecting the Romanists, not only by the active measures adopted by 
the court of Rome» but still more by the bold and independent pro- 
ceedings of the house of commons. His plans respecting the Ro- 
manists were expressed in his Apology for the Oath of Allegiance, in 

*5 which he asserted that " whatever was the just and merciful govern- 
ment of queen Elizabeth over the papists, his government had far 
exceeded hers in mercy and clemency/' and "that it could not be 
proved that any papist had been put to death since he came to the 
crown for cause of conscience." (Works, pp. 253, 254.) The new 

10 oath of allegiance had been enacted immediately after the plot of 
November, 1605, and having been studiously framed, owing to the 
king's interference, (see Wdrke, p. 292.) for the purpose of confining 

L 2 

14^ A proelamaticn against r^cusanti. [CXXV. 

been so loath to shed blood in any case that might haye 
any relation to conscience (though but of a deceived and 
disguised conscience) as notwithstanding the care and 
zeal that we have ever carried for the maintenance and 
propagation of this our ancient and true catholic religion, 5 
which we profess, yet hath our said natural clemency 
ever withholden us from putting the law to that due 
execution against popish priests and recusants, which 
their evil deserts at divers times towards us, and their 
insolent and proud carriage, especially of late, did justly 10 
deserve at our hands. 

But not that their evil behaviour at home, manifested 
first by the priests' treason immediately after our entry 
into this kingdom, and next at the horrible powder 
treason, the unnatural cruelty whereof is never to be 15 
forgotten, joined to this horrible and lamentable accident 
abroad, we mean the devilish and unnatural murder of 
the late French king our dearest brother, hath so stirred 
up the hearts of our loving people represented by the 
houses and body of parliament, as both the houses thereof so 
have joined in making an humble petition to us to be 
more wakeful than heretofore we have been, upon the 
courses and steps of the papists : and to this effect, that 

it to the profession of civil and temporal obedience, had been willingly 
taken by the Romanists, until they were prohibited by two sncceasive 15 
bulls of pope Paul V., and by the earnest exhortations of cardinal 
Bellarmine. (Wilk. Cone. vol. iv. pp. 430, 431.) But the king^s 
greatest embarrassment arose from the conduct of the boose of com* 
mons. This body, now conscious of its power^ and always opposed to 
the claims of prerogative, had continually expressed its desire for^o 
greater moderation towards the Puritans and severity towards the 
Romanists ; and though reminded by the king of his supremacy and 
of the relation that it bore to Divine authority, persisted in representing 
to him the grievances of the nation, and more especially in remon- 
strating against the court of high commission. But in the year 1 61035 
the general feeling of hostility against the Romanists, which had been 


i6io.} A proclamatian against recusants, 149 

we would be pleased to put in due execution hereafter 
without any longer conveniency the good and wholesome 
laws of this realm made against them, the most part 
whereof were made before our entry into this kingdom, 

sand so were we at our coronation sworn to the main- 
tenance of them : we have just reason according to their 
humble desire, to be more careful than heretofore we 
have been in seeing our said laws put in due execution. 
For since in this case, our conscience, in regard to reli- 

logion; our honour, in regard there is nothing craved, but 
the execution of our laws ; our safety, and not only of us 
but of all our posterity, in regard to the papists' bloody 
doctrine, that make martyrs and saints of such as kill 
their own kings, the anointed of God ; so as we now see 

•5 to our horror their detestable doctrine, so oft put in 
practice, and so that butcherly theoric and practic so 
linked together, that a sinful or wicked man can by no 
means so well redeem his soul from eternal damnation, 
as by murdering a king that is either an heretic by their 

so interpretation, or a fautor of heretics: these three mo- 
tives we say, so justly grounded upon conscience, honour, 
and safety, together that the motion hereof hath moved 
from our people, cannot but stir up that princely 
and provident care in us, which every religious, just, 

95 increased by the two popiith conspiracies of the reign (No. CXVIII. and 
Wilk. Cone. vol. iv. p. 424), was exasperated and made ungovernable 
by the murder of king Henry IV. of France. The murder was com- 
mitted by Ravaillac on the 3'^ of May, and g^ve occasion to the 
petition from the two houses of parliament, which is noticed in this 

30 proclamation. The law itself was already sufficiently stringent against 
the Romanists, and only required to be put into execution ; but the king 
was not like-minded ; and the parliament, having sat from the com- 
mencement of the reign, was dissolved at the close of the year without 
any feeling of regret on the part of the sovereign, who complained that 

15 they had not only encroached upon his privileges, but had *' perilled his 
health and wounded his reputation." Collier, vol. ii. p. 694. Neal, Purit. 
vol. i. p. 443. Kennet, vol. ii. p. 643. Hallam, vol. i. pp. 356. 440. 

150 A proclamation against recusants. [OX XV. 

and wise king ought to have upon such respects and 

And therefore being informed, that at this time espe- 
cially there is a greater resort made of recusants to this 
our city of London, than hath been at any time hereto- 5 
fore, notwithstanding that by the laws of our realm they 
ought all to be confined, and remain within five miles of 
their dwelling-places; it is our express will and pleasure 
to discharge, like as by these presents we do dischaige, 
all by-past licenses granted unto them for their repairing lo 
hither. And although this time of parliament, and the 
creation of our eldest son a be so unfit and dangerous a 
time for their abode here, as hereupon our parliament 
hath humbly moved us, that they might all be sent home 
and discharged this city, before the creation of our said 15 
dearest son ; yet have we thought good to retain so much 
of our accustomable clemency, weighing so little any of 
their malicious plots, or the hazard thereof during that 
time in comparison of our said clemency, as in considerar 
tion of such important business as they may have con- so 
ceniing their particular estates in the next term, we are 
contented to give them time until the last day of June, 
which is after the end of the next term ; betwixt and 
which time, they are to repair again to their own dwell- 
ing-houses and ])laces of confining, according to the law, as 
not presuming at any time hereafter, to repair to this 
our city and chamber of London, or to our court, or to 
the court of our dearest wife the queen, or of the prince 
our dear son wheresoever, or within ten miles of London, 
without sj^ecial license had thereunto, under pain of tbe.'to 
severe execution of our laws upon the contravenors, 
and of highest contempt against our authority joined 

a tfie creation of our eldest tton] Piince Henry was created Prince of 
Wales two days after the date of this proclamation in the i6th year of 55 
his age. Camden in Kcnnet, vol. ii. p. 643. 

i6io.] A prockmatum against recusants. 151 

And we are likewise pleased upon the said humble 
petition of our said loving subjects assembled in par- 
liament, straitly to charge and command our justices of 
peace in all parts of this our realm, that according to 
sour laws in that behalf, they do take from all popish 
recusants convicted, all such armour, gunpowder, and 
ammunition of any kind, as any of them hath either in 
their own hands, or in the hands of any other for them, 
and see the same safely kept, and disposed according to 

■othe law; leaving them for their necessary defence of 
their house and persons, so much as by the laws is pre- 
scribed : wherein as our said justices have been hitherto 
too remiss, so if we shall find this our express command- 
ment neglected, or not diligently executed, as is fit, and 

15 as the importance thereof doth require, we will make 
them know by severe punishment, what it is to be care- 
less of our royal commandments in cases of this nature. 

And because that priests and Jesuits do more abund- 
antly swarm as well throughout our whole kingdom, as 

so within our city of London, than ever they did heretofore, 
not only coming daily home in flocks, to the high con- 
tempt of our authority and laws, but even a number of 
those particular persons amongst them, who after they 
have been kept in prisons and convicted by our laws, 

15 yet were, out of our clemency, put forth of the country 
again upon condition not to return, have notwithstand- 
ing presumed to return again into this country, in high 
contempt of our great clemency and favour extended 
towards them, thereby as it were, seeking and begging 

50 at our hands their own just punishment; we have there- 
fore thought good, for staying the like abuses and incon- 
veniences in time to come, to give from henceforth free 
passage and course to all such laws as are now in force, 
and ought to be put in execution against such oflenders. 

ssAnd yet being ever willing to mix some part of our 
clemency with the rigodr of the law, notwithstanding 

152 A procl(Mn€Ui4m agaifist recusants. [CSXV. 

that in tlie first year, and afterwards in the fourth year 
of our reign, we did by two several gracious proclama- 
tions give a certain day to all priests and Jesuits, for 
transporting themselves out of our dominions between 
and the said day, at that time intimating all rigour unto 5 
them, that should thereafter return within our kingdom ; 
yet are we content notwithstanding their contempt of 
this fonner grace twice before offered unto them, yet to 
renew the same now again this third time: and do 
therefore by these presents declare and publish, that it 10 
shall be lawful for all manner of Jesuits, seminaries, and 
other priests whatsoever now in this kingdom, as well 
those whom we shall vouchsafe to deliver out of prison, 
as those that are not yet apprehended, freely and safely 
to depart forth of our realm, so as they make their re- 15 
pair unto any of our i>orts between the day of the date 
of this proclamation, and the fourth day of July next, 
for the same purpose there to transport themselves with 
the first opportunity into any foreign parts ; admonishing 
and assuring all such Jesuits, seminaries, and priests of ao 
what sort soever, departing upon this our pleasure signi- 
fied, as also all other that have been heretofore released 
by our gracious favour in the same condition, that if any 
of them shall hereafter return into this our realm again, 
that their blood shall then be upon their own heads, and 95 
upon those that shall send them, seeing that by so doing 
they shall not only incur the danger of our laws, but 
also a high and treble contempt of our gracious favour 
and clemency now extended towards them. 

And in general, since no man can pretend ignorance ao 
of our laws, that all Jesuits and priests of what order 
soever, and their senders, may hereby be admonished, to 
beware any further to tempt our mercy, in presuming to 
repair any more within this our kingdom, in regard of 
their known peril, and of the care that we are resolved 35 
to have for preserving of our good subjects from their 

i6 1 o.] A proclamation against recmants. 1 53 

danger of body and soul, since their errand can be no 
other here, but only for diverting of our good subjects' 
hearts firom their due obedience both to God and us. 
And lastly, because the horror and detestation of the 

5 powder treason in the minds of our parliament bred 
amongst other things, that oath of allegiance to be taken 
by our subjects, so highly impugned by the pope and his 
followers, as we are enforced by our own pen to take in 
hand^ the maintenance of our cause for that oath, which 

■o howsoever odious it was to the pope, yet was it only 
devised as an act of great favour and clemency towards 
so many of our subjects, who though blinded with the 
superstition of popery, yet carried a dutiful heart towards 
our obedience; for hereby was there a separation and 

■5 distinction made between that sort of papists and the 
other pernicious sort, that couple together that damnable 
doctrine and detestable practice before mentioned ; there- 
fore in consideration that the said oath serveth to make 
so true and merciful a distinction between these two 

lo sorts of papists, as is already said, we cannot but hold 
it most convenient for the weal of all our good subjects, 
and discovery of bad people, that greater care shall be 
used hereafter in the general ministration of this oath to 
all our subjects, than hath been heretofore used. 

«5 And therefore it is our express will and pleasure, and 
accordingly we do hereby straitly charge and command 
all and singular our bishops, justices of assize, justices of 

^ by our oum pen to take in hand] King James wrote first " An 
Apology for the Oath of Allegiance, against the two breves of pope 

30 Paulas Quintus and the late letter of cardmal Bellarmine to G. 
Black wel the archprieat," and afterwards on reprinting it, a " Premoni- 
tion to all most mighty Monarchs, Kings, Free Princes, and States of 
Christendom" on the same subject ; in the latter of which he proves 
at considerable length that the papacy is Antichrist, and states his 

35 own personal faith on the principal points at issue between the 
Churches of Ekigland and Rome. 

1 54 Archbishop Bancrojfs letter about pluralitiee, [CXX VI. 

peace, and all other our officers, whom it may concern, 
to minister the same to all such persons, and in all such 
cases, as by the law they are enabled, knowing that the 
meaning of the law was not only to authorize them to do 
it when they would, and to forbear it at their pleasure, 5 
but to require it at their hands, as a necessary duty 
committed to them, and imposed upon them, as persons 
of chief and principal trust under us, for the good and 
safety of us and our state. Given at our palace of White- 
hall the second day of June, in the eighth year of our»o 
reign of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, anno- Domini 



Archiepisc. Cant. 

Anno Chrisd 

R^. AngiiiB 

Kic. Hanchoft 6. 


Jacob. I. S. 

The archhishop of Canterbury's letter about pluralities afid 
other matters relating to the church. — Keg. Bancroft, 
fol. 172. b. 


« ClALUTEM in Christo." That which I should have 
signified to your lordship at your being here, had we 

The archbishop of Canterbury's letter'] This letter was occasioned by 15 
the proceedings of the house of commons in the session that opened on 
the 9th of Feh. 1610. Early in the session two separate bills were 
brought into the house, and proceeded with, against pluralities and non- 
residence ; and a committee of grievances was appointed, which col- 
lected materials and made reports to the house. On the 7th of July jo 
the commons presented their grievances to the king, and on the 1 oth 
of the same month attended in a body at WhitehaU to bear his ma^ 
jesty's determination so far as he was then able to answer them ; which 
may be expressed summarily in the three following instructions they 
then received from him. ]. "That they meddle not with the main 25 
points of government; that is his craft * tractcnt fabrilia fabri/ a. He 

1610.3 Arekbiskcp Banero/fs letter about pluralities. 155 

met together, I am now to impart unto you in this sort. 
Upon the grievances exhibited unto his majesty by the 
lower house of parliament, he hath been pleased to un- 
dertake much on our behalf, and to lay a great burden 

5 upon me, which I am not otherwise able to bear, but by 
the assistance of your lordship and others our brethren 
the bishops. These are therefore, in discharge of mine 
own duty, very heartily to pray and require your lordship, 
that you forthwith inform yourself, how many ministers 

10 have two benefices within your diocese, and whether 
every one of them hath a preaching minister to supply 
his absence where he doth not reside himself, according 
to the XLI. and XLVIl. constitutions; and if herein 
you find any want, send presently for the parties, and 

15 charge them by virtue of the said canons, and in his ma- 
jesty's name, as they will avoid his displeasure, that with- 

woald not have such ancient rights, as he had received from his prede- 
cessors, accounted grievances. 3. That they should be careful not to 
present that for a grievance, which was established by a law ; for it is 

30 very undutiful in subjects to press their king wherein they are sure to 
be denied. Complaints may be made unto them of the high commis- 
sioners : let the abuse appear afid then spare not ; there may be errors 
among them : but to take away the commission is to derogate from 
him : and it is now in his thoughts to rectify it in a good proportion." 

15 The king's complete and final answer to the grievances of the commons 
was given on the 23 rd of July in the presence of both houses when he 
prorogued the parliament. From that answer it appears that the com- 
plaints were for the most part on matters of religion, viz. " touching 
execution of laws against popish recusants : touching deprived and 

30 silenced ministers : touching pluralities and non-residents : touching 
excommunication : concerning the commission for causes ecclesiastical, 
and particularly of the extent of the statute of i EHiz. cap. i : of griev- 
ances apprehended in the commission itself : of the grievances found in 
the execution of the commission : and touching prohibitions." On 

35 these several points the king g^ve temperate answers, and the arch- 
bishop was commanded, as appears from the letter before us, to look 
closely into all cases of real abuse, for the purpose of correcting them. 
See Journals of Lords, an. 1610. p. 658. Journals of Com. an. 1610. 
pp. 393. 447. Wilson in Kennet, vol. ii. p. 682. 

156 Archbidwp BancrofVs letter about phrtdiHee. [CXXVI. 


out any delay tbey supply that defect. Perhaps some 
may give unto your lordship firoward answers, and either 
refuse or delay to give you satisfaction herein ; which if 
they do, I require you, in his majesty's name, to suspend 
them for their contempt, and to certify me thereof pre- 5 
sently, that I may give order to stay all inhibitions in 
that case. If any such person keep the benefice in his 
own hands, whereupon he doth not reside, then I would 
have you to sequester the fruits of it, and to allow out of 
them a reasonable portion for a curate that is a preacher. lo 
If a pluralist, having one benefice in your lordship*s dio- 
cese, be resident in another, then you to call him by pro- 
cess ; if he be a delinquent herein, I heartily desire your 
lordship to use your best diligence in this matter, to the 
end that notice thereof may be had throughout your 15 
diocese before the next session of parliament ; and fail 
not to write unto me before that time what you have 
done therein, and upon any wilfulness shewed to your 
lordship, or other impediment, whereby you cannot pre- 
vail with some party, let me presently be informed of his m 
name, and I will send for him myself. Secondly, you are 
to inform me of the names and degrees of all those that 
have two benefices within your diocese, or but one in 
your diocese and another in another diocese. Thirdly, it 
is his majesty's strait charge, that you require all your 95 
prebendaries to be resident upon their benefices, and 
there to preach every Sunday, according to the tenour of 
two canons made in that behalf; and taking the course 
before mentioned, write unto me the names of such as 
shall refuse to obey you herein. Fourthly, you must be 30 
careful and diligent in the administering of the oath of 
allegiance, according to the trust reposed in you by the 
statute made this session*, which I pray you procure 

* by the statute made this sessiori] Stat. 7 Jac. i. c.6. " An act for ad- 
ministering the oath of allegiance, and reformation of married womea 35 

i6io.] AreUMcp Bancrofts letter about pluralities, 157 

forthwith, as soon as the same, together with the rest, 
shall he printed : they are now in the press. Fifthly, 
your lordship is to use the best means and help you can, 
by the assistance of all your officers, that his majesty 

5 may receive from you, to be delivered unto him by me* 
the number of all recusants men and women within your 
diocese, in as exact a manner as you can possibly procure 
it, and this not only to be done this vacation, but every 
year hereafter : it is his majesty's direct commandment. 

io Sixthly, you are to give order to your officers, to use 
their best endeavours and diligence, that all recusants in 
every parish may be presented unto them, and then take 
some pains yourself to see, that they be all truly certified 
to the judges and justices in their sessions and assizes, to 

15 the end they may be there indicted and convicted ; and 
when your lordship doth make your certificate, as is 
aforesaid, write to the judges and justices, as having re- 
ceived direction therein from me ; then they will be care- 
ful for the indicting and conviction of such, as shall be 

ao presented unto them ; letting them know, that if I may 
be certified of any slackness herein of them, I will assur- 
edly acquaint his majesty with it. I have heard that 
when recusants are presented, there is some negligence in 
setting down their true names, whereby they oftentimes 

as escape from being proceeded with ; I pray your lordship 
give your best directions for the prevention hereof. If 
any gentleman, who keepeth any recusants in his house, 
shall refuse to deliver to the churchwardens, or to any, 
whom your lordship shall send unto him, the true names 

30 of them ; write unto me thereof, and I will cause him to 
be sent for by the lords of his majesty's privy council. 
Seventhly, until by the means aforesaid, that all recusants 
within your diocese shall be convicted, take such order in 
any wise with them, as that they may be all excommu- 

35nicated, and accordingly denounced in your cathedral 
church, and send me the names of all that shall be so 

158 y^rdUnshop Bancroffa Imer abaiU pluralUie$. [CXXVI. 

denounced, with their qualities, callings, and abilities, that 
I may make such use thereof, as shall be fit for the good 
of the church. Eighthly, I will be bold as of myself 
straitly to charge you, that forasmuch as our excommuni- 
cations of recusants are utterly by them contemned, and 5 
for that they find more ftivour, than I would wish, to the 
increasing of their obstinacy, you do forthwith give your 
order, if you list in my name, to all the ministers of your 
diocese, that they do not bury neither in the church nor 
the churchyard, nor suffer to be buried, as much as in lo 
them lieth, any popish recusants, that die excommuni- 
cated. We that are bishops, have much to answer before 
God for our slackness hitherto in this point ; the law 
therein being our warrant. Ninthly, I must likewise 
charge you to examine very narrowly the proceedings of 15 
your chancellors, commissaries, archdeacons, and officials; 
for whilst we repose so much trust in them as we do, 
and they intend little, I mean especially chancellors, com- 
missaries, and officials, but their own profit, many true 
complaints and mischiefs do indeed thereof ensue. If in 20 
your lordship's care to reform these kinds of abuses, you 
find any chancellors, commissaries, or officials, stubborn 
and disobedient, write unto me thereof, for we may no 
longer, to our utter discredit, leave these abuses unre- 
formed, and I am well assured, that wherein we shall 45 
want ability, his majesty will yield unto us sufficient 
strength. Tenthly, it being more than notorious, that 
many parsons and vicars, and especially such as have two 
benefices, do suffer their houses to run into decay, where 
they do not reside themselves; it is his majesty's plea- 30 
sure, that you take present care in that behalf, by ap- 
pointing all your under officers to look upon presentments 
already made of such defects, and otherwise, by all ways 
and means to inform yourself, and thereupon to call the 
parties offending herein before you, and to take such 35 
order as that either they themselves shall presently repair 

i6io.J ArMMcp Bancrofts letter abimt pluralities. 159 

their houses, or else do you sequester their livings, allot- 
ting a fit portion for them to live upon, and causing the 
rest to be so employed ; for besides that such neglecting 
of their houses doth argue too much greediness, and is a 

5 great scandal to the best affected in their parish, it is 
very injurious to their successors. Eleventhly, there 
have been many constitutions formerly made concerning 
the apparel of ministers, but never was their pride in that 
respect so great as now it is, from the dean to every 

■o curate, nothing being left that way to distinguish a bishop 
from any of them ; you shall find deans usually either in 
their velvet, damask, or satin cassocks, with their silk 
netherstocks**; naysome archdeacons and inferior ministers, 
having two benefices, are likewise for the most part so 

15 attired ; to omit that their wives, in the cost and vanity 
of their apparel, do exceed as much and more, which is 
one principal motive why there is such exclamation 
against double-beneficed men, and such as beside their 
two benefices have some other preferment '' sine cura.'* 

«o What to move your lordship in this behalf I well know 
not, but as any so attired shall come before you, let him 
know particularly, and in my name, that they do greatly 
forget themselves in these so chargeable vanities, many of 
them having more care, to their own scorn, so to garnish 

25 themselves and their wives, than to furnish their studies 

^ silk netherstocks'] " Then have they nether- stocks to these gay hosen, 
not of cloth (though never so fine) for that is thought too base ; but of 
Jamsey worsted crewel] silke thred, and such like : or else at the least 
of the finest yam that can be got ; and so curiously knit with open 

30 seame down the legge, with quirkes and clockes about the ancles, and 
sometime (hap)y) interlaced with golde or silver threds, as is wonderful 
to beholde." Stubs, Anatomic of Abuses, p. 3 1. 

Netherstocks of silk are constantly specified in the proclamations 
issued by queen Elizabeth against excess of apparel, and in her procla- 

35 mation of 1597 she prohibited the use of them to all under the degree 
of a knight, excepting gentlemen of her household, with a few others, 
and such as could dispend 200/. by the year. 

160 Archbishop Bancrofts letter about pluralMes. [CXX VI. 

with such books, as might enable them the better to dis- 
charge their duties, as well for the confirmation of the 
truth, as for the refuting of all their opposites and adver- 
saries. Assuredly if at our next session, your lordship, 
and so the rest of my brethren shall not be able to 5 
inform me, that upon this my letter and admonition there 
is some hope, that these abuses will be redressed, I will 
be an humble suitor unto his majesty, that some straight 
order, by his direction, may be taken in that behalf, for 
that this so chargeable a vanity should not be still eouti-«o 
nued ; whilst many other men endure great want, it is 
very intolerable; seeing that by such their bravery in 
apparel, they do procure no manner of credit unto 
themselves, but rather, upon my knowledge, great envy 
and heartburning against their calling and estates. These 15 
and some other abuses being oft objected unto me, 
do oftentimes plunge me, as being always ready to cover 
and excuse our imperfections of the clergy ; but I must 
be forced to leave them, if they will not be content to be 
advised by me. Twelfthly, I have been content, that all«o 
bishop Jewel's works ^ should be printed together in one 
volume, to the end that every parish in England might 
have one of them. In the late queen's time of worthy 
memory, every parish was driven to buy ** Erasmus's Ptea- 
phrase** upon the New Testament," and the said bishop's 25 
" Reply against Harding * ; one of the said books deliver- 
ing plainly to every man's understanding the true sense 
and meaning of the whole New Testament, and the other 
containing a very notable and learned confutation of all 
the principal points almost of popery: and therefore for- 30 

c Bishop Jewels works'\ This edition was printed in folio in the year 
1609 by " John Norton, printer to the king's most excellent majesty." 

d Erasmus's Paraphrase'] See queen Elizabeth's Injunctions N^*.. 
XLIII. It had been required previously in king Edward's Injunctions 
No. II. 35 

*^ Reply against Harding] See Strype, Parker, vol. ii. p. 151. 

i6io.] ArekfMcp Bijmeroffs Utter about pluralUie9. U)l 

asmuch as the same true causes, which moved her late 
majesty to impose the said books upon every parish, do 
remain still in force, there being more recusants now 
than at that time; I have thought it my duty very 

s heartily to entreat your lordship, so to deal with the 
chancellor, conmiissary, archdeacons, and officials, as by 
their means, and your own, with the rest of the preachers 
and ministers of your diocese, they may induce their 
parishioners to be willing, every parish to buy one of the 

lo works of bishop Jewel ; and I am so far persuaded of 
your lordship's ability to prevail with your clergy herein, 
as I did likewise in as hearty manner desire you to send 
for as many of the said books ready bound unto Mr. 
Norton, as there are parishes in your diocese, that hereby 

IS the said parishes may have those books near at hand, 
which will the better encourage thfem to buy them. 
What yon shall be content to do herein, I know his 
majesty will take in very good part, being ever of his 
most princely goodness ready to like and approve of that, 

to which may tend to the instruction and benefit of his 
loving subjects; and besides, you shall bind me very 
much hereby unto you, in that I gave encouragement to 
the printing of the said works in one volume, to the end, 
that the whole realm might in that sort be furnished with 

as them; and for the prices of them I will take order that 
they shall be reasonable. Lastly, his majesty is not well 
pleased with the negligence generally of almost all the 
bishops in England, touching the collections prescribed 
heretofore by his majesty, for the building of the church 

30 and chapels of Arthure in Cumberland'; and therefore I 

' Arikmre in CwnberlatuT] ••The parish charch of Arthuret in Cumber- 
land was built in the year 1609. by the help of a charity brief ; but the 
persons employed in the building going off with a considerable part of 
the money collected, the tower was left unfinished : towards which 
^S Dr. Todd the rector expended about 60/ and procured contributions of 
20/. or 30/. more." Hutchinson's Cumberl. vol. ii. p. 546. note. 


1C2 Far eontrilmtums (owardi the prinee'i Ubrary. [CXXVII. 

pray you in any wise call your officers before you, and 
take a strict account of them ; first, how many collec- 
tions have been made, and where the money remaineth ; 
for I am persuaded that in many dioceses, much doth 
rest in the collector's hands. Besides, there be sundry 5 
dioceses wherein there hath been no collection at all, and 
in some not past one or two. Let me receive your lord- 
ship's particular letter to be shewed to his majesty, bow 
his pleasure and directions touching this collection have 
been accomplished in your particular diocese, after you 10 
have informed yourself of the premises, and done the best 
you can in this matter. I must tell your lordship, that 
I am to send to his majesty, by his commandment, a copy 
of this letter, and that I keep likewise a copy of it my* 
self, to the end, that both his majesty may know what 15 
I have done, and I be able to justify myself for the dis- 
charge of mine own duty, and so leave the blame and 
burden upon them, who shall through their negligence 
deserve it; and so with my hearty commendations and 
prayer I commit your lordship to the tuition of Almighty »o 
God. At Lambeth the 27th of July, UDCH. 


Ardiiepisc Cant. Anno (/liristi R^. Angliv 

Ric. Bancroft 6. 1610. Jacob. 1. 8. 

A letter for contributions towards the princess /i^aiy.— 

Reg. Bancroft, fol. 174. a. 

ri'^HE prince is earnestly affected to have such a library, 

A as is fit for his highness ; whereof I having notice, did 

hold it very convenient, that the abler sort of the clei^, 

A letter /or contrilmtions] Prince Henry died Nov. 6, 1612, in the 15 
1 9th year of his age. Of his love of learning sir Walter Ralegh has 
furnished evidence in the preface to his " History of the World," which 

]6io.] Far etrntrtbuUons towards the prince's library. 163 

well 88 we that are bishops, should give unto his high- 
flome books towards the fiirnishing of the said library ; 
and because tbey shall not be able to know what books 
the prince doth want, deal with the abler sort of double 

5 beneficed men in my name, to send up unto me every 
one of them five pound apiece to be bestowed for them 
open sach books as I shall know are meet, leaving the 
catalogue of all his books, to be presented afterwards by 
me unto his highness in their names. I trust they will 

logive me so much credit, oflTering unto them my service 
herein. I have not hitherto been ready to move any 
eztraordinaiy charge, but in this case I hold it very con- 
venient, that his highness being so wise, judicious, and 
worthy a prince, should have some little glimpse of our 

15 love and duty towards him. I did not think it fit to 
mention this point in my letter, as holding it conve- 
nient that no more should be acquainted with it than 
such men, as you mean shall contribute. Your lordship 
well knoweth that the prince will take it very kindly 

le that your chancellor, and the richer sort of commissaries 
of yours and other dioceses should bestow some law books 
upon his highness ; and accordingly I think fit that some 
of them ought to give twenty marks, some 10/. and the 
least twenty nobles. I therefore pray your lordship to 

15 deal with yours accordingly, and to cause them forth- 
with to send up the money unto me, assuring them that 

was written at this period. " It wa^ for the service of that inestimable 
prince Henry, the successive hope, and one of the greatest of the 
Christian world that I undertook this work. It pleased him to peruse 

50 some part thereof and to pardon what was amiss.*' And again at the 
end of the work " besides many other discouragements persuading my 
silence, it hath pleased God to take that glorious prince out of the 
world, to whom they were directed; whose unspeakable and never 
enough lamented loss hath taught me to say with Job ' versa est in 

35 luctum cithara mea, et organum meum in vocem flentium.' " See also 
Wood's Ann. voL ii. p. 31a. Collect. Curiosa, vol. i. p. 213. 

M 2 

164 Archbishop Ahbofs articles o/inquiry, [CXXVIII. 

their names, their books, and the prices of them shall not 
be omitted in the general book, which is to be exhibited 
to his highness of the whole contribution. 


Archiepisc Cant. Anno Christ! Reg. Anglue 

Oeo. Abbot 2. 1611. Jacob. I. 10. 

Articles to be inquired of in the cathedral church of 
Bristol, in the metropoliticai visitation of the most 
revere7id father in God^ George, by God^s permission 
archbishop of Cant, afid primate of all England^ in the 
year of our Lord God MDCxn.^ — Reg. I. Abbot, fol. 
229. a. 

I. T NPRIMIS, Of what number of persons doth your 
J. cathedral church stand ? 5 

II. Item, Whether have you any laws, statutes, or 
ordinances in your church, and by whom the same were 

III. Item, Whether doth every member of your church, 
at his first admission to the same, swear to observe such to 
statutes and ordinances of the church, so far as they con- 
cern himself, and are not contrary to the laws of this 

IV. Item, What other benefice or ecclesiastical prefer^ 
raent have the dean, archdeacon, prebendaries, and other 15 
ecclesiastical persons of the church, besides their rooms, 
and places in the same ? 

V. Item, How are the xlh. xliii. and XLiv. canons 
for the residency of the dean, as well in the said cathe- 
dral church, as upon their benefices, and* in the convo-ao 

* Forte desunt: the rest of the canons made, ant quid siniik. 


i6i2.] ArekUskop AhbaCh artiehs o/inquiry. 16^ 

cation anno mdciv. and confirmed by his majesty under 
the great seal of England, kept and observed ? 

VI. Item, What time of residence is every residentiary 
in yonr church bcmnd unto? and whether do not they 

s dispense one with another for their residency, or some 
time thereof eveiy year ? 

VII. It^n, Whether be not all the residentiaries in 
your church many times absent at one time, so that 
none is to be seen in the church there for divers weeks 

•o together, to do the service due to the church, or to keep 
hospitality there? 

VIII. Item, Whether do they at the time of their 
living there according to their statutes, and the laudable 
customs of this church, keep hospitality there ? 

«5 IX. Item, Whether there be not a general neglect 
among the said canons of coming to evening prayer 
Sundays, holidays, and other wedc days ? 

X. Item, What extraordinary leases have you past 
within these five years last past ? and whether have you 

10 not entered into bonds and covenants to make or renew 
any lease hereafter, whose term is not yet expired, con- 
trary to the true intent of the laws and statutes of this 
land ? and what leases, covenants, and grants have been 
thus made, and to whom ? 

«5 XI. Item, Whether your prebendaries in the time of 
their lying from their cathedral church, do preach upon 
their benefice, and keep hospitality there, as by the laws 
of the church and realm they are bound ? 

XII. Item, Whether sermons be duly had in your 
.^cathedral church upon the Sabbaths, and holidays? and 

how oil in the year have you the communion ministered 
amongst you in the cathedral church? and how often 
have you sermons or lectures on the week days in your 
cathedral church aforesaid, and by whom ? and what are 
.^5 the statutes of your church in this behalf? 

XIII. Item, How cometh it to pass, that whenas the 

166 Archhishap Ahhofs articles of inquiry. [CXXVIII. 

mayor and aldermen of this city were wont, to the credit 
of this place, to resort to your cathedral church, and there 
to hear divine service, now they forbear the same? and 
who gave the cause of their forbearing thereof? and 
whether there liave been any means made for the 5 
reconciliation of either corporation to the other again ? 

XIV. Item, Whether there be any of your whole num- 
ber, that be any ways affected to the Romish religion, and 
thereupon frequent not divine service, nor receive the 
sacrament of the Lord's supper ? «© 

XV. Item, What is the number of those which are to 
attend in the quire, or of other officers belonging to 
the church ? and whether be those places supplied with 
persons fit and sufficient for the same, and if not, by 
whose fault it is ? n 

XVI. Item, Whether the choristers be well ordered, 
and the number of them furnished? and who hath the 
charge of catechising, and instructing of them in principles 
of i-eligion ? and whether are they so brought up ? 

XVII. Item, Whether is there care had for the due»o 
repairing of the cathedral church or chancel, and other 
isles, chapels, and edifices thereto adjoining, for stone, 
timber, glass, lead and iron, and all other necessaries 
thereto, or any part thereof belonging? and if there be 
default, by whom it is, and who ought to repair it ? n 

XVIII. Item, Wliether the officers of your church, 
namely the steward, treasurers, receivers, bursers, ac- 
countants, and such like, do yearly make a true account, 
and pay such money, as is due to the church upon their 
account ? and whether any such person be now indebted 30 
to the church ; who it is, and how much ? 

XIX. Item, Whether there be any of your number 
that are detected, or grievously suspected of any infamous 
crime, to the reproach of religion, or the place where 
they now live ? 35 

XX. Item, Whether any of the body of this church. 

i6i6.] Arekiiskop ANwt's vmtation articles. 167 

cw any other belonging to this church, be known, or 
▼diemently suspected to have bought for money, or other 
reward, the room or place, which he now holdeth among 
you, or any other his ecclesiastical preferments ? 
5 XXI. Item^ Whether the muniments and evidences 
of your church be safely kept and preserved from the 
gnawing of rats, mice, or other such vermin, and be kept 
diy from the injury of rain, and such other like offensive 
weather ? and whether they be so fit and orderly disposed 

■®in your muniment house, or be so registered in your 
books and ledgers, as that when need shall be, you may 
easily find out the same without much search ? 

XXII. Item, Whether the bishop's palaces, your own 
prebendaiy houses, and other edifices and chambers to 

>5 either of them belonging, are kept in all due and neces- 
sary reparations ? and if there be any notorious ruins and 
decays in the same, how long have the same continued, 
and what is the cause the same is not repaired and 
amended ? 


Ardiiepiac. Cam. Anno Chritd Reg. Angliae 

Oca Abbot 6. i6i6. Jacob. I. 14. 

Articles to be inquired of in the first metropolitical visitor- 
Hon of the most reverend father George archbishop of 
Canterbury^ in the year of our Lord God I6I6. 

The tenor of the oath to be ministered to the churchwardens 

and side-men. 

YOU shall swear that you and every of you shall duly 
consider and diligently inquire of all and eveiy of 

Articles SfC,] These are copied from an old edition without date 
printed at London by William Jaggard, a copy of which is preserved in 
the Bodleian (4to. C. 203. Art.) They difier slightly from the articles 

168 Archbishop Abbofs visUation artieUs. [CXXVIII*. 

these articles given you in charge ; and that all aflfection, 
favour, hatred, hope of reward and gain, or fear of dis- 
pleasure or malice set aside: you shall present all and 
every such person of or within your parish, as hath com- 
mitted any offence or made any defkult mentioned ins 
these or any of these articles ; or which are vebemently 
suspected or defamed of any such offence or default. 
Wherein you shall deal uprightly and fiilly, neither pre- 
senting n(»r sptiring to present any, contrary to truth ; hav- 
ing in this action God before your eyes, with an earnest lo 
zeal to maintain truth and to suppress vice. So help 
you God and the holy contents of this book. 

Conceimiitg the church, the ornametit^ thereof, and the 

churches possessiofis. 

Imprimis, Whether have you in your several churches 
and chapels the whole Bible of the largest volume, and 
the book of Common Prayer lately set forth by hists 
majesty's authority, both fairly and substantially bound; 
a font of stone, sot up in the ancient usual place ; a con- 
venient and decent communion table with a carpet of 
silk, or some other decent stuff, continually laid upon the 
table at time of divine service, and a fair linen cloth »> 
upon the same at the time of the receiving of the holy 
communion. And whether is the same table placed in 
such convenient sort within the chancel or church, as 
that the minister may be best heard in his prayer and 
administration, and that the greatest number may com-sj 
nmnicate. And whether is it so used out of time of 

issued by urchbibhop Bancroft. Similar articles were issued by arch- 
bisbop I^ud for the diocese of Winchester in 1635 (Bodl. 4to. C. 203. 
Art.) with such additions as grew out of the king's Instructions (N<». 
CXXX\ III.) and with strict regulations respecting church property 30 
and terriers, but without any of those directions on points of form and 
discipline which were afterwards treated as innovations. No«. CXLII1. 
and CXLV. 

I0i6.] JrMiihap Abbots visitation articles. 169 

divine service, as is not agreeable to the holy use of it, 
by sitting on it, and by throwing hats on it, and writing 
on it ; or is it abused to other profaner uses. And are 
the Ten Commandments set upon the east end of your 

5 church or chapel, where the people may best see and 
read them, and other sentences of holy scripture written 
on the wails likewise for that purpose. 

2. Item, Whether have you in your said church or 
chapel a convenient seat for your minister to read ser- 

■®vice in, together with a comely pulpit set up in a con- 
venient place, with a decent cloth or cushion for the 
same, a comely large surplice, a fair communion cup with 
a cover of silver, a flagon of silver, tin, or pewter to put 
the wine in, whereby it may be set upon the communion 

15 table at the time of the blessing thereof, with all other 
things and ornaments necessary for the celebration of 
divine service, and administration of the sacraments : and 
whether have you a strong chest for alms for the poor 
with three locks and keys, and another chest for keeping 

«othe books and ornaments of the church, and the register 
book: and whether have you a register book in parch- 
ment for christenings, weddings, and burials, and whether 
the same be kept in all points according to the canons in 
that behalf provided. And whether have you in your 

n said church or chapel a table set of the degrees wherein 
by law men are prohibited to marry. 

8. Whether are your church and chapels with the 
chancels thereof, and your parsonage or vicarage house, 
your parish almshouse and churchhouse in good repara- 

3otions: and are they employed to godly and their right 
holy uses. Is your church, chancel, and chapel decently 
and comely kept as well within as without, and the seats 
well maintained according to the 85th canon in that 
behalf provided. Whether your churchyard be well 

35 fenced and kept without abuse; and if not, in whose 
default the same is^ and what the defect or ftiult is. And 

1 70 Archbishop Aiboes msitatiaH ariiclei. [CXX VIII*. 

whether any person have encroached upon the ground of 
the churchyard ; or whether any person or persons have 
used any thing or place consecrated to holy use, profanely 
or wickedly. 

4. Whether have you the terrier of all the glebe lands, 5 
meadows, gardens, orchards, houses, stocks, implements, 
tenements, and portions of tithes (whether within your 
parish or without) belonging unto your parsonage or 
vicarage, taken by the view of honest men in your said 
parish. And whetljer the said terrier be laid up in theio 
bishop's registry ; and in whose hands any of them are 
now. And if you have no terrier already made in parch- 
ment, you the churchwardens and side-men, together 
with your parson or vicar, or in his absence with your 
minister, are to make diligent inquiry and presentment 15 
of the premises, and make subscribe and sign the said 
terrier as aforesaid. 

Concerning the ministers. 

Whether doth your minister distinctly and reverently 
say divine service u])on Sundays and holidays, and other 
days appointed to be observed by the book of Common m 
Prayer, as Wednesdays and Fridays, and the eves of eveiy 
Sunday and holiday, at fit and usual times. And doth 
your minister duly observe the orders, rites, and ceremo- 
nies prescribed in the said book of Common Prayer, as 
well in reading public prayers and the Litany, as also in >5 
administering the sacraments, solemnization of matri- 
mony, visiting the sick, burying the dead, churching of 
women, and all other like rites and offices of the 
church, in such manner and form as in the said book of 
Common Prayer he is enjoined, without any omission otzo 
addition. And doth he read the book of the last canons 
once yearly, and wear a surplice according to the said 

2. Doth your minister bid holidays and fiBisting days, 

i6i6.] ArekHnskop Ahbafs vmtation articles. 171 

as by the book of Common Prayer is appointed. And 
doth he give warning beforehand to the parishioners for 
the receiving of the holy communion, as the 22d canon 
requireth : and whether he doth administer the holy 

5 communion so often and at such times, as that every 
parishioner may receive the same at the least thrice in 
eveiy year, whereof once at Easter, as by the book of 
Common Prayer is appointed. And doth your minister 
receive the same himself on every day that he admi- 

■onistereth it to others, and use the words of institution 
according to the Book at every time that the bread and 
wine is renewed, accordingly as by the proviso of the 
Slst canon is directed. And doth he deliver the bread 
and wine to every communicant severally. Whether he 

15 hath admitted to the holy communion any offender or 
schismatic contrary to the 26th and 27th constitutions, 
or received any to the communion being not of his own 
cure, or put any from the communion who are not pub- 
licly infamous for any notorious crime. Doth he use 

10 the sign of the cross in baptism, or baptize in any basin 
or other vessel, and not in the usual font : or admit any 
father to be godfather to his own child, or such which 
have not received the holy communion ; or baptize any 
children that were not bom in the parish, or wilfully 

35 refuse to baptize any infant in his parish being in danger, 
having been informed of the weakness of the said child : 
and whether the child died through his default without 

8. Whether hath your minister married any without a 

30 ring, or without banns published three several Sundays 
or holidays in time of divine service in the several 
churches or chapels of their several abode, according to 
the book of Common Prayer; or in times prohibited, 
albeit the banns were thrice published, without a license 

35 or dis}>ensation from the archbishop, the bishop of the 
diocese, or his chancellor, first obtained in that behalf; 

1 TS Archbishop Abbot's msUatum ariides. [GXXVIII*. 

or not betwixt the hours of eight and twelve in the 
forenoon ; or have married any in any private bouse ; or 
if the parties be under the age of twenty-one years, 
before their parents or governors have signified their 
consent unto him. 5 

4. Doth he refuse to bury any which ought to be in- 
terred in Christian burial, or defer the same longer than 
he should, or bury any in Christian burial which by the 
constitutions of the church of England ought not to be 
80 interred. 10 

5. Is your minister a preacher allowed. If yea, then 
by whom. If not, whether doth he procure some who 
are lawfully licensed, to preach monthly amongst you at 
the least. 

6. Doth your minister (being licensed) preach usually 15 
according to the canons either in his ovm cure, or in 
some other church or chaj>el near adjoining, where no 
preacher is; and how often he hath been negligent in 
that behalf: and doth he preach standing and with his 
hat off. Or whether doth he or his curate upon every «o 
Sunday when there is no sermon read an homily, or 
some part thereof, according as he ought to do. Or in 
case he be not licensed to preach, doth he take upon 
him to preach or expound the scriptures in his own cure 
or elsewhere: if so, then you are to present the same, 35 
the time and place, when and where he did it. 

7. Doth your minister use to pray for the king's 
majesty, king James, and for the queen's majesty, the 
prince, and all their royal progeny, with addition of such 
style and titles as are due to his highness; and exhort jo 
the people to obedience to his majesty, and all magis- 
trates in authority under him. 

8. Is your minister continually resident upon his bene- 
fice, and how long time hath he been absent; and in 
case he be licensed to be absent, whether doth he causers 
his cure to be sufficiently supplied, according to the 

i6i6.] ArMMap Abbof 8 msitatum articles. 173 

canonB: or in case he hath another benefice, whether 
doth he supply his absence by a curate sufficiently 
licensed to preach in the cure where he himself is not 
resident. Or otherwise in case the sniallness of the 

5 living cannot find a preaching minister, doth he preach 
at both his benefices usually. 

9. Doth your minister or curate serve any more cures 
than one. If yea, then what other cure doth he serve, 
and how far are they distant. 

»o 10. Doth your minister every Sunday and holiday 
before evening prayer, for half an hour or more, examine 
and instruct the youth and ignorant persons of his parish 
in the Ten Commandments, Articles of the Belief, and in 
the Lord's Prayer, and the Sacraments, according as it is 

<5 prescribed in the Catechism set forth in the book of 
Common Prayer. 

11. Doth your minister in the rogation days go in 
perambulation of the circuit of the parish, saying and 
using the prayers, suffrages, and thanksgiving to God, 

so appointed by law, according to his duty; thanking God 
for his blessings, if there be plenty on the earth, or other- 
wise, to pray for his grace and favour, if there be a fear 
of scarcity. 

12. Hath your minister admitted any woman, begotten 
»5 with child in adultery or fornication, to be churched 

without license of the ordinary. 

18. Hath your minister or any other preacher, baptized 
children, churched any woman, or ministered the holy 
communion, in any private house, otherwise than by law 

30 is allowed. 

14. Doth your miuister, being a preacher, endeavour 
and labour diligently to reclaim the popish recusants in 
his parish from their errors (if there be any such abiding 
in your parish). Or whether is your parson, vicar, or 

35 curate, over-conversant with or a favourer of recusants, 
whereby he is suspected not to be sincere in religion. 

174 Archbishop Abbofa viiitation artides. [GXXVIII*. 

15. Hath your minister taken upon him to appoint any 
public or private feasts, prophecies, or exercises, not ap- 
proved by law or public authority ; or hath used Ut meet 
in any private house or place, with any person or persons, 
there to consult how to impeach or deprave the book of « 
Common Prayer, or the doctrine or discipline of the 
church of England. If yea, then you shall present, 
them all. 

1 6. Hath your minister stayed the publication of any 
excommunications or suspensions; or doth he every half«« 
year denounce in his parish church all such of his parish 
as are excommunicated, and persevere therein without 
seeking to be absolved ; or doth he wittingly and will- 
ingly keep company with such as are excommunicate. 
And hath he admitted into your church any person ex- 'S 
communicate, without a certificate of his absolution from 
the ordinary or other competent judge. 

17. Doth your minister carefully look to the relief of 
the poor, and from time to time call upon his parishionen 
to give somewhat, as they can spare, to godly and cha»io 
ritable uses, especially when they make their testaments. 

18. Whether your minister, or any having taken holy 
orders, being now silenced or suspended, or any other 
person of your knowledge, or as you have heard, hold any 
conventicles, or doth preach in any place, or use any other 25 
form of divine service than is appointed in the book of 
Common Prayer. If yea, then you are to present their 
names, and with whom. 

19. Whether is your curate licensed to serve by the 
bishop of this diocese, or by any other ; and by whom, jo 

20. Doth your minister use such decency and comeli- 
ness in his apparel, as by the 47th canon is enjoined : and 
is ho of sober behaviour, and one that doth not nae 
such bodily labour, as is not seemly for his function and 
calling. JI5 

21. Is your minister noted or defamed to have ob- 

i6i6.] JrehHshop Aibcf 8 visitation articles. 175 

tallied bis benefice or his orders by simony ; or any other 
way defamed to be a simoniacal person ; or any way noted 
to be a schismatic or schismatically affected, or reputed 
to be an incontinent person, or doth t^ble or lodge any 

5 such in bis house. Or is he a frequenter of taverns, inns, 
or alehouses, or any place suspected for ill rule. Or is he 
a common drunkard, common gamester, or player at dice, 
a swearer, or one that applieth himself not at his study, 
or is otherwise offensive or scandalous to his function or 

lo ministry. 

22. Doth your preacher or lecturer read divine service 
and minister the sacraments twice a year at least in his 
own person, according to the canons. 


23. Doth any in your parish take upon him to teach 
$ school without license of the ordinary ; and is he con- 
formable to the religion now established. And doth he 
bring bis scholars to the church to hear divine service 
and sermons. And doth he instruct his scholars in the 
grounds of the religion now established in this church of 

9o England; and is he careful and diligent to benefit his 
scholars in learning. 

Parish Clerks and SeMons. 

24. Have you a fit parish clerk, aged twenty years at 
least, of honest conversation, able to read and write. 
Whether are his and the sextons' wages paid without 

'5 fraud, according to the ancient custom of your parish. If 
not, then by whom are they so defrauded or denied. By 
whom are they chosen ; and whether the said clerk be 
approved by the ordinary ; and hath he taken an oath as 
in such cases is fit and required ; and is he diligent in his 

30 office and serviceable to the minister ; and doth he take 
upon him to meddle with any thing above his office, as 
churching of women, burying the dead, or such like. 

176 Archbishop Abbot's visUatum artides. [CXXVIII «. 

25. Doth your clerk or sexton keep the church dean, 
the doors locked. Is any thing lost or spoiled in the 
church through his default. Doth he suffer any unrea- 
sonable singing or any profane exercise in your church. 
Or doth he, when any is passing out of this life, neglect 5 
to toll a bell, having notice thereof. 

Concerfiing t/i€ parishioners. 

Whether any of your parishioners, being sixteen years 
of age or upwards, or others lodging or commonly resort- 
ing to any house within your parish, do wilfully absent 
themselves from your parish church upon Sundays or'o 
holidays at morning or evening prayers; or who come 
late to church and depart from church before service be 
done upon the said days ; or who do not reverently be- 
have themselves during the time of divine service, de- 
voutly kneeling when the general confession of sins, the 15 
Litany, the Ten Commandments, and all prayers and coUectB 
are read, and using all due and lowly reverence, when the 
blessed name of the Lord Jesus Christ is mentioned ; and 
standing up when the Articles of the Belief are read ; or 
who do cover their heads in the church during the timew 
of divine service, unless it be in case of necessity, in which 
case thoy may wear a nightcap or coif; or who do give 
themselves to babbling, talking, or walking, and are not 
attentive to hear the word preached or read ; or reading 
or praying during the time aforesaid. Whether any of 15 
your parish being of sixteen years of age or upwards do 
not receive the holy communion in your church thrice 
every year, whereof once at Easter; and whether they 
do not devoutly kneel at the receiving thereof. 

2. Whether any of your parishioners, being admonished ^o 
thereof, do not send their children, servants, and appren- 
tices to the minister to be catechised upon such Sun- 
days and holidays as are appointed. Or whether any 
of them do refuse to come ; or if they come, refuse to 

i6i6.] ArchMshoji Abbofs visHation articles. 177 

learn those instructions set forth in the book of Common 

3. Whether any of your parish do entertain within 
their house any sojourner, common guests, or other per- 

5 sons, who reflise to frequent divine service, or receive 
the holy communion as aforesaid. Present their names, 
their qualities, or conditions. 

4. What recusant papists are there in your parish. Pre- 
sent their names, qualities, or conditions. Whether keep 

»«they any schoolmaster in their house, which cometh not 
to church to hear divine service and receive the commu- 
nion. What is his name, and how long hath he taught 
there or elsewhere. 

5. Whether any of the said popish recusants do labour 
»5to seduce and withdraw others from the religion now 

established ; or instruct their families or children in ]>opish 
religion ; or refuse to entertain any, especially in place of 
greatest service or trust, but such as concur with them in 
their papistry, 
ao 6, How long have the said popish recusants abstained 
from divine service, or from the communion as afore- 

7. Is there any in your parish that retain undefaced, or 
sell, utter, or disperse, any popish books or writings, or 

»5 other books, libels, or writings of any sectaries, touching 
the religion, state, or government ecclesiastical, of this 
kingdom of England, or keep any ornaments of super- 
stition uncancelled or defaced. 

8. Whether have you any in your parish, which hereto- 
30 fore being popish recusants or sectaries, have since re- 
formed themselves, and come to church to hear divine 
service and receive the sacraments. If yea; then who 
they are; and how long since have they so reformed 
themselves; and whether they still remain and abide in 

35 that conformity. 

9. Is there any in your parish that refuse to have their 



178 ArekiUhop Aibae$ visUaUan arUel^ [OXXV^I^ 

children baptized, or themselves to receive the cominii* 
niou at the hands of your minister, taking exception 
against him; and what causes or exceptions do they 
allege; or have any married wives refused to come to 
church according to the book of Common Prayer, to give 5 
God thanks after their childbirth, for their safe deliver- 
ance. And whether do any of or in your parish, refuse 
to have their children baptized in your parish church, 
according to the form prescribed in the book of Common 

10. Whether any of your parish having a preacher to 
their parson, vicar, or curate, do absent themselves firom 
his sermons, and resort to other places to hear other 
preachers. Or whether any of your parish do commu- 
nicate or baptize their children in any other parish. 15 

11. What persons within your parish for any offence, 
contumacy, or crime of ecclesiastical cognizance, do stand 
excommunicate. Present their names, and for what cause 
they are excommunicated, and how long they have so 
stood, and what person or persons do wittingly and usually «o 
keep them company. 

12. Whether any not being in orders do execute any 
priestly or ministerial office in your church, chapel, or 
churchyard, or what be their names. 

13. Whether any in your parish, that having hereto- 15 
fore taken upon him the order of priesthood or deacon, 
hath since relinquished the same, and lives a lajrman, 
neglecting his vocation. 

14. Have any person in your parish quarrelled, or 
stricken, or used any violence to your minister, or have 90 
stricken or quarrelled with any other person within your 
church or churchyard, or demeaned himself disorderly in 
the church by filthy or profane talk, or any other lewd or 
immodest behaviour; or have disturbed the minister in 
time of divine service or sermon; or have libellcKl or^ 
spoken slanderous words against your minister, to the 

i6i6.] ArMiikop Jbbof8 visitation articles. 1 79 

sandal of his vocation ; or defamed any of his neighbours, 
touching any crime of ecclesiastical cognizance. 

15. Whether any of or in your parish without consent 
of the ordinary, or other lawful authority, have caused 

5 any to do penance, or to be censured or punished for any 
matter of ecclesiastical cognizance, by any vestry meet- 
ings, or otherwise by their own authority ; or have taken 
any money or commutation for the same. Present their 
names that have done it ; and who have been so punished; 

to in what manner and after what cause. 

16. Whether any person in your parish do exercise any 
trade or labour, buy or sell, or keep other shops or 
warehouses, upon any Sunday or holiday by themselves, 
their servants, or apprentices ; or have otherwise profaned 

»5the said days, contrary to the orders of the church of 
England. And whether there be any inn-keepers, alehouse- 
keepers, victuallers, or other persons that permit any per- 
sons in their houses to eat, drink, or play during the time 
of divine service or sermon, or reading the homilies in 

*o the forenoon or afternoon upon thosedays. 

17. Whether the first day of August and the fifth day 
of November be kept holy, and thanksgiving made to 
God for his majesty's and this state's happy deliverance, 
according to the ordinance on that behalf. 

»5 18. Whether any of your parish hold or frequent any 
conventicles or private congregations, or make or maintain 
any constitutions agreed upon in any such assemblies. 
Or any that do write or publicly or privately speak 
against the book of Common Prayer, or any thing therein 

^o contained, or against any of the Articles of Religion agreed 
upon in anno 1562, or against the king's supremacy in 
causes ecclesiastical, or against the oath of supremacy or 
of allegiance, as pretending the same to be unlawful and 
not warrantable by the word of God. Or against any of 

35 the rites or ceremonies of the church of England now 
established. Or against the government of the church of 

N 2 

180 Archbishop Ahhofs visitati/m articles. [CXXVIII*. 

England, under the king's most excellent majesty, by 
archbishops, bishops, deans, archdeacons, and other officers 
of the same ; affirming that the same is repugnant to the 
word of God, and that the said ecclesiastical officers are 
not lawfiilly ordained. Or whether there be any authors, s 
maintainers, or favourers of heresy or schism, or that be 
suspected to be Anabaptists, Libertines, Brownists, of the 
Family of Love, or of any other heresy or schism. Present 
their names. 

19. Whether any in your parish have married within "> 
the degrees by law prohibited, or any couple in your 
parish being lawfully married, live apart one from the 
other, without due separation of the law; or any that 
have been divorced, which keep company with any other 
at bed or at board; and when and where were they 15 

Physicians^ Surgeons and Midwives. 

20. How many physicians, chirurgeons, or midwives 
have you in your parish. How long have they used their 20 
several sciences or offices, and by what authority. And how 
have they demeaned themselves therein, and what skill 
are they accounted to be in their profession. 

21. Whether do any persons administer the goods of 
the dead without lawful authority; or suppress the last 25 
will of the dead. Or are there in your parish any wills not 
yet proved, or goods of the dead, dying intestate, left un- 
administered, by authority in that behalf. You shall not 
fail to present the executors and all others faulty therein : 
and also how many persons being possessed of any goods 30 
and chattels have died within your parish since the 17th 
day of April 1613. 

22. Whether any withhold the stock of the church, or 
any goods or other things given to good and charitable 
uses. 35 

23. Whether your hospitals and almshouses, and other 

1 6 1 6.] Archbishop A bbofs msitation articles. 1 81 

such houses and corporations, founded to good and cha- 
ritable uses, and the lands, possessions, and goods of the 
same, be ordered and disposed of as they should be. And 
do the masters, governors, fellows, and others of the said 
5 houses and corporations behave and demean themselves 
according to the godly ordinances and statutes of their 
several foundations. 

24. Whether have you any in your parish to your 
knowledge, or by common fame or report, which have 
lo committed adultery, fornication, or incest; or any which 
have impudently bragged or boasted that he or she have 
lived incontinently with any person or persons whatsoever : 
or any that hath attempted the chastity of any woman, or 
solicited any woman to have the carnal knowledge of her 
15 body : or which are commonly reputed to be common 
drunkards, blasphemers of God's holy name, common 
swearers, common slanderers of their neighbours, and 
sowers of discord, filthy and lascivious talkers, usurers, 
simoniacal persons, bawds, or harbourers of women with 
2o child which be unmarried, or conveying or suffering them 
to go away before they have made satisfaction to the 
congregation : or any that having heretofore been pre- 
sented or suspected of any the aforesaid crimes, have for 
that cause departed your parish, and are now returned 
25 again : or any which have used any enchantments, sorceries, 
incantations, or witchcrafts, which are not made felony by 
the statutes of this realm : or any which have committed 
any perjury in any ecclesiastical court, in an ecclesiastical 
cause ; oi* which have committed any forgery, punishable 
30 by the ecclesiastical laws, and the procurers and abettors 
of the said offences. You shall truly present the names 
of all and singular the said offenders, and with whom 
they have committed the said offences, in case they have 
not been publicly punished to your knowledge for the 
35 same crimes. 

182 Archbishop Abbot's f^isOatum articles. [CXXVIII^ 

Touching the Churchwardens and Sidemen. 

1. Whether you and the churchwardens, questmen, or 
sidemen, from time to time do and have done their dili- 
gences in not suffering any idle person to abide either in 
the churchyard or church-porch in service or sermon time ; 
but causing them either to come into the church to hears 
divine service or to depart, and not disturb such as be 
hearers there. And whether have they and do you dili- 
gently see the parishioners duly resort to the church every 
Sunday and holiday and there to remain during divine 
service and sermon. And whether you or your predeces- '^ 
sors, churchwardens there, suffer any plays, feasts, drink- 
ings or any other profane usages to be kept in your 
church, chapel, or churchyards ; or have suffered to your 
and their uttermost power and endeavour, any person or 
persons to be tippling or drinking in any inn or victualling «s 
house in your parish during the time of divine service or 
sermon on Sundays and holidays. 

2. Whether and how often have you admitted any to 
preach within your church or chapel, which was not 
sufficiently licensed. And whether you, together with*© 
your minister, have not taken diligent heed and care that 
every of your parishioners, being of sixteen years of age 
or upwards, have received thrice every year, as aforesaid. 
And also that no strangers have usually come to your 
church from their own parish church. *s 

3. Whether have there been provided against every 
communion, a sufficient quantity of fine white bread, and 
of good and wholesome wine for the communicants that 
shall receive. And whether that wine be brought in a 
clean and sweet standing pot of pewter, or of other purer 50 

4. Whether were you chosen by the consent of the 
minister and the parishioners. And have the late church- 
wardens given up a just account for their time, and de- 

i6 1 6.] ArehHtktp MM$ fiitUatum artidea. 183 

livered to thdr sucoessors the money and other things 
belonging to the diorch, which was in their hands. And 
are the alms of the church faithfully distributed to the 
use of the poor. 

Concerning ecclesiastical magistrates and officers. 

5 1. Whether you do know, or have heard of any pay- 
menty composition, or agreement to or with any ecclesi- 
astical magistrate Judge, or officer for winking at or sparing 
to punish any person for any offence of ecclesiastical cog- 
nizance ; or for suppressing or concealing of any recusant 
lo or any other offender in the cases aforesaid. What sum 
of money or other consideration hath been received or 
provided by or to any of them in that respect ; by whom 
and with whom. 

2. Hath any person within your parish paid or promised 
15 any sum of money or other reward for commutation of 

penance for any crime of ecclesiastical cognizance. If so, 
then with whom, when and for what ; and how hath the 
same been employed. 

3. Are your ecclesiastical judges and their substitutes 
M masters of arts or bachelors of the laws at the least, 

learned and practised in the civil and ecclesiastical laws, 
men of good life and fame, zealously affected in religion, 
and just and upright in executing their offices. Have 
they heard any matter of office privately in their cham- 
ps bers, without their sworn registers* or their deputies' 

4. Do you know or have you heard that any ecclesi- 
astical judge, officer, or minister, have received or taken 
any extraordinary fees, or other rewards or promises, by 

30 any ways or means, directly or indirectly, of any person 
or persons whatsoever, either for the granting of the 
administration of the goods and chattels of those that 
have died intestate to one before another, or for allotting 
of larger portions of the goods and chattels of those that 

184 Archbishop Abbotts visitiMium articles, [CXXVIII*. 

have died intestate, to one more than to another ; or for 
allowing large and unreasonable accounts made by exe- 
cutors or administrators ; or for giving them "Quietus est," 
or discharges without inventory or account, to defraud 
creditors, legatories, or those who are to have portions- 5 
And what sums of money do you know, or have you 
heard, that any ecclesiastical judge or oflBicer hath taken 
out of the state of any dying intestate, upon pretence to 
bestow the same " in pios usus :" and how have the same 
been bestowed. >« 

5. Hath any ecclesiastical magistrate, judge, officer, or 
any other exercising ecclesiastical jurisdiction within this 
your diocese, or any advocate, register, proctor, clerks, 
apparitors, or other minister belonging to the same eccle- 
siastical courts, exacted or taken by any ways or means, 15 
directly or indirectly, extraordinary or greater fees than 
are due and accustomed. And whether is there a table 
for the rates of all fees set up in their several courts and 
offices. And whether have they sent or suffered any 
process to go out of the ecclesiastical courts otherwise «« 
than by law they ought. Or have they taken upon them 
the office of informers or promoters to the said courts, or 
any other way abused themselves in their offices contrary 
to the law and canons in that behalf provided. 

6. What number of apparitors has every several judge 35 
ecclesiastical, and wherein and in what manner is the coun- 
try overburdened by them : and wherein have they caused 
or summoned any to appear in the said courts without a 
presentment or citation first had : or whether have they 
threatened any to prosecute them in the said courts, if 3® 
they would not give them some rewards : and what bribes 
in that behalf have they taken. 

If you know of any other default or crime of ecclesias- 
tical cognizance, you are to j)resent the same by virtue of 
your oaths. 

The minister of every parish may and ought to join in 


1619.] Fur an uniform manner of prayer before sermon. 1 85 

presentment with the churchwardens and sidemen; and 
if they will not present, the minister may and ought him- 
self to present the defaults and crimes aforesaid: and 
there must be several presentments made to every several 
s article : and the minister, churchwardens, and swom-men 
are to meet and confer about the said presentments, and 
answering of every of the aforesaid articles. 


Archiepisc. Caiit. 

Anno Christi 

Re^^. Angli;e 

Geo. Abbot 9. 


Jacob. I. 17. 

The archbuhop of Canterhurjfs letter for an uniform 
manner of prayer before sermon, — Reg. IT. Abbot, fol. 
181. b. 

MY very good lord. His majesty finding partly in his 
own chapel, but much more in his progresses abroad, 

iothat those who preach before him do in their prayers use 
several and unfit forms, as sometimes naming king James, 
and nothing else, sometimes using uncertain words, in 
declaring him to be the defender of the faith, and the like, 
for being supreme governor in causes both ecclesiastical 

IS and temporal, hath commanded me to direct my letters 
unto the bishops of this province of Cant, to take some 
course for the reformation of the same ; as also for the 
omitting to pray for archbishops and bishops according to 

The archbishop of Canterbury's letter'] For the form of prayer here 
10 required to be used see canon 55. The " bidding prayer" of earlier 
times may be seen in N®*. II. and XLIII. The grievance of which 
the king complained as to the omission of some of the royal titles, 
had also been treated as a ground of complaint in the time of his 
predecessor : •• another shall be called in question for praying for her 
25 majesty, without the additions of her style ; whereas the very form of 
prayer in the book of Common Prayer hath ' thy servant Elizabeth * 
and no more." Bacon's Works, vol. ii. p. 5 1 7. 

186' For an uniform manner of prayer before eerm/tm. [CXXIX. 

the form laudably used in the church of England ; where- 
unto his majesty is the rather moved, because he cannot 
but conceive that these disorders are frequent in market 
towns and country parishes, when before his own royal 
presence there is so strange an omission. Now because 5 
in the last canons there is a special and particular provi- 
sion for the same, and a direct form set down, to the end 
that there may be an uniformity in the church ; I do 
hereby pray your lordship, and in his majesty's name 
require you to use all the carefulness that you can, for lo 
the accomplishing of the same, according to the canon, 
within your diocese, which will be easily done, if yourself 
shall require so much of the dean and chapter of your 
cathedral church, and give in charge unto your arch- 
deacons and chancellor, that in their visitations they do n 
strictly warn the clergy under their jurisdiction, that they 
at all times, and in all places, where they preach, do 
observe the same ; letting them know, that if hereafter, 
out of any humour or neglect they transgress in this kind, 
they are like to undergo such censures ecclesiastical, orw 
otherwise, as are fit to be inflicted upon so high a con- 
tempt. And because I do receive complaint almost out 
of all countries, that the churches are neither repaired, 
nor seemly adorned, as is fit for the house of God ; I pray 
your lordship, that together with this other charge your^ 
subordinate officers may stir up your clergy in solemn 
sort in their sermons, to call upon the people for reform- 
ing this so irreligious an abuse. And so hoping to receive 
some report from your lordship before it be long, what 
is done in this behalf, with my hearty commendations 1 5© 
leave you' to the Almighty. From Lambeth the ninth of 
October, mdcxix. 

i6ai.3 Diipeiuatia.eiim Georgio^arckitp. Cantuar, etc. 187 


Archiepitc. Cane Anno Christi Reg. Anglis 

Geo. Abbot II. 1611. Jacob. I. 19. 

DUpensaiio cum Georgia^ archiepiscopo Cantuariensi^ super 
irregiUaritate. — Ex Reliq. Spelm. p. 124. 

REVERENDISSIMO in Christo patri Georgio, pro- 
videntia diviua Cantuariensi archiepiscopo, totius 
Anglise primati et metropolitano, Johannes Lincoln. Geor- 
gius London. Lancelotus Winton. Samuel Norwicen. 

5 Thomas Coven, et Lich. Arthurus Bathon. et Wellen. 
Nicolaus Elien. et Georgius Cicestrensis, permissione 
divina respective episcopi de provincia Cantuar. salutem 
et gratiam in Domino sempitemam. Recepimus literas 
commissionales a serenissimo in Christo principe ac do- 

lomino nostrOy domino .Tacobo, Dei gratia Anglise, Scotise, 
Franciae, et Hibemiae rege, fidei defensore, etc. sub magno 

Dispensatio cum Georgio] Great as were the anomalies both of 
character and of conduct in king James, there were few acts of his 
reign more inconsistent in themselves or more pregnant with important 

15 consequences than the elevation of Dr. George Abbot to the province 
of Canterbury. The king was uniform in his aversion to the puritans ; 
and the archbishop was known to be leniently, if not favourably, dis- 
posed towards them. The king was extremely jealous on the subject 
of the prerogative ; and the archbishop, as he afterwards shewed by 

90 refusing to Ucense Dr. Sibthorp's sermon on apostolical obedience, 
could resolutely oppose it It may be inferred from lord Clarendon's 
well-known description of him, (Hist. Reb. vol. i. p. 135.) that his 
appointment was highly distasteful to the court ; but whatever opinion 
may be formed of his positive qualifications, (and he certainly possessed 

35 many high endowments,) it is clear that the violent contrast afforded 
between his administration of the church, and that of the prelates who 
immediately preceded and followed him, and that the many personal 
altercations, which could not fail to accompany his appointment, were 
directly the cause of great danger to the establishment, and ultimately 

188 Dispensatio cum peargio^ archiepiscopo [CXXX. 

sigillo Angliae confectas et nobis directas, quarum tenor 
sequitur in hire verba: 

Jacobus, Dei gratia Anglia?, Scotiae, Franciae, et Hi- 
berniiv rex, fidei defensor, etc. reverendo in Christo patri, 
et perdilecto et perquam fideli consiliario nostro Johanni,5 
episcopo Lincoln, custodi magni sigilli nostri Angliae, ac 
reverendo in Christo patri Georgio, episcopo London, ac 
reverendo in Christo patri, ac perdilecto et perquam fideli 
consiliario nostro Lanceloto, episcopo Winton. necnon 
reverendis in Christo patribus Samueli Norwicen. ThorasB lo 
Coven, et Lichen. Nicolao Elien. Arthuro Bathon. et 
Wellen. et Georgio Cicestren. respective episcopis, salu- 
teni et gratiani. 

Huniili nobis supplicatione exposuit reverendissimus in 
Christo i)ater, perdilectus et perfidelis consiliarius noster 15 
Georgius, Cantuar. archiej)iscopus, quod cum nuper in 
parco quodam vocato Branizil-park, apud Bramzil in 
coinitatu nostro Southanipton. per honorandum virum 
ejusdem i)arci dominum rogatus et invitatus daniam 
sagitta figere destiiiaret, debita adhibita diligentia. neao 

the occasion of its downfall. These evils were in themselves suffici- 
ently serious and aggravated : but they were greatly increased by the 
lamentable occurrence that led to the necessity for this dispensation, 
and embarrassed him in the discharge of his duties for the rest of his 
life. It occurred too at a time when several bishops elect were waiting 25 
for consecration, (Dr. William Laud being one of them,) who would 
naturally feel anxious that no possible suspicion should attach to the 
canonical authority of the archbishop, or to his power of conveying to 
themselves the spiritual functions of the episcopal order. The occur- 
rence and its consequences were announced by the lord keeper Williams 30 
to the duke of Buckingham, in the following manner (Cabala, p. 284.): 
*' His grace, upon this accident, is by the common law of England to 
forfeit all his estate unto his majesty, and by the canon law (which is 
in force with us) irregular ipso facto, and so suspended from all eccle- 
siastical function, until he be again restored by his superior ; which, I 35 
take it, is the king's majesty, in this rank and order of ecclesiastical 
jurisdictions." " The king," savs bishop llacket, (Life of Abp.W^illiams, 
p. 67,) " saw that whether the person of the archbishop were tainted 

i62i.] C€Mtuarien$i^ swper irregularitate, 189 

quid inde periculi cuiquam eveniret, forte tamen accidit, 
ut sagitta ab eo emissa, et in ferani directa, in quendam 
Petnim Hawkins, adtunc parci praedicti custodem, im- 
provide et temere se periculo ictus sagittae exponentem, 

set per locum ubi a praefato archiepiscopo conspici non 
potuit, cum impetu transcurrentem incideret, eique bra- 
chium sauciaret; ex quo quidem vulnere infra unius 
horae spatium expirabat. Et quamvis propter hujusmodi 
homicidium casuale nulla praefati archiepiscopi culpa, sed 

loipsius occisi temeritate contingens, idem reverendissimus 
pater bona fretus conscientia, se nullam omnino irregula- 
ritatera incurrisse, persuasissimum habeat ; provida tamen 
animi circumspectione, et ut omnis infirmorum mentibus 
scrupulus eximatur, secum a nobis super omni et omni- 

i5moda irregularitate, et irregularitatis nota, aut suspicione, 
8i quara praemissorum ratione contraxisse forsitan aliqui- 
bus videri possit, ad cautelam et ex superabundanti dis- 
pensari humiliter supplicavit. Sciatis igitur, quod nos 
petitionis hujusmodi vim et efficaciam regie animo et pio 

loaffectu ponderantes, et de veritate praemissorum solicita 

by this fact or not, yet his metropolitical function was unsettled in 
many men's opinions : he heard that the acts of spiritual courts were 
onsped, and came to no end. till sentence were pronounced one way or 
other by the supreme authority. Therefore a commission was directed 

35 from his majesty to ten persons to meet together for this purpose 
aboat the beginning of October." The result of their deliberations was 
that the king appointed a commission of bishops, and by their means 
" assoiled the archbishop from all irregularity, scandal, or infamation, 
pronouncing him to be capable to use all metropolitical authority." 

30 The bishops elect still entreating, as a case of conscience, that they 
might receive consecration from other hands, their prayer was granted ; 
but his canonical authority was fully admitted afterwards, and bishop 
Laud himself acknowledged it, by acting with him at a subsequent con- 
secration in the year 1628. The remembrance however of this period 

35 was an occasion of mourning and dejection to the archbishop for the 
remainder of his life. Bishop Hacket's Life of Abp. Williams, fol. p. 
68. Collier, vol. ii. p. 720. Biog. Brit. art. Abbot. Heylin's Laud, p. 
87. Rushworth, vol. i. p. 61. 

190 DUpeMoHo cum Oeorpio, orekUpiBeopo [CXXX. 

indagatione certiores iucti, et ut piam reyerendismmi 
patris intentionem hac in re sequamur, et ad abundan- 
tiorem cautelam perfidelis consiliarii nostri, optimeque de 
ecclesia et republica merit! prsesulis, statum, fomam et 
dignitatem, nostri etiam patrocinii munimine tueri et fir- 5 
mare dignoscamur, ad prsesentem venimus dispositionem ; 
Yobisque vel aliquibus sex Testnim, quorum vos prae&t. 
Johannem Lincoln. Georgium London. Laneelotum 
Winton. et Samuelem Norwicen. respective episcopos, 
quatuor esse volumus, de quorum etiam fide, judicio, et lo 
industria plurimum confidimus, mandamus, et de gratia 
nostra speciali, et ex auctoritate nostra regia suprema et 
ecclosiastica, qua fungimur, pro nobis, baeredibus, et sue- 
cessoribus nostris damns et plenam concedimus iacultatem 
et potestatem per prsesentes, quatenus vos vel aliqui sex 15 
vestrum, quorum vos praefatos Johannem Lincoln. Gteor- 
gium London. Laneelotum Winton. et Samuelem Nor- 
wicen. respective episcopos, quatuor esse volumus, cum 
prsefato reverendissimo patre super omni et omnimodo 
juris vel facti defectu, censura sive poena aliqua canonica 3q 
et ecclesiastica, prapsertim vero irregularitate omni sen 
irregularitatis nota, si quae forsitan ratione prsemissorum 
contracta fuit, vel quibusdam contracta esse videatur, 
utque in susceptis ordinibus et jurisdictionibus secundum 
concreditam sibi ratione ordinis, et arcbiepiscopatus sui^s 
potestatem libere ministrare, frui, exercere, et gaudere 
valeat, ad majorem cautelam dispensetis, ac csetera omnia 
et singula, quae ad statum, commodum, et honorem pr»- 
fati reverendissimi patris conservandum et corroborandum 
in hac parte necessaria fuerint, sen quomodolibet oppor-3<> 
tuna, faciatis; et dispensationem bujusmodi, capteraque 
sic, ut praefertur, j>er vos aut aliquos sex vestrum, quorum 
vos praefatos Johannem Lincoln. Georgium London 
Ijancelotum Winton. et Samuelem Norwicen. respective 
episcopos, quatuor esse volumus, facienda in debita juris 35 
forma concepta, et in scripta redacta, sigillisque vestris 

i6ai.} Ckmtikiriensi, miper irregukmtate. 191 

wa sigillo aliquo anctentico munita, preeiato archiepiscopo 
tradere non differatis. Qnam quidem dispensationera, 
cieteraque sic, ut praefertur, per vos aut aliquos sex ves- 
tnun, quorum vos prseiatos Johannem Lincoln. Georgium 

5 London. Lancelotum Winton. et Samuelem Norwicen. 
respective episcopos, quatuor esse volumus, peragenda 
sub magno insuper sigillo nostro Angliae confirmari volu- 
mus, et super his prsefati magni sigilli nostri custodi aliis- 
que cancellariffi nostrse ministris quibuscunque expresse 

lo mandamus, et plenam tenore pra^sentium concedimus 
potestatem. Teste meipso apud Westmon. vicesimo 
secundo die Novembris, anno regni nostri Angli», Fran- 
ciae, et Hibemiae decimo nono, et Scotiae lv. 

Secundum tenorera et exigentiam literarum commis- 

15 sionalium prserecitatarum, et ad eximendum omnem scni- 
pulum ab infirmorum mentibus, siquis forsitan sit, aut 
fuerit in ea parte conceptus ; nos prsedicti Johannes Lin- 
coln. Georgius London. Lancelotus Winton. Samuel 
Norwicen. Thomas Coven, et Liehfeld. Arthurus Bathon. 

10 et Wellen. Richardus Elien. et Georgius Cicestren. re- 
spective episcopi, Dei nomine primitus invocato, ac Deum 
pre oculis solum habentes, et considerantes atque pro 
certo habentes, quod dicta venatio, cui per te data erat 
opera, quando dictum casuale homicidium (te nihil tale 

«5 suspicante) accidebat, erat modesta, decens, et quieta, et 
quod debita per te adhibita erat diligentia in dicta vena- 
tione ad pnecavendum, ne quid periculi alicui inde eve- 
niret, tecum prsefato Georgio, archiepiscopo Cantuariensi, 
super omni irregularitate et irregularitatis nota, si quam 

30 forsitan ratione casualis homicidii sive mortis prsefati 
Petri Hawkins incurristi, vel aliquibus incurrisse videaris, 
ad omnem et qualemcunque juris effectum dispen- 
samus ; teque prsefatum Georgium, archiepiscopum Can- 
tuariensem, ac personam tuam ab omnibus et singulis 

55 inhabilitatibus, suspensionibus, irregularitatibus, aliisque 
poenis, impedimentis, censuris, et coercionibus quibus- 

19^ DispenscUio cum Georaio archup. Cantuar. ^c. [CXXX. 

cunque ecclesiasticis sive canonicis, si quas forsitan ra- 
tione pncniissorum aut eonim alicujus incurristi, aut 
aliquibus incurrisse videaris, ad omncm et qualemcun- 
que juris effectum liberamus, ac tenore praesentium 
pro liberate haberi decemimus et pronunciamus : quem-s 
que defectum, labeni, notam, sive maeulam, si quam 
forsitan ratione praemissorum aut eorum alicujus con- 
traxisti, aut aliquibus contraxisse videaris, penitus abo- 
leraus, ac pro abolitis haberi decemimus et pronunciamus ; 
tecjuc etiam praefatum Georgium, archiepiscopum Can- 1© 
tuarien. ex superabundant! et ad majorem cautelam 
rehabilitamus et restituimus ad omnem et qualeracunque 
juris effectum. Et ut in susceptis ordinibus et arckie- 
piscopatu pnedicto, ac in omnibus et singulis jurisdic- 
tionibus, privilegiis, praeeminentiis, praerogativis, digni-15 
tatibus, atque aliis rebus quibuscunque, aliquo modo ad 
dictum arcliiepiscopatum spectantibus et pertinentibus, 
libere ministrare valeas, concedimus et indulgemus, per- 
inde ac si pracdictum casuale homicidium commissum non 
fnisset; canonibus, legibus, decretis, ordinationibus, et*© 
constitutionibus ecclesiasticis quibuscunque contrariis^ si 
quae sint in ea parte contraria, in aliquo non obstantibus. 
In cujus rei testimonium sigilla nostra episcopalia hisce 
pra^sentibus apponi fecimus. Dat. duodecimo die Decem- 
bris, anno Domini millesimo sexcentesimo vicesimo prime. 95 

Teste rege apud Westmon. 24. die Decembris, anno 
regni regis Jacobi. etc. xix. et Scotiac quinquagedmo 

i63i.] Tie Hug's UUer about a eontribution/rom the clergy. 193 


Archiepiac Cant. Anno Chriaci Reg. Anglias 

Geo. Abbot ii. 1621. Jacob. 1. 19. 

The king's letter to the archbishop of Cant, and the bishop 
of Lincoln about a voluntary cmitribution from the 
clergy. — Reg. Abbot, II. fbl. 195. b. 

RIGHT reverend father in God, our very good lord 
and brother. We have lately received from his 
majesty certain letters directed unto us the lord arch- 
bishop of Cant, and the lord bishop of Lincoln, lord 
5 keeper of the great seal, but referring to the rest, whose 
names are underwritten, the tenor whereof hero ensueth : 

The kimg*8 letter] King James' first parliament had been dissolved on 
the 7th of June i6i4» and another was summoned to meet on the 13th 
of January 1621. "Being jealous of uncontroled sovereignty he had 

f o fallen into a great dislike of parliaments, and for many years had given 
way to projects and monopolies : and many of his ministers perhaps 
fearing an inquiry into their own actions might suggest to him that he 
might better furnish himself by those ways, than by subsidies, usually 
accompanied with the redress of grievances. Nevertheless he was now 

1$ minded to call a parliament, conceiving it might be of special use. For 
he observed the affections of the people to be raised for the recovery of 
the palatinate; and then concluded that those affections would open 
their punes to the supply of his wants." (Rushworth, vol. i. p. 20.) In 
this matter the king was availing himself of an existing impulse, hoping 

10 at the same time that events might spring up which would relieve him 
from the necessity of following it any longer than was convenient to 
him. He was not unwiUing to assist his son-in-law in the recovery of 
the palatinate ; but he was much more anxious to unite his son with 
the infismta of Spain. He might leave it to be decided by the progress 

35 of events, which of these two opposing projects should eventually pros- 
per ; but only one of them could be made useful to him in his present 
difficulties. Supplies were absolutely wanted ; and the honour of his 

1 1)4 T/ie king's letter about a [CXXXI . 

Right reverend fathers in God, right trasty and right well 
beloved counsellors, we greet you well. What endeayoun 
we have used by treaty, and by all fair and amicable 
ways, to recover the patrimony of our children in Ger- 
many, now for the most part withholden from them by 5 
force, is not unknown unto all our loving subjects, since 
we were pleased to communicate unto them in parliament 
our whole proceedings in that business ; of which treaty 
our hopes being at the last frustrate, we were enforced 
to take other resolutions, namely to recover that by the i© 
sword, which by other means we see no likelihood to 
compass. For which purpose we did expect, that omr 
people would in a cause so nearly concerning our chil- 
dren's interest and ours, have cheerfully contributed 
thereunto, as indeed they did by promise and declaration 15 
to the proportion of one subsidy at their last meeting 
before Christmas : but the same failing to be legally per- 

crown and the intereBts of protestantism, alike involved in the troaUet 
that had taken place in the palatinate, afforded him an excellent oppor- 
tunity for appealing to the liberality of his subjects. On the 25th of so 
October 1620 letters had been addressed by the members of the privy 
council to divers earls, viscounts, bishops and barons, and to the lord 
mayor of London, calling " for a voluntary gift unto his majesty ;" and 
the sums arising therefrom being found insafficient, and the demand 
being too urgent to wait for the slower movements of the hoose of 15 
commons, the king issued his letter of the 1 2th of Jan. to the arch- 
bishop and the lord keeper Williams, requiring them and their brother 
bishops to collect contributions from the whole clergy; an expedient 
for which they had themselves furnished a precedent in the year i6i4« 
See a letter of archbishop Abbot's in the Tanner MSS. vol. Ixxiv. p. 57. 50 
The archbishop was very desirous that assistance should be given to 
the king of Bohemia in the recovery of the palatinate, and the pnblic 
feeling on the subject may be inferred from the following extract of a 
letter that he had written to Mr. Secretary Nanton. " It is a great 
honour to the king our master that he hath such a son whose ▼iitoesjs 
have made him thought fit to be made a king. And methinks I do in 
this and that of Hungary foresee the work of God, that by piece and 
piece the kings of the earth, that gave their power nnto the beast (all 

i6ai.] wiiiinb^ifm friym the clergy. 195 

iected by the wajrward divisions of some few, we are 
constrained in a case of so great necessity to try the 
datifiil affections of our subjects in another way, as our 
predecessors have done in former times, by propounding a 

5 voluntary contribution unto them; and knowing the 
faithful and loving service performed unto us by our 
clergy of this realm at all times u]K)n the like urgent 
occasion, have thought good to make use thereof at this 
present, and do therefore require you to give notice 

to thereof to all the bishops, who £^e not as yet departed 
from the dty of London; and together with them, to 
write your letters to all the bishops of both provinces, for 
the speedy collecting, and receiving of the voluntary con- 
tributions of the whole clergy, towards the support of this 

15 so necessity and justifiable a warlike defence, wherein 
not only our crown and dignity, but the true religion 

tiie word of God must be fulfilled) shall now tear the whore and make 
her desolate, as St. John in his Revelation hath foretold, i pray you 
tiierefore with all the spirits you have, to put life into this business, and 

^^let a retom be made into Germany with speed and with comfort ; and 
let it really be prosecuted, that it may appear to the world, that we are 
make when God in this sort calleth us." (Cabala, p. no.) According 
to bishop Goodman's Memoirs (vol. i. p. 239.) the archbisbop had been 
consulted whether the palsgrave should accept the crown of Bohemia. 

95 and had advised " by all means that he shoidd, yet so that he should 
not acquaint king James beforehand ; but when all things were past, 
then he doubted not but the king would so far assist him, if not to keep 
Bohemia, yet at least to preserve his own inheritance." The king's 
apphcation to his parliament having been answered with a petition, 

30 remonstrance, and protestation, instead of the wished for subsidies, it 
was dissolved on the 6th of Jan. 1622, and letters were then addressed 
by him to the judges, sheriffs, and magistrates of the kingdom, ^ to try 
the dutiful affections of his subjects in another way, as his prede- 
cessors had done in former times, by propounding unto them a volun- 

35 tary contribution." (Rushworth, vol. L p. 60. Lingard, vol. vi. p. 1 74.) 
Similar applications had certainly been made by queen Elizabeth, but in 
most instances under the name of loans, which she appears to have 
repaid, as we find from proclamations issued by her in 1571 and other 


1 96 The kinff's letUr about a [CXXXI. 

also, which you and they teach and profess, is so much 
interested. And we do further require, that you and the 
other hishops do likewise move the same to all the school- 
masters, which have license to teach within vour or their 
several diocessos, not doubting of either your care, ors 
their forwardness in this so necessary a service. Given 
under our signet at our palace of Westm. the 14th day of 
January in the nineteenth year of our reign of England, 
France, and Ireland, and of Scotland the five and fiftieth. 

Your lordship by these lettere may see how far it con-io 
cerneth his majesty in honour, and the realm in safety, 
that the ])atrimony of the king's children should be reco- 
vered again by force of war, since it cannot be obtained by 
treaty. And inasmuch as arms are not maintained but 
by large expense, and his majesty hath not lately received »5 
such supply as otherways was expected, it may well stand 
with our most bounden duty, that in this time of neces- 
sity, we of the clergy should by way of voluntary contri- 
bution testify our observance and loyal respect unto so 
gracious a prince. We therefore, who upon the receipts 
of these his majesty's letters have met together and duly 
considered what was most convenient to be done, have 
resolved, that three shillings and ten pence in the pound 
is as little as we can possibly offer towards so great an en- 
terprize ; yet hoping that such as be of ability will exceed «5 
the same. You shall therefore do well by all forcible 
reason, drawn from the defence of religion and justice, to 
incite all your clergy, as well within peculiars as other- 
wise, as also the lecturers and licensed schoolmasters, 
within your diocese, that with all readiness they do con- 30 
tribute unto this noble action. And whereas there be 
divers eommendataries, dignitaries, prebendaries, and 
double beneficed men, that have livings in several dio- 
ceses, we hold it fit, that for every one of these within 
your lordship's diocese the contribution be rateable, so 35 
that the monies in such sort given, may be brought to 

3 1 .] contrihution from the clergy, 1 97 

>ndon by the tenth day of March next, to be delivered 
the hands of such receivers, as for that purpose shall be 
pointed. And to the end that true notice may be 
ken of such as are best disposed to this so good a 
rvice, we expect tliat your lordship send up to the 
rd archbishop of Cant, the several sums and names of 
I those who contribute ; and lastly your lordship shall 
» right well also, that inasmuch as the laity are like to 
) moved for such contribution in the country, wherein 
any about London already have begun and given 
K)d example, that you cause the preachers within your 
ocese in a grave and discreet fashion to excite the 
K)ple, that when occasion shall serve, they do extend 
eir liberalities to so Christian and worthy an enter- 
ise : wherein not doubting but your lordship will use 
I your best, prudent, and most careful endeavours, 
? leave you to the Almighty. From Lambeth 21. 
inuarii, mdcxxi. juxta etc. 

Your lordship's very lovi7ig brethren^ 

G. Cant. Tho. Coven, et Lich. 

Jo. Lincoln, C.S. Arthur Bath, et Wellen. 

G. London. Lu. Bangor. 

R. Dunelm. Nic. Elien. 

L. Winton. Theo. Landaven. 

Jo. Wigom. Will. Meneven. 

Jo. Roffen. Jo. Cestren. 

198 The kind's letter to archbishop 


Archiepiac Cant. 

Anno Chriiiti 

Geo. Abbot 12. 


Reg. AnglUi 
Jacob. L so. 

The king's letter to the archbishop of Canterbury can- 
cerning preachers and preachifig. — Reg. II. Abbot, fol. 
199. a. 

RIGHT reverend father in God, my very good lord 
and brother. I have received from the king's most 
excellent majesty a letter, the tenour whereof here en- 
sueth: Most reverend father in God, right trusty and 

The king's letter] The king had long been satisfied, that in order to 5 
put an effectual stop to the political measares of the puritanB, it waa 
necessary to counteract their doctrinal principles, the supporters of 
which constituted the princi])al moral strength of their party. In the 
year 161 6 therefore, he issued his orders to the two aniverBities, re-> 
quiring, among other regulations, that all persons admitted to degrees 10 
should subscribe the three articles of the 36th canon, and that " young 
students in divinitv should be excited to bestow their time in the fiathen 
and councils, schoolmen, histories, and controversies, and not to inrist too 
long upon compendiums and abbreviators." (Wood's Ann. vol. ii. p. 323.) 
The two universities had of late been nurseries of Calvinistic teachersi 15 
and the history of Oxford, from the prominent part which it now 
began to take in the support of opposite opinions, and from the per- 
sonal interest and interference which the king exercised in ita proceed- 
ings, will supply a compendium of the theological history of the period 
down to 1622, the date of the king's letter respecting preachers. Miich*^ 
offence had been given by the way in which the projected marriage of 
the prince with the infanta of Spain had been noticed from different 
pulpits ; but the most objectionable case, and one that called for prompt 
and vigorous measures, was a sermon preached in Oxford on the 14th 
of April 1622, in which was maintained the dangerous position, that's 
subjects might take up arips against their sovereign in defence of their 
religion. The king having summoned Knight the preacher into his 
presence, and having learnt from him that he derived his anthority 
from the commentary of Pareus on the 13th chap, of the Epistle to the 
Romans, sent his injunctions to the university (April 24^ 1622), the jo 

1 62 2.] concerning predchers, 1 99 

rigbt entirely beloTed counsellor, we greet you well. 
Forasmuch as the abuses and extravagancies of preachers 
in the pulpit have been in all times repressed in this 
realm by some act of council or state, with the advice 

5 and resolution of grave and learned prelates, insomuch as 
the very licensing of preachers had the beginning by an 
order of star-chamber the eighth day of July, in the 
nineteenth year of king Henry the Eighth, our noble 
predecessor; and whereas at this present, divers young 

lo students by reading of late writers and ungrounded 
divines, do broach many times unprofitable, unsound, 
seditious, and dangerous doctrines, to the scandal of this 
church, and disquieting of the state and present govern- 
ment; we upon humble representations unto us of these 

15 following extract from which shews clearly the origin and the more 
especial design of his letter to the archbishop : " Our pleasure is that 
you shall upon this occasion assemble the heads and governors of the 
several college and halls, and put them in remembrance of that, which 
we have heretofore so seriously recommended to both the universities. 

so oonceming the study of divinity ; which was, that the students in that 
profession should apply themselves in the first place to the reading of 
the scriptures, next the councils and ancient fathers, and then the 
schoolmen, excluding those neoterics, both Jesuits and puritans, who 
are known to be meddlers in matters of state and monarchy ; that 

sS thereby they may be the better enabled only to preach Christ crucified, 
which ought to be the end of their studies." (Wood's Ann. vol. ii. p. 343.) 
An order of council was also published (May 31.) enlarging upon the 
same topics, and requiring that all the copies that could be found of 
Fareus' commentary should be publicly burnt in detestation of his doc- 

30 trine. General Diet. Art. Pareus. Collier, vol. ii. p. 722. Neal, Purit. 
vol. i. p. 481. Rushworth, vol. i. p. O4. Heylin*8 Laud, p. 95. N^. CLI. 
The letter of the archbishop dated Sept. 4. is published in the Cabala 
(p. 112) as the production of lord keeper Williams, with these dif- 
ferences, that "abrasse tabulae" is printed "a brass tabret," and the 

35 fee to be paid to the register at the time of exhibit is stated to be six- 
pence instead of two-pence. The same differences are also to be found 
in the MS. copy preserved in the Tanner papers (vol. Ixxxii. p. 498.) 
where the letter is also ascribed to the lord keeper Williams ; but it is 
dear from other readings that it was not taken from the same copy. 

200 The kiiiff's letter to arehbi^ Abbot [CXXXII. 

inconveniences bj yourself, and sundry other grave and 
reverend jirelates ot this church, as also of our princely 
care and zeal for the extirpation of schism and dissension 
growing from these seeds, and for the settling of a reli- 
gious and peaceable government both of church and 5 
state, do by these our special letters straitly charge and 
command you, to use all possible care and diligence, that 
these limitations and cautions, herewith sent unto you, 
concerning preachers, be duly and strictly from hence- 
forth observed, and put in practice by the several bishops 10 
in their several dioceses within your jurisdiction. And 
to this end, our pleasure is, that you send them forthwith 
several copies of these directions, to be by them speedily 
sent and communicated to every parson, vicar, curate, 
lecturer, and minister in every cathedral or parish church, 15 
within their several dioceses ; and that you earnestly 
require them to employ their utmost endeavours in the 
performance of this so important a business ; letting them 
know, that we have a special eye to their proceeding, and 
expect a strict account thereof both from you and every 10 
of them ; and these our letters shall be your sufficient 
warrant and discharge in this behalf. Given under our 
signet at our castle at Windsor the 4th day of AuguBt» in 
the twentieth year of our reign of England, France, and 
Ireland, and of Scotland the six and fiftieth. 35 

By this you see his majesty's princely care, that men 
should preach Christ crucified, obedience to the higher 
po>vers, and honest and Christian conversation of life, but 
in a regular form ; and not that every young man should 
take unto himself an exorbitant liberty to teach what he^ 
listetli, to the oftence of his majesty, and to the disturb- 
ance and disquiet of the church, and commonwealth. 
I can give unto your lordship no better directions for the 
pursuance hereof, than are prescribed to you in his 
majesty's letters, and the schedule herewith sent untojs 
you ; whereof 1 pray . you to be very careful, since it is 

i622.] concerning preacher$. 201 

the princely pleasure of bis highness to require au ac- 
count both of you and me for the same. And so not 
doubting, but by your register or otherwise you will 
cause these instructions to be communicated to your 
s clergy, I leave you to the Almighty, and remain 

Your lordship^s loving Wother^ 

Croydon, August the n r« * xrrr. 

I2th,MDCXXIl. tr. t/ANT. 

Directions concerimig preachers. 

I. That no preacher under the degree and calling of a 

>o bishop, or dean of a cathedral or collegiate church, and 
they upon the king's days and set festivals, do take occa- 
sion by the expounding of any text of scripture what- 
soever, to fall into any set discourse, or common place 
(otherwise than by opening the coherence and division of 

ishis text) which shall not be comprehended and warranted 
in essence, substance, effect, or natural inference within 
some one of the articles of religion set forth mdlxii. or 
in some of the homilies set forth by authority in the 
church of England, not only for a help of the nonpreach- 

2oing, but withal for a pattern and a boundary, as it >vere, 
for the preaching ministers ; and for their further instruc- 
tion for the performance thereof, that they forthwith read 
over, and peruse diligently the said book of articles, and 
the two books of homilies. 

«5 II. That no parson, vicar, curate, or lecturer shall 
preach any sermon or collation hereafter uimn Sundays 
and holidays in the afternoon, in any cathedral, or parish 
church throughout this kingdom, but upon some part 
of the Catechism, or some text taken out of the Creed, 

30 Ten Commandments, or the Lord*s Prayer, (funeral ser- 
mons only excepted,) and that those preachers be most 
encouraged and approved of, who spend the afternoon*s 
exercise in the examining of children in their Catechism, 

Wi The kind's letter to arekbMop Abbot [CXXXII. 

and in the expounding of the several points and heads of 
the Catechism, which is the most ancient and laudable 
custom of teaching in the church of England. 

III. That no preacher of what title soever, under the 
degree of a bishop, or dean at the least, do from hence- 5 
forth presume to preach in any popular auditory the deep 
points of predestination, election, reprobation, or of the 
universality, efficacy, resistibility, or irresistibility of God*8 
grace ; but leave those themes to be handled by learned 
men, and that moderately and modestly by way of useio 
and application, rather than by way of positive doctrine, 
as being fitter for the schools and universities, than for 
simple auditories. 

TV. That no preacher, of what title or denomination 
soever, shall presume from henceforth in any auditory '5 
within this kingdom to declare, limit, or bound out, by 
way of positive doctrine, in any lecture or sermon, the 
power, prerogative, jurisdiction, authority, or duty of 
sovereign princes, or otherwise meddle with these mat- 
ters of state, and the references betwixt princes and theM 
people, than as they are instructed and presidented in 
the homily of obedience, and in the rest of the homilies 
and articles of religion, set forth (as before is mentioned) 
by public autliority ; but rather confine themselves wholly 
to those two heads of faith and good life, which are all 15 
the subject of the ancient sermons and homilies. 

V. That no preacher, of what title or denomination 
soever, shall causelessly, and without invitation from the 
text, fall into bitter invectives, and indecent railing 
speeches against the persons of either papists or puritans; 30' 
but modestly and gravely (when they are occasioned 
thereunto by the text of scripture) free both the doctrine 
and discipline of the church of England from the asper^ 
sions of either adversary, especially when the auditory 
is suspected to be tainted with the one or the other 55 

l622.] Jrehbishap Aibofs letter concerning preachers, SOS 

VI. Lastly, That the archbishops and bishops of the 
kingdom, whom his majesty hath good cause to blame 
for this former remissness, be more wary and choice in 
licensing of preachers, and revoke all grants made to any 

5 chancellor, official,* or commissary to pass licenses in this 
kingdom ; and that all the lecturers throughout the 
kingdom (a new bocfy severed from the ancient clergy of 
England, as being neither parsons, vicars, or curates) be 
licensed henceforth in the court of Faculties, only upon 

»o recommendation of the party from the bishop of the 
diocese under his hand and seal, with a '^ fiat'' from the 
lord archbishop of Cant, and a confirmation under the 
great seal of England ; and that such as transgress any 
one of these directions, be suspended by the bishop of 

15 the diocese, or in his default, by the lord archbishop of 
that province " ab officio et beneficio" for a year and a 
day, until his majesty by the advice of the next convoca- 
tion shall prescribe some further punishment. 

The archbishop of Canterbury's letter ea*plaining the former 
directions. — Reg. II. Abbot, fol. 200. a. 

MY very good lord. I doubt not but before this time 
you have received from me the directions of his 
most excellent majesty, concerning preaching and preach- 
ers ; which are so graciously set down, that no godly or 
discreet man can otherwise than acknowledge, that they 
do much tend to edification, if he do not take them up 

s5 upon report, but do punctually consider the tenour of the 
words, as they lie, and do not give an ill construction to 
that, which may receive a fair interpretation: notwith- 
standing, because some few churchmen, and many of the 
people have sinisterly conceived, as we here find, that 

30 these instructions do tend to the restraint of the exercise 
of preaching, and do in some sort abate the number of 
sermons, and so consequently by degrees do make a 
breach to ignorance and superstition ; his majesty in his 

204 Jrchbishop Abbots letter concerning prmchen. [CXXXII. 

princely \iisdom hath thought fit, that I should adTertise 
your lordship of the grave aud weighty reasons, which 
induced his highness to prescribe that which is done. 
You are therefore to know, that his majesty, being much 
troubled and grieved at the hearty to hear every day ofs 
so much defection from our religion, both to popery and 
anabaptism, or other points of separation, in some parts 
of this kingdom ; and considering with much admiration 
what might be the cause thereof, especially in the reign 
of such a king, who doth so constantly profess himself an lo 
open adversary to the superstition of the one, and mad- 
ness of the other; his princely wisdom could fall upon 
no one greater probability, than the lightness, afFected- 
ness, and un])rofitableness of that kind of preaching 
which hath been of late years too much taken up in 15 
court, university, city, and country. The usual scope of 
very many preachers^ is noted to be a soaring up in points 
of divinity, too deep for the capacity of the people, or a 
mustering up of much reading, or a displaying of their 
own wit, or an ignorant meddling with civil matters, a8» 
well in the private of several parishes and corporations, 
as in the ])ublic of the kingdom, or a venting of their 
own distastes, or a smoothing up of those idle fancies, 
which in this blessed time of a long peace do boil in the 
brains of unadvised people; or lastly, a rude or undecentjs 
railing, not against the doctrines, (which when the text 
shall occasion the same, is not only approved but much 
commended by his royal majesty,) but against the persons 

a The usual scope of very many preachers'] Lord Bacon had referred 
to these practices some years previously in the following manner: 30 
" A point of great inconvenience and peril is to entitle the people to 
hear controversies and all kinds of doctrine. They say no part of the 
counsel of God is to be tiuppressed, nor the people defrauded; so ab 
the difference which the apostle makes between milk and strong meat 
is confounded ; and his precept that the weak be not admitted anto j5 
questions and controversies, taketh no place. But most of all is to be 

i6aa.] ArekbUhcp Abbots letter concerning preachers. S05 

of papists and puritans. Now the people bred up with 
this kind of teaching, and never instructed in the Cate- 
chism, and fundamental grounds of religion, are for all 
this airy nourishmeut no better than "abrasse tabulae," 

5 new table books, ready to be filled up with the manuals 
and catechisms of the popish priests, or the papers and 
pamphlets of Anabaptists, Brownists, and Puritans. His 
majesty therefore calling to mind the sajring of Tertullian, 
" Id verum quod primum," and remembering with what 

> doctrine the church of England in the first and most 
happy reformation did drive out the one, and keep out 
the other from poisoning and infecting the people of this 
kingdom, doth find that the whole scope of this doctrine 
is contained in the articles of religion, the two books of 

5 homilies, the lesser and the greater catechism, which his 
majesty doth therefore recommend again in these direc- 
tions, as the themes and proper subjects of all sound and 
edifying preaching; and so fer are these directions from 
abating, that his majesty doth expect at our hands that 

>it should increase, the number of sermons, by renewing 
upon every Sunday in the afternoon, in all parish churches 
throughout the kingdom, that primitive and most profit- 
able exposition ^ of the Catechism, wherewith the people, 
yea very children may be timely seasoned and instructed 

5 in all the heads of Christian religion, the which kind of 
preaching (to our amendment be it spoken) is more dili- 
gently observed in all the reformed churches of Europe, 
than of late it hath been here in England. I find his 

»iiBpected, as a seed of further inconvenience, their manner of handling 
^ the scriptures ; for whilst they seek express scripture for every thing, 
and that they have, in a manner, deprived themselves and the church 
of a special help and support by embasing the authority of the fathers, 
they resort to naked examples, conceited inferences, and forced allu- 
sions, such as do mine into all certainty of religion." Works, vol. ii. 


^ primitive and most profitable exposition] Comp. No». CIX. CLV. 

S06 Jrehbishop MMs letUr coneerning preaek0r$. [GXXXII. 

majesty much moved with this neglect, and resolved (if 
we that are his bishops do not see a reforsiation thereof, 
which I trust we shall) to recommend it to the care of 
the civil magistrate; so for is his highness from giving 
the least discouragement to solid preaching, or discreet 5 
or religious preachers. To all these I am to add his 
majesty^s princely pleasure that both the former direc- 
tions and these reasons of the same be foirly written in 
every register's office, to the end that every preacher, of 
what denomination soever, may, if be be so pleased, takeio 
out copies of either of them with his own hand ** gratis,** 
paying nothing in the name of fee or expedition ; but if 
he do use the pains of the register or his clerks, then to 
pay some moderate fee to be pronounced in open court 
by the chancellors and commissaries of the place, taking 15 
the direction and approbation of my lords the bishops. 
Lastly, that from hencefc^w^ard a course may be taken 
that every parson, vicar; curate, or lecturer do make 
exhibit of these his majesty's directions and the reason 
for the same, at the ensuing visitation of the bishops and » 
archdeacons, paying to the register by way of fee but two- 
pence only at the time of exhibit. And so wishing, but 
withal in his majesty's name requiring your lordship to 
have a special and extraordinary care of the premises, I 
leave you to the Almighty. From Croydon, September 4. >5 


Your lordship's very loving brother^ 


i6a5-] ^^ Htg't Utter to arehbp. Aibot touchmg recuMonts. Wl 


Archiquac. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Anglis 

Geo. Abbot 15. 1615. Carol. I. i. 

The kin^s letter to the archbishop of Cante^'bury touching 
recumnts^ — Reg. II. Abbot, fol. 211. a. 

RIGHT reverend fother in God, my very good lord. 
I have received from the king's majesty a letter, 
the tenour whereof here followeth : Most reverend father 
in God, right trusty and well beloved counsellor, we greet 

5 you well. Whereas upon sundry weighty considerations 
us specially moving, we lately awarded our commission 
under our great seal of England, for the due and effectual 
putting in execution of the several laws and statutes 
remaining in force against popish recusants, and did cause 

10 our said commission to be publicly read in our several 
courts holden the last term At Reading, that all our loving 
subjects might take notice of our princely care, and 
special charge for the advancement of true religion, and 
suppressing of superstition and popery; we have now 

«5 thought fit, out of the same care to add a further charge 

The king's Utter] The most important act of the first parliament that 
assembled after the accession of king Charles, was to present to him a 
petition concerning religion, setting forth " the dangerous consequences 
of the increase of popery in the land, and what they conceived to be 

10 the principal causes thereof, and what the remedies." His majesty 
having answered their several points saccessivdy, informed them " that 
as he took well their minding him of the care of religion, so he would 
have done and granted the same tilings though they had never peti- 
tioned him." The sequel however did not correspond with this ami- 

35 cable beginning ; and the commons having determined to withhold their 
supplies until they had obtained a redress of grievances, the parliament 
was £«K>lved on the 12th of August 1625. But being induced by 

SOS Thi king's leH^ to archbishop Jttat [CXXXIII. 

to you, and all others having ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
under us, that no good means be neglected on your part 
for discovering, finding out, and apprehending of Jesuits, 
seminary priests, and other seducers of our children to 
the Romish religion, or for repressing popish recusants 5 
and delinquents of that sort, against whom you are to 
proceed by excommunication and other censures of the 
church, not omitting any other due and lawful means to 
bring them forth to public justice. And as our pleasure 
is, that due and strict proceeding be used against such as'^ 
are oi)en and jirofest papists, of whom our temporal laws 
will more easily take hold ; so we do recommend to the 
vigilant care of you and the rest of our clergy the repres- 
ning of those, who being ill affected to the true religion 
here established, do keep more close and secret their ill 15 
and dangerous affections that way, and as well by their 
example, as by secret and underhand sleights and means, 
do much encourage and increase the growth of popery 
and superstition in sundry parts of this kingdom : and 
therefore we not only require, that none of them mayio 
have any maimer of cover, protection, countenance, or 
connivance from you, or any of the rest, as you tender 
our roval commandment in that behalf; but that all 
})08sihlo diligence be used as well to unmask the false 

many urgent considerations to summon another to meet in the ensaing^s 
Fchruary, Charles took measures in the mean time to satisfy the wishes 
of his subjects respecting popery. "The plagne still continuing in 
London and Westminster and the places near adjoining, the king had 
adjourned a part of Michaelmas term from the city of Westminster, as 
also the receipt of the revenue from Richmond, to the town of Reading. 30 
In which term a commission issued forth under the great seal for ext- 
cuting the laws against recusants, according to the petition of the late 
parliamenr, which was read in all the courts of judicature at Reading." 
Rushwurth, vol. i. p. 201. Ileylin's Laud, p. 140. Collier, vol. ii. p. 735. 
Neal, Purit. vol. i. p. 500. 35 

It is well known from his subsequent history that king Charles was 
sincerely attached to the doctrine and discipline of his own church; 

i6a5*] touching recusants. 209 

BbadowB and pretences of those that are obstinate, as by 
all good means to reclaim those, who may possibly be 
won to conformity : letting all men know, that we cannot 
think well of any, that having place and authority in the 

5 church, do permit such persons to pass with impunity, 
much less if they give any countenance to the em- 
boldening of them and their adherents. And because we 
understand, that the number of recusants is much more 
increased in some dioceses, than in others, we shall 

lo impute the same to the negligence of those bishops, who 
have the same means and power of restraint, unless they 
can shew us some particular reason, by which that con- 
tagion is become greater under them than others, and 
not by their defaults : and we do hereby require you to 

15 send transcripts of these our letters to all the bishops 
and ordinaries within your province, for the present exe- 
cution of this our general direction, and also to transmit 
the same our letters to the lord archbishop of York, that 
he may take the like course within his charge and juris- 

30 diction. Given under our signet at our castle of Windsor 
the 15th day of December, in the first year of our reign. 

By this you see the royal and Christian care which his 
majesty hath for the advancing of true religion within 
this kingdom, and the suppressing of the contrary. I 

95 Imt it is not surprising that his subjects at the beginning of his reig^ 
should have had a different impression, derived from the strange dupli- 
city of his father, and from the negociations that had taken place 
respecting his own marriage at the two popish courts of Spain and 
France. Charles himself in writing to the pope in the year 1623, on 

30 the subject of the Spanish marriage, had expressed hin^self in the foU 
lowing manner : " It is most certain I would never so earnestly procure 
to tie myself with that strait band of marriage with a person whose 
religion I never could endure. Wherefore let your holiness be per- 
suaded that my mind now is, and always shall be, far from plotting 

35 any thing contrary to the Roman catholic religion. Tanner MSS. 
vol. Ixxxii. p. 349. 


no The king'i letter to archOahop Albat [CXXXIV. 

doubt not but your lordship will take into serious con- 
sideration, and by your officers and ministers give execu- 
tion thereunto, so that presentments be duly made, and 
excommunications against the obstinate be issued fortb, 
as some few years past was accustomed ; and his majesty* 
doth expect, that, to shew your diligence and zeal herein, 
your lordship will soon after Easter return unto me the 
list and number of all recusant papists within your dio- 
cese, which without fail I do expect. And so I leave 
you to the Almighty, and remain ' 

Your lordship^s loving brother^ 

G. Cant, 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi Refif. Anglui 

Geo. Abbot i6. 1626. Cakol. I. a. 

The king's letter to the archhisli^p of Canterbury to ejpcite 
the people to unity ^ and to contribute towards the support 
of the king of Denmark, — Reg. II. Abbot, fol. 218. a. 


Y very good lord. I have received from the king^s 
majesty both pious and prudent instructions neces- 

The king's letter] This able paper was drawn up by Laud, then bishop ^5 
of Bath and Wells, at the command of the king, and was occasioned by 
the followiDg circumstances. The commons had introduced a bfll for 
granting three subsidies and three fifteenths, but refused to pass it. 
until the king should have listened to their petitions and remonstrances. 
It continued therefore still imperfect on the 15th day of June i626,>< 
when the king felt himself compelled by the disobedience of the com- 
mons to dissolve the parliament ; but as it was abxnidy adopted in prin- 
ciple, his majesty was advised that he had good grounds for requiring 
the payment of those subsidies from his subjects by way of loan, till 
the measure should be completed in the ensuing parliament. Thissj 
advice was too readily adopted, and methods, now become fomiliar to 
the court, were taken for carrying it into effect. The king was per- 

6a6.] eomoeming the king of Denmark. 9\\ 

«ry for this time, the particulars whereof do here follow : 
Most reverend father in God, right trusty and right well 
beloved counsellor, we greet you well. We have observed 
that the church and the state are so near united and 
5 knit together, that though they may seem two bodies, yet 
indeed in some relation they may be accounted but as 
one; inasmuch as they both are made up of the same 
men, which are differenced only in relation to spiritual 
or civil ends : this nearness makes the church call in the 

lo help of the state to succour and sup])ort her, whensoever 
she is pressed beyond herself; and the same nearness 
makes the state call in for the service of the church, both 
to teach that duty, which her members know not, and 
to exhort them to it, and encourage them in that duty, 

»5 which they know. It is not long since we ordered the 
state to serve the church, and by a timely proclamation 
settled the peace of it ; and now the state looks for the 
like assistance from the church, that she and all her 
ministers may serve God and us, by preaching peace and 

ao unity at home, that it may be the better able to resist 
foreign force, uniting and multiplying against it. And to 
the end that they, to whom we have committed the 
government of the church under us, may be the better 

suaded, as he stated in his Declaration when he dissolved the parliu- 
95 ment, that he had the strongest claims in reason and good faith on the 
ready cooperation of the commons ; but all doubt or hesitation as to 
his own proceedings was completely removed, when he received tidings 
of the defeat sustained by the king of Bohemia and his ally the king of 
Denmark in the disastrous battle of the 37th of August. It was during 
50 the collection of this loan, and for the purpose of promoting it, that 
Dr. Sibthorp preached his memorable sermon on apostolical obedience, 
and Dr. Manwaring his equaUy memorable discourses entitled Religion 
and Allegianoe, which led to the suspension of archbishop Abbot, to 
the ezaq)eration of the ensuing house of commons, and to an increased 
35 and fixed hostility between the sovereign and his parliaments. Rush- 
worth, vol. i. p. 431. Heylin's Laud, p. 166. Collier, vol. ii. p. 739- 
Hallam» ToLi. p. 41a. 


S12 Th^ king's letter to arehbitkop yibbat [CXXXIV. 

able to dispose of the present occasions, we have, with 
tbe advice of the council, thought fit to send unto yon 
these instructions following, to be sent by you to the 
bishops of your province, and such others, whom it may 
concern, and by them and their officers directed to alls 
the ministers throughout the several dioceses, that ac- 
cording to these punctually they may instruct and exhort 
the people to serve God and us, and labour by their 
prayers to divert the dangers which hang over us. Tbe 
danger in which we are at this time is great ; it is in- lo 
creased by the late blow given our good uncle the king 
of Denmark, who is the chief person in those parts that 
opposed the spreading forces of Spain ; if he cannot sub- 
sist, there is little or nothing left to hinder the house of 
Austria from being lord and master of Grermany ; and that is 
is a large and mighty territory, as should it be gotten 
would make an open way for Spain to do what they 
please in all the west parts of Christendom. For besides 
the great strength which Germany, once possessed, would 
bring to them, which are too strong already, you are tow 
consider first, how it will enable them by land, in that it 
will join all, or the most parts of the Spaniard's now dis- 
tracted territories, and be a means for him safely and 
speedily to draw down forces against any other kingdom, 
that shall stand in his way; nor can it be thought the^s 
Low Countries can hold out longer against him, if he 
once become lord of the upper parts. And secondly, you 
arc to weigh how it will advantage him by sea, and make 
him strong against us in our particular, which is of easy 
apprehension to all men: and besides, if he once get 30 
Germany, ho will be able, though he had no gold from 
India, to sui)i)ly the necessity of those wars, and to hinder 
all trade and traffic of the greatest staple commodities of 
this kingdom, cloth and wool, and so make them of little 
or no value. You are to know therefore, that to prevent 35 
this is the present care of the king and the state, and 

1626.] eanceminff the king of Denmark, 218 

there is no probable way left, but by sending forces and 
other supplies to the said king of Denmark our dear 
uncle, to enable ! im to keep the field, that our enemies 
be not masters of all on the sudden. You are further to 
stake notice, how that we and this whole state stand 
bound in honour and conscience to supply the present 
liecessity of the king of Denmark ; for this quarrel is 
more nearly ours, the recovery of the ancient inheritance 
of our dear sister and her children. The king of Den- 

10 mark stands not so near in blood unto her as we do, yet 
for her and our sakes that brave and valiant king hath 
adventured into the field, and in that engagement hath 
not only hazarded his person, but as things go now, it 
may turn to some danger to his own kingdom and poste- 

»5rity, should he not receive aid and succour from us 
without delay; which should it happen, as God forbid, 
will be one of the greatest dishonours, thflt ever this 
kingdom was stained withal. Nor is danger and dis- 
honour all the mischief that is like to follow this disaster ; 

ao for if he be not presently relieved, the cause of religion is 
not only likely to suffer by it in some one part, as it hath 
already in a fearful manner in the Palatinate, but in all 
places, where it hath gotten any footing; so that if we 
supply not presently our allies and confederates in this 

^5 case, it is likely to prove the extirpation of true religion, 
and the replanting of Romish superstition in all the 
neighbouring parts of Christendom ; and the colonies of 
this state shall suffer in all places as the betrayer of that 
religion elsewhere, which it professeth and honoureth at 

JO home ; which will be an imputation never to be washed 
off; and God forbid this state should suffer under it. 
Neither may you forget rightly to inform the people 
committed to your charge, that this war which now 
grows full of danger, was not entered upon rashly and 

?5 without advice, but you are to acquaint them, that all 
former treaties by a peaceable way were in the latter end 

214 The king's letter to arehbiskap Jhbot [CXXXIV. 

of our dear father of ever blessed memory dissolved as 
fruitless and uufit longer to be held on foot, and this by 
the counsel of both houses of parliament then sitting ; so 
those two great and honourable bodies of the peers and 
people represented in parliament, led on this counsel and 5 
course to a war with Spain ; to effect this, they desired 
our aid and assistance, and used us to work our said dear 
father to entertain this course. This upon their per- 
suasions and promises of all assistance and supply we 
readily undertook and effected, and cannot now be left in 10 
that business, but with the sin and shame of all men. 
Sin, because aid and supply for the defence of the king- 
dom, and the like affairs of the state, especially such as 
are advised by parliamentary counsel, are due to the king 
from his people by all law both of God and men ; and 15 
shame, if they forsake the king, while he pursues their 
own counsel just and honourable, and which could not 
under God but have been successful, if he had been 
followed and supplied in time, as we desired and laboured 
for. One thing there is, which proves a great bin-w 
derance of this state, and not continued among the 
people without great offence against God, detriment 
both to church and state, and our great disservice in 
this and all other business; it is the breach of unity, 
which is grown too great and common among all sorts «5 
of men ; the danger of this goes far ; for in all states it 
hath made way for enemies to enter. We have by all 
means endeavoured union, and require of you to preach 
it, and charity, the mother of it, frequently in the ears of 
the people. We know their loyal hearts, and therefore jo 
wonder the more what should cause distracted affections. 
If you call upon them, which is your duty, we doubt not 
but that God will bless them with that love to himself, 
to his church, and their own preservation, w^hich alone 
will be able to bind up the scatterings of divided aSec-35 
tions into strength. To this end you are to lay before 

i6a6.] ctmemming the king of Denmark. 215 

them what miseries home-divisions have brought upon 
this and many other kingdoms, and to exhort all men to 
embrace it in time; the danger itself, besides all other 
Christian and prudent motives, is offence enough, where 
sit is duly considered, to make men join in all amity 
against a common, a great, and a growing enemy, and to 
do it in time, before any secret and cunning working of 
his may use one part in a division, to weaken the other : 
and in the last place, but first and last and all times to 

«obe insisted upon, you are to call upon God yourselves, 
and to incite the people to join with you in humble and 
hearty prayers unto God, that he will be pleased now 
after long afflictions of his dear people and children, to 
look in mercy both upon them and us, and in particular 

<5for the safety of the king of Denmark, and that army 
which is left him, that God would bless and prosper him 
against his and our enemies. Thus you are to strengthen 
the hearts and the hands of our loyal subjects and people 
in and upon God. And whereas the greatest confidence 

somen have in God, ariseth not only from bis promises, but 
from their experience likewise of his goodness ; you must 
not fail often to recall to the memory of the people with 
thankfulness the late great experience we have had of 
his goodness towards us. For the three great and usual 

35 judgments, which he darts down upon disobedient and 
unthankful people, are pestilence, famine, and the sword ; 
the pestilence did never rage more in this kingdom than 
of late ; and God was graciously pleased in mercy to hear 
the prayers which were made unto him, and the ceasing 

30 of the judgment was little less than a miracle. The 
fomine threatened us this present year, and it must have 
followed, had God rained down his anger a little longer 
upon the fruits of the earth; but upon our prayers he 
stayed that judgment, and sent us a most blessed season 

35 and a most plentiful harvest. The sword is the thing 
which we are now to look to, and you must call the 

21 6 The Hng'8 letter to arcMnshap Alkat ^. [CX XXIV. 

people to their prayers again against the enemy, that 
God will be pleased to send the like deliyerance from 
this judgment also, that in the same mercy he will 
vouchsafe to strengthen the hands of his people, that he 
will sharpen their sword^ but dull and turn the edge ofs 
that which is in our enemies' hands ; that so while some 
fight, others may pray for the blessing. And you are to 
be careful, that you fail not to direct and hearten our 
loving people in this and all other necessary services both 
of God, his church, and us, that we may have the com- to 
fort of our people's service, the state safety, the church 
religion, and the people the enjoying of all such blessings 
as follow these : and we end with doubling of this care 
upon you and all under you in their several places. Given 
at our palace at Westm. in the second year of our reign, 15 
the 2l8t of September mdcxxvi. 

The care which your lordship is to use in this behalf, 
is, to see them made known in the worthy preacherB 
and ministers in your diocese, and so far as your lordship m 
may, in your own person to put these things in execution, 
and to call upon the clergy, which is under you, in their 
preaching and private conferences, to stir up all sort of 
people to express their zeal to God, their duty to the 
king, and their love unto their country, and one to is 
another; that all good and Christian courses may be 
taken for the preservation of the true religion both in 
this land and throughout all Christendom: which not 
doubting but your lordship with all diligence and speed 
will see effected, I leave you to the Almighty, and 30 

You)' l(yrdship*s loving brother^ 

G. Cant. 

Croydon, Sept. 26, 


1627O Th« »eque$lrati(m of arckbUhop Abbot. 217 


Archiepiflc Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Angliae 

Oeo. Abbot 17. 1617. Carol. I. 3. 

A commission to sequester archbishop Abbot from all his 
ecclesiastical offices and jurisdiction. — Rushworth's Coll. 
vol. i. p. 435. Frankland's Annal. p. 211. 

CHARLES, by the grace of God king of England, 
Scotland, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, 
etc. to the right reverend father in God, George, lord 
bishop of London, and to the right reverend father in 

5 God, our trusty and well beloved counsellor, Richard, 
lord bishop of Durham, and to the right reverend father 
in God, John, lord bishop of Rochester, and John, lord 
bishop of Oxford, to the right reverend father in God, 
our right trusty and well beloved counsellor, William, 

'o lord bishop of Bath and Wells, greeting. 

A commission to sequester] The two opposite principles of church 
government, affecting also in their inevitable consequences the govern- 
ment of the state, had previously been confined to distinct and re- 
spective periods, but were now brought into direct conflict. They 

15 were represented in the persons of the two distinguished prelates. 
Abbot and Laud, who had from an early period been personally op- 
posed to each other, and were now placed in situations of great and 
rival eminence, the one filling the highest station in the church, and the 
other enjoying the unbounded confidence of the sovereign. And the 

to same event which had recently led to the advancement of the one, was 
now by a different train of consequences occasioning the depression of 
the other. A sermon preached by Dr. Sibthorp at Northampton, in 
favour of the measures which were then adopted by the court for the 
collection of their loan (see No. CXXXIV.), was sent to the arch- 

25 bishop with his majesty's command that he should give it his license 
to be printed. The archbishop refused, alleging by way of excuse 
several passages of the sermon which he considered false in fact, and 

218 A commiMfofi to 9eque$ter anMUhop Ahbai [CXXXV. 

WTiereas George, now archbishop of Canterbury, in the 
right of the archbishopric, hath several and distinct archi- 
cpiscopal, episcopal, and other spiritual and ecclesiastical 
j)ower8 and jurisdictions, to be exercised in the govern- 
ment and discipline of the church within the province ofs 
Canterbury, and in the administration of justice in causes 
ecclesiastical within that province, which are partly exe- 
cuted by himself in his own i>erson, and partly and more 
generally by several persons nominated and authorized by 
him, being learned in the ecclesiastical laws of this realm, lo 
in those several places, whereunto they are deputed and 
appointed by the said archbishop ; which several places, 
as wo are informed, they severally hold by several grants 
for their several lives ; as namely, sir Henry Martin, knt. 
hath and holdeth by the grants of the said archbishop the 15 
offices and i)laces of the dean of the Arches, and judge, 
or master of the Prerogative court, for the natural life of 
the said sir Henry Martin. 

Sir Charles Caosar, knt. hath and holdeth by grants of 

dangerous in principle, as regarded the liberty of the subject. This *o 
refusal filled up the measure of his transgressions. The king appointed 
a commission to sequester the archbishop, acting on a principle which 
queen Elizabeth announced to her bishops in the parliament of 1 584, 
and which appears to have been generally admitted in those times, that 
bishops could be deposed by the crown, not merely for wrong doing 95 
in themselves, but also for not amending what was wrong in others. 
(D'Ewes' Journal, 328.) But the archbishop was restored, and gra- 
ciously received at court before the end of the same year, and a new 
parliament was summoned to meet on the 1 7th of March ensning. He 
wrote a narrative of the transaction, that mav be seen in Rushw. vol. i. 30 
p. 438. Comp. Heyliu's Laud, p. 195. Collier, vol. ii. p. 740. Biog. 
Brit. art. Abbot. Hallam, vol. i. p. 450. Lingard, vol. vi. p. 188. 

I^rd Clarendon's opinion of the archbishop is well known* and very 
unfavourable. (Hist. vol. i. p. 134.) An opposite description of his 
character, as drawn by Mr. Speaker Onslow, may be seen in Chalmers' j(5 
Biog. Diet. art. Abbot. Others are given in the Biog. Brit, in Collier, 
vol. ii. p. 757. Wood's Ath. Ox. vol. ii. p. 561. Neal, Pont vol. i. 
p. 556. Heylin's Laud, p. 242. 

J627.] fnm all hU offices. 219 

the said archbishop the places or offices of the judge of 
the Audience, and master of the Faculties, for the term 
of the natural life of the said sir Charles Csesar. 

Sir Thomas Ridley, knt. hath and holdeth by the grant 

5 of the said archbishop the place or office of vicar general 
to the said archbishop. 

And Nathaniel Brent, doctor of the laws, hath and 
holdeth by grant of the said archbishop the office or place 
of commissary to the said archbishop, as of his proper and 

10 peculiar diocese of Canterbury. 

And likewise the several registers of the Arches, Pre- 
rogative, Audience, Faculties, and of the vicar general 
and the commissary of Cant, hold their places by grants 
from the said archbishop respectively. 

15 Whereas the said archbishop in some or all of these 
several places and jurisdictions, doth or may sometimes 
assume unto his personal and proper judicature, order, or 
direction, some particular causes, actions, or cases at his 
pleasure ; and forasmuch as the said archbishop cannot at 

20 this present, in his own person, attend the services, which 
are otherwse proper for his cognizance and jurisdiction, 
and which as archbishop of Cant, he might and ought in 
his own person to have performed and executed in causes 
and matters ecclesiastical, in the proper function of arch- 

15 bishop of that province ; Me therefore, of our regal power, 
and of our princely care and providence, that nothing 
shall be defective in the order, discipline, government, or 
right of the church, have thought fit by the service of 
some other learned and reverend bishops, to be named 

30 by us, to supply those things which the said archbishop 
ought or might in the cases aforesaid to have done, but 
for this present cannot perform the same. 

Know ye therefore, that we reposing special trust and 
confidence in your approved wisdoms, learning, and inte- 

35 grity, have nominated, authorized, and appointed, and do 
by these presents nominate, authorize, and appoint you 

S20 The sequestratum of archbiskop Aibai. [CXXX V. 

the said George, lord bishop of London, Richard, lord 
bishop of Durham, John, lord bishop of Rochester, John, 
lord bishop of Oxford, and William, lord bishop of Bath 
and Wells, or any four, three, or two of you, to do, exe- 
cute, and perform all and every those acts, matters, ands 
things, any way touching or concerning the power, juris- 
diction, or authority of the archbishop of Cant, in causes 
or matters ecclesiastical, as amply, fully, and effectually, 
to all intents and purposes, as the said archbishop himself 
might have done. w 

And we do hereby command you and every of you, to 
attend, perform, and execute this our royal pleasure, in 
and touching the premises, until we shall declare our will 
and pleasure to tlie contrary. 

And we do further hereby will and command the said 15 
archbishop of Canterbury, quietly and without interrup- 
tion to permit and suffer you the said George, bishop 
of London, Richard, bishop of Durham, John, bishop of 
Rochester, John, bishop of Oxford, and William, bishop 
of Bath and Wells, any four, three, or two of you, to«» 
execute and perform this our commission, according to 
our royal pleasure thereby signified. 

And we do further will and command all, and every 
other person and persons, whom it may any way concern, 
in their several places or ofHces, to be attendant, observ-'S 
ant, and obedient to you, and every one of you, in the 
execution and i)erformance of this our royal will and com- 
mand, as they and every of them will answer the contrary 
at their utmost perils. 

Nevertheless we do hereby declare our royal pleasure i© 
to be, that the said sir Henry Martin, sir Charles Caesar, 
sir Thomas Ridley, and Nathaniel Brent, in their several 
offices and places aforesaid, and all other registers, officers, 
and ministers in the several courts, offices, and jurisdic- 
tions appertaining to the said archbishop, shall quietly and 35 
without interruption hold, use, occupy, and enjoy their 

1627 •] King Charles 1."$ declaration. ^1 

id offices and places, which they now hold by the grant 
of the said archbishop, or any other former archbishop of 
Cant, in such manner and form, and with those benefits, 
privileges, powers, and authorities, which they now have, 

5 hold, and enjoy therein, or thereout, severally and respec- 
tively, they and every of them, in their several places, 
being attendant and obedient unto you, the said George, 
bishop of London, Richard, bishop of Durham, John, 
bishop of Rochester, John, bishop of Oxford, and Wil- 

foliam, bishop of Bath and Wells, or to any four, three, or 
two of you, in all things, according to the tenour of this 
our commission, as they should or ought to have been to 
the said archbishop himself, if this commission had not 
been had or made. In witness whereof, we have caused 

15 these our letters to be made patent. Witness ourself at 
Westminster the ninth day of October, in the third year 
of our reign. 

Per ipsum regerrij 



Archieptic Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Angli» 

Ozo. Abbot 17. 1627. Carol. I. 3. 

His majesty's declaration. 

2oT3 EIN6 by God*s ordinance, according to our just title, 
JJ defender of the faith, and supreme governor of the 
church within these our dominions, we hold it most 
agreeable to this our kingly office, and our own religious 

Hu maje8ty*9 declaration] This declaration is supposed by Dr. Burn 

25 (Eccl. Law, vol. i. p. 99), by Dr. Blackburne (Confessional, p. 1 25), and 

others, to have been published in the first instance by king James I. ; 

but it has been satisfiEU^rily shewn that it was first issued in the year 

22S Kinff Charles L's dedaraHm. [CXXXVI. 

zeal, to conserve and maintain the chnrch committed to 
our charge in unity of true religion, and in the bond of 
peace ; and not to suffer unnecessary disputations, alter- 
cations, or questions to be raised, which may nourish fisuN 
tion both in the church and commonwealth. We haves 
therefore upon mature deliberation, and with the advice 
of so many of our bishops, as might conveniently be 
called together, thought fit to make this declaration 
foHoM'ing^: That the articles of the church of England, 
which have been allowed and authorized heretofore, and 'o 
which our clergy generally have subscribed unto, do con- 
tain the true doctrine of the church of England agreeable 

1628; and it may be inferred from the proceedings of the house of 
commons that it appeared during the interval between the prorogation 
of the 26th of June and the reassembling of the parliament on the fol- 15 
lowing 20th of January. Dr. Bum copied his mistake from Gibson's 
Codex, in which it appears to have originated ; and Dr. Blackbome 
assumed it on grounds which are altogether untenable ; as has been 
shewn bv Gloc. Ridlev in his " Letters to the Author of the Confes- 
sional." 3d Lett. Postscr. p. 172. •© 

The controversies of earlier origin, as well as those that were created 
by the recent sjmod of Dort, were revived and exasperated by the 
strong measures employed in the collection of the loan, and by the 
prominent part that was taken in its favour by many of the established 
clergy. It was therefore thought advisable to republish the Thirty-nine *S 
Articles, and to require all persons to abstain from all carioas disputes 
and speculations ; but the inevitable consequence was to condemii the 
Calvinistic interpretation which had hitherto prevailed. It was a con- 
test in which one party was admitted to be the strong^ of the two, 
but both were equally silenced. The declaration therefore that wasjo 
issued by the king, and was prefixed to the new edition of the artidei, 
was pronounced by the puritans to be Arminian and popish. The 
effect of it certainly w^as to repress the proceedings of the Calvinists ; 
as WHS shewn in the case of bishop Davenant, who was called before 
the council in March 1630, and rebuked for a sermon he had preached 35 
on the subject of the seventeenth article, not because he had inculcated 
any strange or erroneous doctrine, but solely because he had been dis- 
obedient to the royal mandate. (Two letters of bp. Davenant, in the 
Tanner MSS. vol. ccxc p. 89.) 

The pturliament had been prorogued in June immediately after the 40 

i6a70 King Charles L*s declaration. ^^3 

to 6od*8 word ; which we do therefore ratify and confirm*^, 
requiring all our loving subjects to continue in the uni- 
form profession thereof, and prohibiting the least difference 
from the said articles ; which to that end we command 
5 to be new printed, and this our declaration to be pub- 
lished therewith. 

That we are supreme governor of the church of Eng- 
land ; and that if any difference arise about the extenial 
policy, concerning the injunctions, canons, or other con- 
ic stitutions whatsoever thereto belonging, the clergy in 
their convocation is to order and settle them, having first 
obtained leave under our broad seal so to do; and we 

subsidies had been granted, which the king had purchased from the 
commons by acceding to the petition of rights ; but one of the first acts 

>5of the lower house after their reassembling in January 1629, was to 
protest against the declaration in the following manner : " We the com- 
mons in parliament assembled do claim, protest, and avow for truth, the 
sense of the articles of religion, (which were established by parliament 
in the 1 3th year of our late queen Elizabeth,) which by the public act of 

90 the church of England, and by the general and current expositions of 
the writers of our church has been delivered unto us. And we reject 
the sense of the Jesuits and Arminians and all others wherein they 
differ from us." 

Bishop Laud was accused at his trial of having interpolated this edi- 

95 tion of the articles by inserting a sentence of his own, at the beginning 
of the 20th article, respecting the authority of the church. There was 
some apparent foundation for the charge, inasmuch as the passage 
was not to be found in either of the two MSS. copies signed by the 
members of the convocation, nor yet in some of the most importcmt of 

30 the printed editions. But it certainly existed in others, especially in the 
first Latin edition printed by royal authority; and it was probably 
introduced by the queen after the articles had been approved by the 
convocation of 1562. We may admit however that we are indebted to 
bishop Laud for the publicity and confirmation that the passage has 

35 subsequently obtained. Rushw. vol. i. Collier, vol. ii. p. 746 Neal, 

Purit. vol. i. p. 519. Lamb's Articles, p. 35. Heylin's Laud, p. 188. 

Canterb. Doom, p. 163. Lingard, vol. vi. p. 288. Synodalia, vol. i. p. 39. 

« which we do therefore ratify and confirm] It was the constant maxim 

of queen Elizabeth, derived not so much from the statute of supremacy 

40 ( 1 Eliz. c. i.) as from the inseparable rights and prerogatives of the 

2^4 Kinn Charles i:$ dedaraium. [GXXXVI. 

approving their said ordinances and constitutions* provided 
that none be made contrary to the laws and customs of 
the land. 

That out of our princely care, that the churchmen 
may do the work which is proper unto them, the bi-s 
shops and clergy from time to time in convocation, upon 
their humble desire shall have license under our broad 
seal to deliberate of, and to do all such things, as being 
made plain by them, and' assented unto by us, shall con- 
cern the settled continuance of the doctrine and discipline lo 
of the church of England now established ; from which 
we will not endure any varying, or departing; in the least 

That for the present, though some differences have 
been ill raised, yet we take comfort in this, that all*5 

crown, that she might estahlish or repeal canons, and might ordain or 
abolish any religious rite or ceremony ; and that in so doing she might 
call in the aid of her council, of a commission of divines, of a convoca- 
tion or a parliament, as she judged most expedient. In the case of the 
Articles she considered their authority to rest upon her ratification of lo 
them after they had been prepared by the synod of the clergy for her 
examination and approval. This doctrine was adopted by archbishops 
Whitgift and Bancroft, and was sanctioned by solemn decisions from 
the highest legal authorities. It was also asserted by king James I. 
who declared in his first proclamation (No. CXVI.) that he would ^5 
" proceed according to the laws and customs of this realm by advice of 
his council, or in his high court of parliament, or by convocation of 
his clergy, as he should find reason to lead him," and afterwards com- 
manded alterations to be made in the book of Common Prayer without 
the authority of parliament. The proper ratification of articles on the 30 
part of the crown seems also from this declaration to have been main- 
tained by king Charles I. and his advisers ; but it may be inferred from 
the passage, in which he declares his supremacy as governor of the 
church, that he limited his powers more narrowly than his predecessors 
had done, and that he allowed the necessity of calling in the aid of the «> 
clergy in their convocation, not only in deciding points of doctrine, but 
also in case of difference arising on matters of external policy. This 
change was doubtless owing to the suggestions of Laud, and to the 
influence, which the church had obtained in the royal counsels. 

1627.3 Einp Charles I's declaration. 225 

clergymen within our realm have always most willingly 
subscribed to the articles established ; which is an argu- 
ment to us, that they all agree in the true usual literal 
meaning of the said articles, and that even in those 
5 curious points, in which the present differences lie, men of 
all sorts take the articles of the church of England to be 
for them ; which is an argument again that none of them 
intend any desertion of the articles established. 

That therefore in these both curious and unhappy 

10 differences, which have for so many hundred years, in 
different times and places, exercised the church of Christ, 
we will that all further curious search be laid aside, and 
these disputes shut up in God's promises, as they be 
generally set forth to us in the holy scriptures, and the 

IS general meaning of the articles of the church of England 
according to them. And that no man hereafter shall 
either print or preach to draw the article aside any way, 
but shall submit to it in the plain and full meaning 
thereof; and shall not put his own sense or comment to 

aobe the meaning of the article, but shall take it in the 
literal and grammatical sense. 

That if any public reader in either of our universities, 
or any head or master of a college, or any other person 
respectively in either of them shall affix any new sense to 

«5 any article, or shall publicly read, determine, or hold any 
public disputation, or suffer any such to be held either 
way in either of the universities or colleges respectively ; 
or if any divine in the universities shall preach or print 
any thing either way, other than is already established in 

30 convocation with our royal assent; he, or they the of- 
fenders, shall be liable to our displeasure and the church's 
censure in our commission ecclesiastical, as well as any 
other ; and we will see there shall be due execution upon 


SS6 Form of reeaving a« smmumii [CXXXVII 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Angli» 

Geo. Abbot 23. i^33* Carol. 1. 9. 

The archbisJtop^s letter about the ministering and receiving 
of the sacrament in the church of Crat/ford in Kent. — 
Reg. II. Abbot, fol. 143. b. 

GEORGE, by the providence of God archbishop of 
Cant, primate and metropolitan of all England, to 
our well beloved in Christ the parson, churchwardens, and 
other the parishioners and inhabitants of the parish of 
Crayford in the county of Kent and deanery of ShoTeham,5 
of the peculiar and immediate jurisdiction of us, and of 
our cathedral and metropolitical church of Christ Cant, 
and to all other persons whatsoever, to whom these pre- 
sents shall come, or may any way concern, greeting in 
our Lord God everlasting. Whereas upon some dif-w 
ference arising among you about the decent and reverend 
ministering and receiving of the holy communion in the 
chancel of the said church of Crayford, we upon the 
petition of you the parson did refer the vievring of the 
said church, and examination of the said difference unto '5 

The archbishop's letter] The petition that gave occasion to this letter 
grew out of the different interpretations of the 82nd canon, which re- 
quired that at the time of the communion the table " shall be placed in 
so good sort within the church or chancel, as thereby the minister may 
be more conveniently heard of the communicants in his prayer andM 
ministration, and the communicants also more conveniently, and in 
more number, may communicate with the said minister.'' Hie one 
party desired that it should be placed in the body of the chnrdi. in 
•order that the eucharist might be considered as a religioaa feast, the 
other wished it to be placed altar. wise at the east end of the chancel» 15 
in order that it might correspond with the nature of a religions 

1633.] at Oray/ard in Kent. 227 

sir Nathaniel Brent, knight, our vicar general, who having 
viewed the said church in the presence of you the said 
parson, churchwardens, and some others of the said parish, 
hath certified us what seems to him upon the said view 
5 to he most decent and convenient for the most reverend 
and orderly receiving of the holy communion in the said 
chancel of the said church. Now know you that upon 
the relation of the said sir Nathaniel, as also upon a 
mature and deliberate hearing of the parties interested in 

10 the said difference, in our manor house of Lambeth in 
the county of Surrey upon the 21st day of May, anno 
Domini mdcxxxiii. in the presence of our said vicar 
genera], and divers others, and also in the presence of 
Thomas Tane clerk, the now incumbent parson of the 

•5 parish church of Crayford, and Thomas Andrewes, John 
Ludlowe, churchwardens, and Joseph Bingham, Thomas 
King, and John Kettle, parishioners of the said parish of 
Crayford, and others then and there present, we have 
ordered and decreed, and by these presents do order and 

10 decree as followeth; "videlicet:** that the parishioners 
and inhabitants of the said parish of Crayford, and others 
intending hereafter to receive the holy communion there, 
shall repair unto the two ascents, or foot paces in the 
chancel before the communion table, and there mats 

«5 being laid upon the said two ascents, or foot paces, to 
kneel upon, and mats being also laid on either side above 

fice. Tbu8 a differeDce in the position of the table was made to distin- 
guish two opposite views in a theological dispute now reappearing in 
the chui^ch ; and there arose in consequence another article of dissen- 

^o sion between the two great parties, into which the whole community, 
whether churchmen or laymen, were divided. See N<». CXL. It is 
worthy of notice that the decision in this instance was given by arch- 
bishop Abbot, and would be considered adverse to the wishes and sen- 
timents of the puritanical party in the church, to which he was supposed 

35 to belong. The archbishop died on the 4th of August following. 
Comp. Fox's Martyrs, vol. ii. p. 700. ed. 1641. 


2S8 Form of receiving the sacrament Spe. [CXXXVII. 

the said steps to kneel upon, (if by reason of the number 
of communicants it seems requisite, the two ascents or 
foot paces being first filled,) they shall in decent and 
reverend manner humbly kneeling upon their knees on 
the said two ascents or foot paces, receive the holy com- 5 
munion and sacrament of the body and blood of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ ; and after the first com- 
pany hath received the same, they to return to their seats 
and places in the said church; and to give way for a 
second company to receive in like manner; and the>o 
second, after they have received in like manner, to return 
and give way for a third company, and the third to the 
fourth, and so successively, until all the communicants 
there have received the holy communion in manner and 
form aforesaid. And we do require you the minister of "5 
Crayford aforesaid, that upon some Sundays or holidays, 
in the time of divine service, you do publish and declare 
this our order and decree to the parishioners of the said 
parish of Crayford ; and we admonish you, the parishioners 
of Crayford, that upon notice of the premises, you be» 
obedient and conformable thereunto, as you vnll answer 
the contrary at your peril. Given under our archiepi- 
scopal seal at Lambhith the eighth day of July, anno 
Domini mdoxxxiii. and in the three and twentieth year 
of our translation. n 

><^33*] ItutruetioHS to archbishop Laud, <$*<;. S29 


Archiepisc Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Angliae 

OuiL. Lauo I. >633* Carol. I. 9. 

The king's instructions for the most reverend father in 
God our right trusty and right entirely beloved coun^ 
seUor William^ lord archbishop of Canterbury^ concern-^ 
ing certain orders to be observed and put in ea^ecution 
by the several bishops of his province^ anno Domini, 
MDCXXxm. — Ex MSS. Harleyanse Bibl. lib. 61. B. 
fol. 19. et Rymer. Foed. vol. xix. p. 470. 

I. fTIHAT the lords the bishops respectively be com- 
I- manded to their several sees, there to keep resi- 
dence, excepting those which are in necessary attendance 
at our court. 

5 II. That none of them reside upon his land or lease, 
that he hath purchased, nor on his commendam, if he 
hold any, but in one of his episcopal houses, and that he 
waste not the woods where any are left. 

III. That they give charge in their triennial visitations, 

«oand at other convenient times, both by themselves and 
the archdeacons, that our declaration for settling all 
questions in difference be strictly observed by all paities. 

The king* 8 instructions] It is evident from these instructions that 
lecturers, who had always been objects of suspicion in the church, had 

■5 been encouraged and increased by the influence of puritanical princi- 
ples, and had in their turn contributed to the growing spirit of inde- 
pendency. They were employed as chaplains in private houses, as 
occasional lecturers in market towns, and as preachers before corpo- 
rations ; and in aU these cases they were engaged by the dissatisfied 

20 parties in the church, and naturally adopted such practices and incul- 
cated such opinions as were agreeable to their employers. But the 
evil had been made more conspicuous by the system and organization 
that had been given to it. Twelve persons, all belonging to t 

230 IwtructwM to archUdwp Laud [OXXXVIIL 

IV. That there be a special care taken by them all, that 
their ordinations be solemn and not of unworthy persons. 

V. That they likewise take great care concerning the 
lecturers within their several dioceses, for whom we give 
these special directions following : s 

1. That in all parishes the afternoon sermons be turned 
into catechising, by questions and answers, where and 
whensoever there is not some great cause apparent to 
break this ancient and laudable order. 

2. Tliat every bishop take care in his diocese, that all'« 
lecturers do read divine service, according to the liturgy 
printed by authority, in their surplices and hoods, before 
the lecture. 

3. That where a lecture is set up in a market town, it 
may be read by a company of grave and orthodox divines '5 
near adjoining and of the same diocese, and that they ever 
preach in such seemly habits as belong to their degrees, 
and not in cloaks. 

4. That if a corporation maintain a single lecturer, he 
be not suffered to preach, till he professes his willingness to 
to take upon him a living with cure of souls within that 
corporation, and that he do actually take such benefice 
or cure, so soon as it shall be fairly procured for him. 

VI. That the bishops do countenance and encourage 
the grave and orthodox divines of their clergy ; and that «s 

puritan party, had formed themselves into a society for purcbaeing im- 
propriations, for estahhshing lectureships, for hiring schoolmasteTB, and 
for other purposes of a similar nature ; and being supported by ample 
subscriptions, they became the centre of a large religions party, and 
seemed likely to acquire a permanent control over the affairs of the.1o 
church. In the year 1630 Dr. HeyHn, in an Act sermon preached in 
Oxford, first pointed out the dangerous character of this new sodety ; 
and in the year 1 63 2 it was dissolved and its property confiflcated« on 
an information which had been laid against it by Noy the attorney 
general, as being an illegal association. Archbishop Laud speaka of it 35 
in his Diary (Feb. 13, 1632) as being "the main instrument for the 
puritan faction to undo the church." (Heylin's Land, p. 198. Can- 

1^33*3 far the bishops of his promnce. 231 

tfaej use means by gome of the clergy or others to have 
knowledge, how both the lecturers and preachers within 
their several dioceses behave themselves in their sermons, 
that so they may take present order for any abuse ac- 
5 cordingly. 

VII. That the bishops suffer none under noblemen 
or men qualified by law, to keep any private chaplain in 
his house. 

VIII. That they take special care that divine service 
lobe diligently frequented as well for prayers and catechism 

as sermons; and that particular notice be taken of all 
such as absent themselves as recusants or otherwise. 

IX. That no bishop* whatsoever, who by our grace and 
good opinion of his service shall be nominated by us to 

15 another bishopric, shall from the day of our nomination 
presume to make any lease for three lives or one and 
twenty years, or a concurrent lease, or any ways renew 
any estate, or cut any wood or timber, but merely re- 
ceive the rents due, and quit the place : for we think it a 

so hateful thing, that any man's preferment to a better 
bishopric should almost undo the successor. And if any 
shall presume to break this order, we will refuse him our 
royal assent, and keep him at the place which he hath 
so abused. 

»5 terb. Doom, p. 386. Wood's Ath. Ox. vol. iii. p. 554. Neal, Purit. 
vol. i. p. 548. Collier, vol. ii. p. 754. Rushw. vol. ii. p. 30. Lingard, 
vol. vi. p. 302.) This was the first gprievance to which the archbishop 
turned his attention, and he found his remedy in these instructions and 
in his letters respecting titles for ordination, which he issued imme- 

30 diately after his appointment. See N^. CXXXIX. For further parti- 
culars respecting the episcopal house at Cuddesden, the building of 
which was much promoted by the archbishop, see Laud's Diary of 
Sept 2, 1635. ^^^ Wood's Ath. Ox. vol. ii. p. 893. 

* IX, That no bishop] This just and salutary regulation was some- 

.^5 times suspended by the king himself ; as, in the instance of bishop 
Wren on his removal from the see of Hereford to that of Norwich in 
the year 1636. Wren^s Fkurental. p. 50. 

232 Instructions to archbishop Laud^ ^e. CXXXVIII.] 

X. That every bishop^ give his metropolitan a strict 
account yearly of their obedience to our late letters pro- 
hibiting them to change any leases from years into lives, 
and that they fail not to certify, if they find that the dean, 
or dean and chapter, or any archdeacon or prebendary 5 
etc. within their several dioceses have at any time broken 
our command in any particular contained in the aforesaid 

Xr. That every bishop to whom in regard of the small 
revenue of his bishopric, we either have already or shall lo 
hereafter not only give power but command to receive 
and hold as in commendam any lease expired, or near 
expiring, and belonging to the see, or any ecclesiastical 
benefice or benefices or other promotions with cure or 
without, being in his or their ow^n gift, by letters given is 
under our signet and sent to those bishops respectively, 
do likewise give an account yearly to his metropolitan, 
that he doth not put any of the aforenamed benefices or 
other preferment out of his commendam to give to any 
son, kinsman, friend, or other, upon any pretence whatso- «• 
ever, thereby to frustrate our gracious intention to the 
bishops succeeding to those several sees. 

XTI, That every bishop respectively do likewise in his 
yearly account to his metropolitan give notice of any 
notable alteration or other accident within his diocese, >5 
which may any ways concern either the doctrine or the 
discipline of the church established. 

XIIT. That whereas John Bancroft, doctor in divinity, 
and bishop of Oxford, hath very worthily at his own 
proper costs and charges built a house for himself and the jo 
bishops of Oxford successively by both our leave and en- 
couragement upon the vicarage of Cudsden near Oxford, 
which vicarage is in the patronage and gift of him and 
his successors ; and whereas our further will and pleasure 

b X. That every b'lshop'] See N© CXLII. 

'^33*] Orders against ardaininff any " sine tituhy 23S 

is, that the said house together with the vicarage afore- 
said shall ever be held in commendam by the bishops of 
Oxford successively; that therefore the said bishop for 
the time being do yearly give his particular account of 

5 his holding both the house and benefice aforesaid, to the 
end that we and our successors may upon all occasions be 
put in mind of keeping that house and vicarage to the 
see of Oxford at all times of change, when or howsoever 
that bishopric shall become vacant or void. 

lo XIV. Lastly we command every bishop respectively 
to give his account in writing to his metropolitan of all 
these our instructions, or as many of them as may concern 
him, at or before the tenth day of December yearly, and 
likewise that you out of them make a brief of your whole 

15 province, and present it to us yearly by the second day of 
January following ; that so we may see how the church 
is governed, and our commands obeyed : and hereof in 
any wise fail you not. 


Aruhiepi^c Cant. 

Anno Chri>ti 

Reg. Aiigliw 

(fUiL. Laud i. 


Carol. I. 9. 

The king*$ and archbishop^ s letters against wdaining any 
''^ sine titulo. — Rush. Col. vol. ii. fol. 213. Reg. Laud, 
fol. 191. 



SALUTEM injChristo." My very good Lord. His 
majesty hath been often and much troubled upon 

The king* 8 and archbishop* 8 letters'] See N©. CXXX VIII. Archbishop 
Laud was confirmed on the 19th of September 1633, and on the same 
day was issued the king's letter, which the archbishop, says Dr. Heylin, 
had both advised and digested, (Laud. p. 255.) against ordaining any 
^5 " sine titulo." The evil of which he complained was that many persons 
were admitted into holy orders without any title assigning them to a 

234 Orders (ij^inst artlaining any ''*' sine tUuloJ* [CXXXEL 

complaints, which have been made unto him by the lords 
and other men of quality, concerning the multitude of 
both unlearned and unworthy ministers, which pester the 
church and are always the causes of great scandal, and 
too often of schism and divisions therein, and some ofs 
them are forced, to the shame of themselves and their 
calling, for want of means, to beg for their living, and 
yet are daily made in great numbers, and that directly 
against the canon of the church, which requires that no 
man should be made a minister "sine titulo." Forw 
remedy of this great abuse and wrong to the church, his 
majesty has directed his letters to me, and by them re- 
quired me to call all such bishops to me, as were then in 
or about the city, and after consultation with them, to 
send my letters to every several bishop within the pro- 15 
vinee, to require obedience to the canon of the church, 
and his majesty's directions according to it; the tenourof 
which his majesty's letter followeth: Most reverend 
father in God, right trusty and right entirely beloved 
counsellor, we greet you well. There is nothing more^ 
dear to us, than the preservation of true religion, as it is 
now settled and established in this our kingdom, to the 
honour of God, and the great comfort of ourself, and our 
loyal people ; and there can nothing more conduce to the 
advancement thereof, than the strict observation of such 25 
canons of the church, as concern those, that are to take 
orders in their several times, more especially to the keep- 
ing of that particular canon, which enjoineth, that no man 

pastoral or collegiate duty, and were therefore comi)el]ed, in order to 
maintain themselves, to become itinerants, or "to undertake some sti- 30 
pendiary lecture, wherever they could find entertainment, to the great 
fomenting of faction in the state, the danger of schism in the church, and 
ruin of both/' In conformity with the king's commands, the archbishop 
declared that the 33 rd canon allowed of certain cases of title, and of none 
other. Although his rules were in accordance with the canon, theyiS 
gave rise to complaints, at a period when any attempt at revmng 

'^330 Orden against ordaining ang *'' isine titulo,"^ ^5 

be made a priest or a minister without a title : for we 
find that many not so qualified^ do by favour or other 
means procure themselves to be ordained, and afterwards 
for want of means, wander up and down to the scandal 

5 of their calling; or to get maintenance, fall upon such 
courses as are most unfit for them, both by humouring 
their auditories, and other ways altogether unsufferable : 
we have therefore thought fit, and we do hereby straitly 
require and charge you to call such bishops to you, as 

loare now present in or near our city of London, and to 
acquaint them with this our resolution ; and further, that * 
you fail not in the beginning of the next term to give 
notice of this our will and pleasure openly in our high 
commission court, and that you call into our said court 

15 every bishop respectively, that shall presume to give 
orders to any man, that hath not a title, and there to 
censure him as the canon aforesaid doth enjoin, which is 
to maintain the party so ordered till he give him a title, 
and with what other censure you in justice shall think 

30 fit. And our ftirther will is, that nothing shall be re- 
puted a title to enable a man for orders, but that which 
is so by the ancient course of the church, and the canon 
law, so far forth as that law is received in this our church 
of England. And as you must not fail in these our 

»5 directions, nor in any part of them, so we expect that 
you give us from time to time a strict account of your 
proceedings in the same. Given under our signet at our 
palace of Westm. the nineteenth day of September, in 
the ninth year of our reign. 

30 ancient dicipline would meet with great obstruction ; and this attempt 
accordingly became another addition to the many points at issue in the 
great and fierce contention of the times. " By reason of these rules, 
no lecture whatsoever was admitted to be a canonical title ; and so all 
ordinations of ministers to supply lectures was totally secluded ; also 

35 no chaplainship to any nobleman's family was allowed to be a sufficient 
title.*' Rushw. vol. ii. p. 214. Heylin's Laud, p. 255. 

S36 Orders against ordaiihing any " rine tUulo^ [CXXXIX. 

According to these letters, I am to pray and require 
you, that at all times of ordination you be very careful to 
admit none into holy orders, but such men, as for life 
and leaniing are fit, and which have a title for their 
maintenance, according to the laws and ancient practices 
of the church. And his majesty hath further com- 
manded me to advertise your lordship, that he will not 
fail to call for an account of these his letters both of me 
and you. Thus not doubting but you will have a special 
care both of the good of the church, and his majesty's lo 
contentment herein, I leave you to the grace of God, and 

Your lordship'' s vei^y loving friend and brother^ 

Lambeth, Oct. 24. W. CaNT. 


The archbishop's declaration what is a title according to 
the canon. — Ilushworth's Coll. vol. ii. p. 214. Ileylin's 
Life of Laud ad annum. 

I. A PRESENTATION to some ecclesiastical pre- 15 

JljL ferment. 

II. Or, a certificate undoubted, that he is })rovided of 
some church void there. 

III. Or, a grant of some petty canon's place, or the 
like, in a cathedral or a collegiate church. » 

IV. Or, a fellow, or in the right of a fellow in some 
college in Oxford or Cambridge. 

V. Or, a eoiuluct^ or a chaplain in some college in 
Oxford, or Cambridge. 

^' V. Or, a conduct] Distinct from a chaplain, holding indeed the same 35 
kind of office, but without endowment. " Preces . . . per aliquem sacris 
ordinibus initiatum, communi aularium sumptu condacendam, perm* 
gantur." Statuta Aul. Univ. Oxon. 

1^33*] Orden about the cammtmian table Sfc, 287 

VI. Or, a master of arts of five years standing, living 
at his own charge in either of the universities. 

VII. Or, the intention of the bishop that ordains, 
shortly to admit him to some benefice, or curate's place 

5 then void. 

And I think the canon intends, that after a man is 
once admitted a curate, the parson or vicar of the place 
should not have power to put them off at pleasure, but 
only for such criminal unworthiness, as might deprive 

lohim of his benefice, if he had one. 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Angliae 

GuiL. Laud i. 1633. Carol. I. 9. 

An order of council for placing the communion table in 
St. Gregory's church. — Rushw. Col. vol. ii. fol. 207. 

At Whitehall November 3. mdcxxxiii. 

THIS day was debated before his majesty, sitting in 
council, the question and difference, which grew 
about the removing the communion table in St. Gregory's 
church, near the cathedral church of St. Paul, from the 

15 An order of council] See No. CXXXVII. Rushw. vol. ii. p. 207. 
Heylin's Laud, p. 259. It seems to have been the practice in churches 
to place the communion table for the administration of the sacrament, 
in such a centrical situation as might be most convenient for the 
minister and the communicants. This practice began in the reign of 

30 king Edward VI., when bishop Ridley removed the ancient altars, and 
afterwards obtained letters from the council to confirm what he had 
done (dated Nov. 24, 1550). It continued also in the time of queen 
Elizabeth, from whose Injunctions (No. XLIII. p. 233.) it is evident 
that the table when required for the communion was removed from its 

25 customary position, where the altar had formerly stood, and was placed 
in a more convenient situation within the church. The same practice 

238 Order abo^U the communicn table [CKL. 

middle of the chancel to the upper end, and there placed 
altarwise, in such manner as it standeth in the said cathe- 
dral, and mother church, as also in all other cathedrals 
and in his majesty's own chapel, and as is consonant to 
the practice of approved antiquity ; which removing and i 
placing of it in that sort was done by order of the dean 
and chapter of St. Paul's, who are ordinaries thereof, as 
was avowed before his majesty by Dr. King, aud Dr. 
Montford, two of the prebends there ; yet some few of 
the parishioners, being but five in number, did complain lo 
of this act, by ai)[)eal to the court of arches, pretending 
that the book of Common Prayer and the 82d canon do 
give permission to place the communion table where it 
may stand with most fitness and convenience. Now his 
majesty having heard particular relation made by the 15 
council of both parties of all the carriage and proceed- 
ings in this cause, was pleased to declare his dislike of 
all innovation, and receding from ancient constitutions, 
grounded upon just and warrantable reasons, especially 
in matters concerning ecclesiastical order and govem-«o 
mcnt ; knowing how easily men are drawn to afiect 
novelties, and how soon weak judgments in such cases 
may be overtaken and abused. And he was also pleased 
to observe, that if those few parishioners might have their 
wills, the difference thereby from the aforesaid cathednd'5 

has also been commended by bishop Jewel, as may be seen from his 
reply to Harding, (p. 144. ed. 1609.) by bishop Babington, by Dr. 
Fulke and other eminent divines. But independently of the disorder 
which had in some places arisen from the practice, and the greater 
degree of external observance that had gradually been gaining groond^o 
in religious ordinances, the position of the table had now become the 
token of a distinct and solemn belief as to the nature of the eachuist, 
and was therefore treated as a question of conscience and an article of 
faith. The archbishop's religious opinions coincided with the strictest 
view of the case ; and having this order of council in his iavour, he 35 
proceeded gradually to establish a uniform practice respecting it. For 
cathedrals (as we find from the statutes enjoined by him in his own 

1 633*] «■ Si. Grwruys dkmrck. 

mother church, hj which all other churches depending 
thereon ought to be guided, would be the more notorious, 
and give more subject of discourse and disputes, that 
might be spared, by reason of the nearness of St. Gre- 

sgory's, standing close to the wall thereof. And likewise 
for so much as concerns the liberty of tbe said Common 
Prayer book or canon, for placing the communion table 
in any church or cha|>el with most conveniency ; that 
liberty is not so to be understood, as if it were ever left 

>o to the discretion of tbe parish, much less to the particular 
fancy of any humorous person, but to the judgment of 
the ordinary, to whose place and function it doth pro- 
perly belong to give direction in that point, both for the 
thing itself, and the time when, and how long, as he 

>5 may find cause. Upon which consideration his majesty 
declared himself, that he well approved and confirmed 
the act of the said ordinary, and so gave commandment, 
that if those few parishioners before mentioned do pro- 
ceed in their said appeal, then the dean of the arches, 

««who was then attending at the hearing of the cause, 
should confirm the said order of the aforesaid dean and 

cathedral) he required that the altar should he placed at the east end, 
and he provided with candlesticks, hason, carpet and other furniture ; 

*S and that in all approaches to the altar due reverence should be made to 
God hy bowing toward it. For parish churches (as we learn from 
orders issued in the diocese of Norwich,) he ordained that the table 
should stand close under the east wall of the chancel, the ends thereof 
north and south, and that the rail be made before it, reaching across 

30 from the north wall to the south. (N^. CXLIII.) These regulations 
however did not generally take effect till about the year 1636, and not 
without the greatest opposition. Rushw. vol. ii. p 278. Wilkins, Cone. 
veil. iv. p. 526. Heylin's Laud, p. 291. Canterbury's Doom, P. i. p. 87. 
Neal, Furit. vol. i. p. 565. Collier, vol. ii. p. 762. 

240 Th^ Hnffs declaration about [CXLI. 


Archicpiso, Cant. Anno (.hriati Reff- AngH» 

GuiL. Laud I. 1633. Carol. 1. 9. 

The king's majesU/s declaration to his subjects concerning 

lawful sports to be used. 

By the king. 

OUR dear father of blessed jnemory iu his return from 
Scotland, coming through Lancashire, found that 
his subjects were debarred from lawful recreations upon 
Sundays after evening prayers ended, and upon holidays: 
and he prudently considered, that if these times were 5 
taken from them, the meaner sort, who labour hard all 
the week, should have no recreations at all, to refresh 
their spirits. And after his return, he further saw that 

TJie king* 8 majesty* s declaration] In the year 1617, during bis journey 
into Scotland and his return homeward, king James indulged his court 10 
in all possible diversions, to the g^eat gratification of the new favourite, 
the future duke of Buckingham. Great was the contrast between the 
loose revelry of the king, and the stem morality of bis subjects, more 
especially in such districts as the county of Lancaster, where, owing to 
the prevalence of popery, the puritans carried their sentiments also to 15 
the utmost degree of strictness, and both parties, by a kind of mutual 
repulsion, were equally distinguished for their superstitions practices. 
In the following year the king published his Book of Sports, but did not 
long insist upon its observance, being influenced probably by the repre- 
sentations of several of his bishops. " Archbishop Abbot," says WQson, «o 
" being at Croydon the day it was ordered to be read in cbnrches, 
flatly forbade it to be read there ; which king James was pleased to 
wink at, notwithstanding the daily endeavours that were used to irri- 
tate the king against him." Kennet, vol. ii. p. 709. Hallam, vol. i. 
p. 43 1 . Collier, vol. ii. p. 7 1 1 . 15 

In the year 1 633 the same question was revived, but with the addi- 
tional misfortune of involving in it a contest between civil and eccle- 
siastical authority-. Tlie magistrates and judges of assize acting in 
the county of Somerset had ordered all revels and wakes to be sup- 

1653.] lawful tparti an the LarcTi day. Ml 

bi8 loyal subjects in all other parts of the kingdom did 
snfier in the same kind, though perhaps not in the same 
degree ; and did therefore in his princely wisdom publish 
a declaration to all his loving subjects concerning lawful 
5 sports to be used at such times ; which was printed and 
published by his royal commandment in the year mdcxviii. 
in the tenour, which hereaftor followeth : 

Bt/ the king. 

Whereas upon our return the last year out of Scotland 
we did publish our pleasure touching the recreations of 

■oour people in those parts under our hand ; for some causes 
us thereunto moving we have thought good to command 
these our directions, then given in Lancashire, with a few 
words thereunto added, and most a])plicable to these parts 
of the realms, to be published to all our subjects. 

«5 Whereas we did justly in our progress through Lan- 
cashire rebuke some puritans and precise people, and took 

pressed, including the feasts of the dedication of churches, and required 
the clergy to make publication of these orders within their several 
parishes. The archbishop complained to the king in coimcil ; and 

so chief justice Richardson, who was mainly instrumental in the matter, 
was soon afterwards compelled to revoke the orders that he had given. 
And thus it became a question of strong party feeling, and of extreme 
opinion, which grew out into feuds and divisions, as soon as the king 
put forth his Book of Sports, and the clergy were required to publish 

2$ it in their respective churches. Nothing could be more trying to the 
conscience of individuals, or more fatal to the efficiency of the church. 
Many consequently were suspended or deprived : some were excom- 
municated. But even this was not all : for the dissension revived, and 
brought within its vortex, the old dispute respecting the divine authority 

30 of the sabbath ; and so forcing itself into questions from which it 
might otherwise have been excluded, it involved all classes of men, the 
learned as well as the uninformed, the theologian as well as the zealot, 
in the universal discord. And this was a crisis in the history of the 
church of England. Rushw. vol. ii. pp. 192. 459. Heylin's Laud, 

35 P- *57- Neal, Purit. vol. i. p. 558. Collier, vol. ii. p. 758. Canterb. 
Doom, p. 153. Hallam, vol. i. p. 5 12. 

242 The king's declaration about [CXLI. 

order, that the like unlawful carriage should not be used 
by any of them hereafter, in the prohibiting and unlawful 
punishing of our good people for using their lawful recrea- 
tions and honest exercises uj)on Sundays and other holi- 
days after the afternoon sermon or service ; we now find 5 
that two sorts of people, wherewith that country is much 
infected (we mean papists and puritans) have maliciously 
traduced and calumniated those our just and honourable 
proceedings. And therefore lest our reputation might 
upon the one side (though innocently) have some asper-'® 
sion laid upon it, and that upon the other part our good 
people in that country be misled by the mistaking and 
misrepresentation of our meaning; we have therefore 
thought good hereby to clear and make our pleasure to 
be manifested to all our good people in those parts. '5 

It is true, that at our first entry to this crown and 
kingdom we were informed, and that too truly, that our 
county of Lancashire abounded more in popish recusants^ 
than any county of England ; and hath still continued to 
our great regret with little amendment, save that now of «o 
late in our last riding through our said county we find 
both by the report of the judges, and of the bishop of the 
diocese, that there is some amendment now daily begin- 
ning, which is no small contentment to us. 

The report of this growing amendment amongst them 15 
made us the more sorry, when with our own ears we 
heard the general complaint of our people, that they were 
barred from all lawful recreation and exercise upon the 
Sunday afternoon, after the ending of all divine service, 
which cannot but produce two evils; the one the hindering .10 
of the conversion of many, whom their priests will take 
occasion hereby to vex, persuading them that no honest 
mirth or recreation is lawful on those days, which cannot 
but breed a great discontentment in our people's hearts, 
especially of such as are peradventure upon the point of =15 
turning ; the other inconveniency is, that this prohibition 

^^SS'] latff/id spofU on the Lord^s day, 24S 

barreth the common and meaner sort of people from using 
such exercises as may make their bodies more able for 
war, whenever we or our successoi-s shall have occasion 
to use them ; and in place thereof, sets up filthy tiplings 

5 and drunkenness, and breeds a number of idle and dis- 
contented speeches in their alehouses. For when shall 
the common people have leave to exercise, if not upon 
Sundays and holidays, seeing they must live by their 
labour, and win their living in all working days ? 

lo Our express pleasure therefore is, that the laws of our 
kingdom and canons of our church be as well observed in 
that county, as in all other places of this our kingdom. 
And on the other part that no lawful recreations shall be 
barred to our good people, which shall not tend to the 

15 breach of our aforesaid laws, and canons of our church : 
which to express more jiarticularly, our pleasure is, that 
the bishops and all other inferior clergymen and church- 
wardens shall for their parts be careful and diligent both 
to instruct the ignorant, and convince and reform them 

30 that are misled in religion, presenting them that will not 
conform themselves but obstinately stand out, to our 
judges and justices : whom we likewise command to put 
the laws in due execution against them. Our pleasure 
likewise is, that the bishop of the diocese take the like 

n strait order with all the puritans and precisians within 
the same, either constraining them to conform themselves, 
or to leave the county, according to the laws of our king- 
dom, and canon of our church, and so to strike equally 
on both hands against the contemners of our authority 

30 and adversaries of our church. And as for our good 
people's lawful recreation, our pleasure likewise is, that 
after the end of divine service our good people be not 
disturbed, letted, or discouraged from any lawful recrea- 
tion, such as dancing, either men or women, archery for 

35 men, leaping, vaulting, or any other such harmless recrea- 
tion, nor from having of May-games, Whitsun-ales, and 

K 2 

S44 The king's dedaratim alxmi lawfiU tpcrit 4^. [CXLI. 

morris-dances, and the setting up of May-poles, and other 
sports therewith used, so as the same be had in due and 
convenient time, without impediment or neglect of divine 
service : and that women shall have leave to carry rushes 
to church for the decoring of it, according to their olds 
custom. But withal we do here account still as prohibit- 
ed all unlawful games to be used on Sundays only, as 
bear and bull baitings, interludes, and at all times in the 
meaner sort of people by law prohibited bowling. 

And likewise we bar from this benefit and liberty all lo 
such known recusants, either men or women, as will 
abstain from coming to church or divine service, being 
therefore unworthy of any lawful recreation after the said 
service, that will not first come to church and serve God. 
Prohibiting in like sort the said recreations to any that, 15 
though conform in religion, are not present in the church 
at the service of God, before their going to the said 
recreations. Our pleasure likewise is, that they, to whom 
it belongeth in office, shall present and sharply punish all 
such, as in abuse of this our liberty will use these ezer-ao 
cises before the end of all divine services for that day. 
And we likewise straitly command, that every person 
shall resort to his own parish church to hear divine ser- 
vice, and each parish by itself to use the said recreations 
after divine service. Prohibiting likewise any oiFensive »5 
weapons to be carried or used in the said times of recrea- 
tions. And our pleasure is, that this our declaration shall 
be published by order from the bishop of the diocese 
through all the parish churches, and that both our judges 
of our circuits, and our justices of our peace be informed^ 
thereof. Given at our manor of Greenwich the 24th day 
of May, in the 1 6th year of our reign of England, France, 
and Ireland, and of Scotland the 51st. 

Now out of a like pious care for the service of God, 
and for suppressing of any humours that oppose truth, 55 
and for the ease, comfort, and recreation of our well 

'^33*1 '^^ arcMUhcp of Canterbury's letter ahout sports, 5i45 

deserving people, we do ratify and publish this our blessed 
father's declaration, the rather because of late in some 
counties of our kingdom we find, that under pretence of 
taking away abuses there hath been a general forbidding 

5 not only of ordinary meetings, but of the feasts of the 
dedication of the churches, commonly called " Wakes." 
Now our express will and pleasure is, that these feasts 
with others shall be observed, and that our justices of the 
peace in their several divisions shall look to it, both that 

loall disorders there may be prevented or punished, and 
that all neighbourhood and freedom with manlike and 
lawful exercises be used. And we further command our 
justices of the assize in their several circuits to see that 
no m^ do trouble or molest any of our loyal and dutiful 

15 people in or for their lawful recreations, having first done 
their duty to God, and continuing in obedience to us and 
our laws. And of this we command all our judges, jus- 
tices of the peace, as well within liberties as without, 
mayors, bailiffs, constables, and other officers to take 

«o notice of and see observed, as they tender our displeasure. 
And we further Mrill that publication of this our command 
be made by order from the bishops through all the parish 
churches of their several dioceses respectively. Given at 
our palace of Westminster the 18th day of October, in 

«5 the 9th year of our reign. 

God save the king. 

The archbishop of Canterbury's letter about sports on the 
Lord's day. — Reg. Laud, fol. 192. a. 

" C^ALUTEM in Christo." My very good lord. It 
O hath pleased his majesty to command the reprint- 
ing of a declaration published in his royal father's time of 
blessed memory, and intituled, " The king's majesty's 
30 declaration to his subjects concerning lawful sports to be 

246 King Gharlei letter ahwA leases. [GXLII. 

used, etc/' wherein, as your lordship shall find at the latter 
end thereof, every bishop is enjoined to see that the books 
be distributed to the several parishes within his diocese, 
and there published to the people, to the end they may 
know his majesty's princely care over them; and to the 5 
effectual performance of this I make no doubt but your 
lordship will use all diligence. And I am commanded to 
give you notice hereof, because his majesty expects no 
less from you ; and your officers are to send for the books 
accordingly. So with my lave remembered, I leave you w 
to the grace of God, and rest 

Your lordships very loving friend and brother^ 

Lambeth, October 28. \Y. CaNT. 



Archiepisc Caiiu Anno ("hristi R«g. Angliie 

GuiL. Laud i. 1634. Carol. I. ao. 

King Charles' letter about leases. — Reg. Laud, fol. 202, b. 

MOST reverend father in God, right trusty, and right 
entirely beloved counsellor, we greet you well. We «5 
have of late taken the state of our several archbishoprics 
and bishoprics into our princely consideration, that we 
may be the better able to preserve that livelihood, which 

King Charles' lelter-] See N '=>. LXXXIII. CXXXVIII. " On the 
same day on which the new statutes w^ere received at Oxon, he [the lo 
archbishop] procured a supplement to be added to the old statutes of 
cathedral and collegiate churches, touching the letting of their lands. 
Some informations had been given, that the deans and prebends of 
those churches had enricht themselves, their wives and children, by 
taking great tines for turning leases of 21 years into leases for lives, 25 
leaving their successors destitute of that growing means, which other* 
wise might come in to help them. This was the outside of the business; 
but the chief motive to it was, that the gentry and yeomanry (and some 

1 634*] King Charles' letter about leases. 247 

as jet is left unto them. Upon this deliberation we find, 
that of later times there hath not risen a greater incon- 
veniencey than by turning leases of one and twenty years 
into lives ; for by that means the present bishop puts a 
5 great fine into his own purse to enrich himself, his wife, 
and children, and leaves his successors, of what desert 
soever to us, and the church, destitute of that growing 
means, which else would come in to help them. By 
which course, should it continue, scarce any bishop would 

lobe able to live and keep house, according to his place 
and calling. We know the statute makes it alike lawful 
for a bishop to let his lease for one and twenty years, or 
three lives ; but time and experience have made it appa- 
rent, that there is a great deal of difference between 

15 them, especially in church leases, where men are com- 
monly in great years before they come to those places. 
These are therefore to will and command you, upon peril 
of our utmost displeasure, and what shall follow thereon, 
that notwithstanding any statute, or any other pretence 

20 whatsoever, you presume not to let any lease belonging 
to your archbishopric into lives, which is not in lives 
already; and further, that when any fair opportunity is 
offered you, if any such be, you fail not to reduce such 
as are in lives, into years. And we do likewise will and 

15 require, that these our royal letters may remain upon 
record, both with your own register, and with the register 
of the dean and chapter of your cathedral church at 

of the nobility also) holding lands of those charches, might have a 
greater respect to the church and churchmen, when they must depend 

30 upon them from time to time for renewing of their said estates at the 
end of every ten or twelve years at the most. For though it be alike 
lawful by the law of the land 13 EUiz. c. 20, to make leases of three 
lives or one and twenty years, at the pleasure of the dean and chapter, 
yet the difference is so great between them, that once a tenant to my 

35 knowledge, after a lease for three lives had continued 29 years in being, 
chose rather to give a fine for the chimge of one life, than to take a new 
lease of 2 1 years without paying any thing." Ueylin's Laud, p. 3 19. 

248 Kinp Chartei letter about leaeee. [CXLII. 

Cant., and that by them notice be given to all your 
Buccessors Fespectively, whom we will that these letters 
shall concern as much as yourself, that they presume not 
to break any of these our commands in the least manner* 
as both you and they will answer it at your and theirs 
uttermost peril. Given under our signet at our manor 
of Greenwich the two and twentieth day of June, in the 
tenth year of our reign. 


Sic indorsatur:" To t/ie most reverend father in Godf 
our right trusty and right entirdjf beloved counseUor^ 
William^ lord arcJibishop of Canterbury^ primate and 
metropolitan of all England. 

The archbishop of Canterbury* s letter about the same. — ^Ibid. 

fol. 207. a. 

" O ALUTEM in Christo." My very good lord. Whereas 

O his majesty in a princely consideration of the several lo 
bishoprics of this kingdom hath, amongst others, written 
to your lordship, to take care that hereafter the lands 
belonging to your see be let for one and twenty yean^ 
and not for three lives, for the benefit of the church and 
your successors ; I make no doubt, but you will carefully 15 
observe that his gracious pleasure ; but in that diocese I 
hold it requisite you enlarge your care concerning the 
lands of your bishopric already demised. I pray there- 
fore and do hereby require you to call upon every tenant 
that holds lands of your bishopric, that he make aio 
survey of the lands he holds, and set the quantity of acres, 
the particular names of the closes, and other lands, as 
they are and have been called, and in what township, 
parish, or county the same and every part thereof lieth ; 
and if it be possibles that they do this before Michaelmas 35 
day next ; also that they certify you how long they and 

1 634- J King Charlei letter about leasei, 249 

their ancestors have held the said lands, now in lease to 
them; and what houses they, or their ancestors have 
suffered to decay, and what remain in repair upon the 
same; and whether the rents answered unto the bishop- 

sric, be out of the lands they hold by the said several 
leases respectively, or out of any other lands, held from 
the ai'chbishopric, which they do receive of the bishop's 
freeholders as a chief; and that they express by what 
right they receive such rents; and how much the rents 

loare, if they be not issuing out of the lands demised unto 
them. And though this course be taken, yet it is not 
intended that you shall be concluded hereby, but the 
end is to prevent the concealment of the church's land, 
and to discover such as go about to conceal the same: 

15 and if you make it appear, that any tenant of your lord- 
ship doth hold more lands than he doth acknowledge 
upon this survey, I will inform his majesty of him, and 
his course against the church, that such further order 
may be taken with him as shall appertain to justice. 

so But I hope they will all deal fairly and conscionably with 
you. Thus recommending to you in this the care both of 
yourself and successors, I leave you to the grace of God, 
and rest 

Your lordship^ s very loving friend and brother y 

Croydon. August 16. yf^ CaNT 


Explication of the king's letter to the archbishop about 
leases. — Reg. Laud, fol. 208. b. 

Charles Rex. 

MOST reverend father in God, right trusty and right 
entirely beloved counsellor, we greet you well. 
Whereas we did of late direct our princely letters unto 
yourself, bearing date the two and twentieth day of June 

S50 King CharUs' letter about ham. [CXLII. 

last past, as also other our letters to the dean and chapter 
of your cathedral church, whereby we did expressly forbid 
the letting of any church-lease or leases into lives by 
you or them, or any of your or their successors respect- 
ively, excepting only such leases as were before the date 5 
of those our letters granted for lives; and concerning 
which we did require both you and every of them by 
all lawful means to endeavour, that they might be re- 
duced to years again ; all which we have done for the 
great good and advancement of the church, as we doubt '• 
not in future times will plainly appear: now, forasmuch 
as we have been infonned, that some, more affecting their 
present private gain, than the future good of the church, 
whereof they are members, have misinterpreted those 
our princely letters, and do conceive that the meaning >5 
is to prohibit only the letting of such leases into lives, as 
are granted by the dean and chapter of any church, by 
common consent, and that every particular dean, arch- 
deacon, or j)reben(l, who hath any corps belonging to his 
dignity, might notwitlistanding dispose of it for lives, »© 
without breach of our royal command, as if we would 
direct our letters to a body in general, and not intend 
to include every several member thereof; these are there- 
fore to will and require you, that you fail not to signify 
this explanation of our princely pleasure to your several's 
archdeacons, and to the dean and chapter of your cathe- 
dral church, that they may impart to it every prebend; 
which is, that we do not only lay these our commands 
upon them, and their successors in general, but likewise 
upon every particular member of that church, whom theyj© 
may any way concern, from the highest to the meanest 
officer in the same, including the vicars choral in what 
church soever any such bodv is. And that no doubts 
further may hereafter be made concerning this matter, 
we will that these our letters, together with our former, 35 
should remain upon record, both in your registry and the 

1636.] BisAop WrevCi ordert cmd directions Sfc, 251 

registry of the dean and chapter there, that so both they 
and their successors, from time to time, may take notice 
of them accordingly, as they will answer the contrary at 
their utmost perils. Given under our signet at our 
5 honour of Hampton Court the sixth day of October, in 
the tenth year of our reign. 


Archiepisc. Cunt. Anno Christ! Reg. Angliae 

OuiL. Laud 3. 1636. Carol. I. 12. 

Particuhr orders^ directions^ and remembrances given in 
the diocese of Norwich upon the primary visitation of 
the reverend father in God^ Matthev) [ Wren\ lord 
bishop of that see. — Reg. Norwic. in ann. 

I. rriHAT the whole divine service be read, both the 
-L first and second service, on Sundays and holi- 
days and lecture days, if they have any : and that the 
communion service, called the second service, be audibly 
10 and distinctly read at the communion table unto the end 
of the Nicene Creed before the sermon or homily ; yet 

Particular orders] These orders may be considered as exhibiting the 
wishes and directions of the archbishop, not only on account of the 
close friendship subsisting between him and bishop Wren (to which 

15 they were solemnly pledged by their royal master), but also on account 
of their perfect accordance in matters of faith and discipline, and the 
like and common charges which were afterwards brought against them 
in the days of their persecution. At the end of the year 1635 the 
archbishop reported to the king, in the account which it was his annual 

10 practice to render respecting his province, that the diocese of Norwich, 
being then without a bishop, " was much out of order, and more 
especially at Yarmouth and Ipswich." At the end of the following year 
he reported from the certificate sent to him by bishop Wren, that 
measures had been taken for bringing the diocese into perfect order, 

35 by requiring the practice of catechizing, by restraining and regulating 

^2 Bishop Wren'i onUn and direeiimu [OXUII. 

so 08 in very large churches the minister may come nearer 
to read the Epistle and Gospel, and aflLer the sermon and 
homily the prayer for the whole state of Christ's church, 
and one or more of the appointed collects at the com- 
munion table likewise ; and there to dismiss the congre-s 
gation with The peace of God, etc. 

TI. That the prayer before the sermon or homily be 
exactly according to the LV^^ canon, " mutatis mutandis,** 
only to move the people to pray in the words there pre- 
scribed, and no otherwise, unless he desire to interpose lo 
the name of the two universities, and of a patron ; and 
no prayer to be used in the pulpit after sermon, but the 
sermon to be concluded with Glory be to the Father, etc. 
and so come down from the pulpit. 

III. That the communion table in every church dots 
alwavs stand close under the east wall of the chancel, the 
ends thereof north and south, unless the ordinary give 
particular direction otherwise, and that the rail be made 
before it according to the archbishop's late injunctions, 
reaching cross from the north wall to the south wall, nearw 
one yard in height, so thick with pillars, that dogs may 
not get in. 

IV. That the litany be never omitted on Sundays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, and that at all times the 

chaplains and lecturers, and by other salutary methods ; asking at the 15 
same time for instructions respecting scholars acting as achodlmasten 
in private houses, and other points of ecclesiastical diacipline. On 
making this report the archbishop observed, it appeared therefrom that 
the bishop " had deserved very well of the church of England.'* Hie 
bishop had in the mean time issued a long and minute list of artidee of 30 
inquiry, and upon the answers he received, he had founded his " Par- 
ticular orders, directions, and remembrances." From the onsatiBfactory 
»tate of his diocei^e, and from his own love of discipline, he carried hia 
regulations so far and so exactly, that even lord Clarendon deacribea 
him as of a ''severe sour nature," and charges him with being the 35 
occasion of banishing the manufactures of that wealthy diatrict into 
foreign parts, by means of his severities against dissenting 

1636.] giibm in the diocese of Norwich, 253 

minister be in his surplice and hood whensoever he is in 
pablic to perform any part of his priestly function ; and 
that in reading the chapters he leave out the contents, 
and after the lessons do use no psalms or hymns, but 

^ those that are appointed in the Common Prayer book. 

V. That the " Gloria Patri" be said after every psalm, 

all standing up ; and that the people do audibly make all 

answers in the litany, and all other parts of the service, 

as is appointed in the book of Common Prayer ; and to 

"othat end to lead the common ])eople therein, that there 
be a clerk in every parish that can read sufficiently, and 
have competent allowance from the parish, and where 
there is none, that there be one forthwith appointed and 
chosen according to the canon. 

«5 VI. That the " Quicunque vult," or creed of Athana- 
sius, be used on the days by the rubric appointed, instead 
of the Apostles' Creed, and that ministers forget not to 
read the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels appointed for the 
conversion of St. Paul, and for all the holy week before 

^ Easter, and for St. Bamaby*s day, and for Ash- Wednesday 
with the Commination also on that day ; and also to use 
the prayers and suift*ages in going the perambulation, 

tions. But lord Clareodon seems to have confounded a conscientious, 
though possibly mistaken, ecclesiastic, with a morose tyrant. 

25 On the 19th of December 1640, the day after the impeachment of 
the archbishop, the commons sent a message to the house of lords 
stating that grave charges of idolatry and superstition were pending 
against bishop Wren (at that time bishop of Ely), and begging that his 
person might be in safe keeping to abide the judgment of parliament. 

30 The articles of impeachment brought against him in the July following 
were 24 in number, and recount the whole of his proceedings in the 
diocese of Norwich, forming a complete commentary, from a very un- 
friendly hand, on the orders that he issued for the government of it. 
See Wren's Parentalia, pp. 10, 11, 12, &c. Collier, vol. ii. p. 771. 

35Canterb. Doom, p. 373. Neal, Purit. vol. i. p. 585. Clarendon, Hist, 
vol. i. p. 153, voL ii. p. 128. Heylin*s Laud, p. 3 13. Rymer, vol. xx. 
p. no. Hallarn, vol. i. p. 513. 

^4 Bi8h4)p WretCs orders and dir^ctUm [CXLIII. 

which is yearly to be observed in every parish upon the 
rogation days, viz. the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday 
before Ascension, and at no other times ; at vrhich it is 
anciently enjoined, that the ministers at some convenient 
places do (in a word) admonish the people to give thanks 5 
to God beholding his benefits in the fruits of the earth, 
saying the cm. Psalm, and as time and places shall adroit, 
the CIV. Psalm, and at any special bound mark repeating 
this or such holy sentences of scripture, " Cursed be he 
that removeth away the mark of his neighbour's land,"!© 
and that returning at last to the church there they say 
the divine service. 

VTI. That no man presume to have his hat on his 
head in the time of service and sermon in the church, 
and that duo and lowly reverence be visibly done by all »5 
persons present when the blessed name of the Lord 
Jesus is mentioned ; and that every one of the people do 
kneel devoutly when the confession, absolution, com- 
mandments, or any collect, or other prayer is read both 
at the time of the common service of the church, as also »o 
at christenings, burials, marriages, etc. 

VIII. That warning be given by the minister for holi- 
days and fasting days in the next week following, imme- 
diately after the i)rayer for the whole state of Christ's 
church; and that as soon as such warning is given, the 15 
second of those three exhortations, which next after the 
prayer for the universal church are set down in the ser- 
vice book, be treatably pronounced; after which to follow 
some of the collects appointed ; and then to dismiss the 
people with The peace of God, etc. 30 

IX. That when any need is, the sick by name be 
prayed for in the reading desk, and no where else at the 
close of the first service ; except it be in the afternoon, 
and then to be done immediately after the creed, using 
only those two collects, which we set down in the service 35 
book for the visitation of the sick ; that next after the 

1636.] gwen in the diocese of Norwich, 255 

marriage (if there be any) be begun in the body of the 
church, and finished at the table ; that the churching of 
women begin as soon as the minister comes up to the 
communion table before the second service, unless there 
s be a marriage the same day ; for then the churching is 
not to begin till those prayers appointed to be said at the 
Lord's table for the marriage be ended. 

X. That women to be churched come and kneel at a 
Bide near the communion table without the rail, being 

10 veiled according to the custom, and not covered with a 
hat; or otherwise not to be churched but presented at 
the next generals by the minister, or churchwardens, or 
any of them. 

XI. That they go up to the holy table at marriages at 
J5 such time thereof as the rubric so directeth, and that the 

new married persons do kneel without the rail, and do at 
their own charge, if the communion were not warned 
the Sunday before, receive the holy communion that day, 
or else to be presented by the minister and the church- 
to wardens at the next generals for not receiving. 

XII. That no minister presume to marry any persons, 
whereof one of the parties is not of his parish, unless it 
be otherwise expressly mentioned in the license ; nor that 
he marry any by virtue of any faculties or license, wherein 

25 the authority of an archdeacon or official is mentioned, 
" sub poena suspensionis " 

XIII. That the parishioners be warned by the minister 
and churchwardens to bring their children to the church 
for baptism in due time, and if any child be not brought 

30 before the second lesson, that then the parents be pre- 
sented for that default, and that no baptism be ad- 
ministered, excepting in the case of extreme necessity, 
but on the Sunday or holiday. 

XIV. That the font at baptism be filled with clean 
35 water, and no dishes, pails, nor basons be used in it, or 

instead of it ; and that the minister admit but two god- 

256 Bishop Wrens orders <md dirmHUm [CXLUL 

fathers and one godmother for a male child, and two 
godmothers and one godfiither for a female, and then do 
at first ask them whether the child be yet baptized or 
no, and do take it in his arms, and sign it with the sign 
of the cross, when he baptizes it, and after all do ad- 5 
monish them to bring it to confirmation, when time 
shall serve. 

XV. That all communicants come up sevendlj, and 
kneel before the rail to receive the holy communion; 
and that the minister repeat to every communicant seve-» 
rally all the words, that are appointed to be said at the 
distribution of the holy sacrament. 

XVI. That no wicker bottles or tavern pots be brought 
unto the communion table, and that the bread be brought 
in a clean cloth or napkin; and that the words of>s 
consecration be audibly repeated again, if any bread 
or wine be to be used, which was not at first conse- 

XVII. That the minister and churchwardens of great 
parishes, to avoid confusion and over long wearying of"o 
the minister and of the parishioners, do take order, that 
there may not come above 300 or at the most 400 com- 
municants to one communion ; for which occasion they 
are warned to have communions the oftener, 

XVITl. That the holy oblations in such places, whereas 
it plcaseth God at any time to put into the hearts of his 
people by that holy action to acknowledge his gift of all 
they have to them, and their tenure of all from him, and 
their debt of all to him, be received by the minister 
standing before the table at their coming up to make thejo 
said oblation, and then by him to be reverently presented 
before the Lord, and set upon the table till the serviee 
be ended. 

XIX. That the minister do catechise in the afternoon 
half an hour at least immediately after the last ringing 35 
or tolling of the bell for the evening prayer, according to 

1636.] givm m the diocese of Norwich, 257 

the questions of the church catechism only, and standing 
in the reading desk. 

XX. That the minister's reading desk do not stand 
with the back towards the chancel, nor too remote or far 

5 from it. 

XXI. That the chancels and alleys in the church be 
not encroached upon by building of seats ; and if any be 
so built, the same to be removed and taken away ; and 
that no pews be made over high, so that they, which be 

»oin them, cannot be seen how they behave themselves, or 
the prospect of the church or chancel be hindered ; and 
therefore that all pews, which within do much exceed a 
yard in height, be taken down near to that scantling, 
unless the bishop by his own inspection, or by the view 

«5 of some special commissioners, shall otherwise allow. 

XXII. That none of what rank soever do keep any 
chaplains, schoolmasters, ministers, or scholars in their 
houses to read prayers and expound scriptures, or to 
instruct their fiimily, unless they be thereunto enabled 

«oby law. 

XXIII. That whereas sermons are required by the 
church of England only upon Sundays and holidays in 
the forenoon, and at marriages, and are permitted at 
funerals, none presume to take upon them to use any 

15 preaching or expounding, or to have any such lecturing 
at any other time without express allowance from the 

XXIV. That every one allowed to be a lecturer, do 
read the divine service fully in his surplice and hood 

30 before every lecture, in the same manner as is appointed 
on Sundays; and that all lecturers behave themselves 
modestly in their sermons, preaching faith, obedience, 
and good works, in all things observing his majesty's 
declaration prefixed before the thirty-nine articles, and 

35 his majesty's injunctions, without meddling with matters 
of state, news, or questions late in difference, nor favour- 

VOL. II. 8 

S58 Literfp paientes pro piiitaiione [CXLIV. 

ing or abetting any schismatics or separadsts, either by 
special prayer for them or otherwise approving of them. 

XXV. That the churchwardens suffer no man but 
their own parson, vicar, or curate to preach upon any 
occasion in their church, till he shew his license, ands 
subscribe his name in their paper book for that purpose 
appointed, and the name of the bishop who licensed him. 

XXVI. That thei-e be the same manner of ringing and 
tolling of bells to church on holidays, as is used on Sun- 
days, and that there be no difference of ringing to church, '* 
when there is a sermon, more than when there is none ; 
excepting the knells for funerals. 

XXVII. That no church windows nor chancel windows 
be stopped up in any part; nor the floor in any part 
unpaved, or uncleanly kept ; nor the churchyard any ways >5 
abused, annoyed, or profaned. 

XXVIII. That all defaults contrary to the premises 
be fiiithfully inquired into by the officials 6om time to 
time at their generals, of whom the bishop will require 
an account concerning the same. ^ 


Archiepific. Cant. Anno Chritti Reg. Ang&B 

OuiL. Laud 4. i^.?7- Caeol. I. i.^. 

Liter CB patent es pro visitatione locorum exemptorum. 

Reg. Laud. fol. 85. b. 

CAROLUS, Dei gratia Anglise, Scotiae, Francis, et 
Hibemise rex, fidei defensor, etc. reverendissimo in 
Christo patri Willielmo, providentia divina archiepiscopo 

Litera patentes] Among the improvements projected by the arch* 
bishop one was, as he himself expressed it, " To settle the statutes of 15 
all the cathedral churches of the new foundations, whose statutes are 
imperfect and not confirmed. Done for Canterbury." After complet- 
ing this work for his own cathedral, and obtaining the king's letters of 

1 63 7-] locorum exemptorum, 259 

Cant, totius Angliae primati et metropolitano, Johanni, 
eadem providentia Roffen. episcopo, Nathanieli Brent, 
militi, legum doctori, vicario ejusdem archiepiscopi in 
spiritualibus generali, Thomae Reeves, legum etiam doc- 
5 tori, advocato nostro, Isaaco Bargrave, S. T. P. decano 
ecclesiffi cathedralis metropoliticae Christi Cantuar. Jo- 
hanni Warner, et Thomae Jackson, sacrai theologiai etiam 
respective professoribus, Richardo Clark, sacrse theolo- 
giae professori, Arthuro Ducke, et Roberto Ay let, legum 

10 respective doctoribus, salutem. Cum vos praedict. archi- 
episcopus ex solicitudiue pastorali gregis dominici vobis 
commissi, tam civitatem, dioec. et ecclesiam vestram 
Cant, caeterasque dioec. et ecclesias tam cathedrales, 
quam coUegiatas et parochial es, hospitalia item, et scholas 

xspublicas seu liberas, aliaque loca ecelesiastica infra pro- 
vinciam vestram Cant, constituta, tam in capite, quam in 
membris, clerumque et populum residentem in eisdem 
dioec. et provincia, jure vestro metropolitico propediem 
visitare, et negotiis [)raepediti munus illud praedict. epi- 

so scope, Nathanieli, Thomae, Isaaco, Johanni, Thomae, Ri- 

confirmation, dated Jan. 3, 1637, (Rymer, vol. xx. p. 99.) he tlien 
applied for general letters patent to enable him to carry the whole of 
his great undertaking into effect, including schools, hospitals, and other 
eleemosynary houses. These letters were issued on the ist of March 

25 in the same year ; but owing to the insurrection in Scotland, and the 
rebellion that followed soon afterwards, no further progress was made 
in the matter. The ** cathedrals of the new foundation'* were those 
that were founded in the reign of Henry VIII. after the dissolution of 
the monasteries : viz. Canterbury, Winchester, Ely, Worcester, Nor- 

30 wich, Rochester, Durham, and Carlisle, together with those of the ^ve 
bishoprics, of Oxford, Gloucester, Bristol, Peterborough, and Chester, 
which were created at the same period. The rest were of old founda- 
tion, and their statutes required no alteration, except in the case of 
Hereford ; for which the archbishop had already provided. (Hist, of 

35 Troubles, &c. p. 68.) For an account of subsequent doubts and dis- 
putes arising out of the unsettled condition of these statutes, and 
the final adjustment of them by the act, 6 Anne, c. 3 1 . see Bum, 
Eccl. Law, art. Deans and Chapters. Comp. Gibs. Cod. pp. 203-208. 

s 2 

260 Liter (P patenie$ pro lAwMione [C X LI V. 

chard o, Arthuro, et Roberto (inter alios) conjunctiro et 
divisim committend. proposuistis ; ac tarn infra dioeceaini, 
qiiam alibi infra provinciam veBtrara Cant, diversae ec- 
elesiae oathedrales, cum epiacopis, decanis, eapituh's «e- 
terisque ministris et officiariis in cisdem^ ac decani et5 
capitiilum cum pra^bcndariis, ab'isque ministris et officia- 
riis in diversis ecclesiis nuper citra annum regni domiDi 
Henrici, nuper regis Angliae octavi, vicesinium sextum, 
ac tam citra annum ilium, quam antea nonnulla bospitalia 
et domus ad pauperum sustentationem, ac scholse qua?dani '<* 
publicse et libene per antecessores nostros fundata, erecta, 
et stabilita extiterunt et exi<^tunt ; et eequuro est, ut qui 
unitatem religionis amplexi sunt, eadem disciplina ad 
cultum divinum externum et morum probitatem dirigan- 
tur ; nos auctoritatem nostram regiam ad iidem Christia- »5 
nam vere catholicam, cujus sumus defensores, et morum 
probitatem conservand. nobis a Deo optimo maximo com- 
missam agnoscentes, utque (amputatis malonim vepribus) 
sincera religio et canonica recte vivendi forma tam in 
ecclesiis et locis antedictis, quam in caeteris ecclesiis, ac» 
in locis universis provinciae vestraR florescut et augeatur, 
cupientes ; ad visitand. igitur tam in capite, quam in 
membris, tam ecclesias catbedrales et collegiatas pranlict. 
ac prsefata bospitalia, domus, scholas, et singula loca 
ecclesiae infra dioec. et provinciam prscdict. de fundationeas 
vel patronatu nostri vel progenitorum nostrorum (tam 
exempta et immediate nobis subjecta, quam non exempta) 
quam episcopos, decanos, et capitulum, prsebendarios, 
officiarios, et ministros, aliosquc degcntes vel ministrantes 
in eisdem (ecclesia collegiata beati Petri Westm. et'" 
decano, capitulo, et ministris in eadem except.) ac de 
statu ecclesiarum, liospitalium, domorum, et scholarum 
illarum, ac eorundem episcoporum, decanorum, et capita- 
lorum, ac canonicorum, prffibendariorum, ministrorum, et 
officiariorum, et aliorum quorumcunque in eisdem degeo-^^ 
tium vel ministrantium, modis omnibus, quibus melius et 

1 637'] locorum exeinptonim, 261 

efficacius poteritis, inquirend. et investigand. ac deliu- 
quentes irregularitatis macula irretit. vel officia seu mini- 
steria sua negligentes, aliterve culpabiles poenis pro 
ratione et modo eriminum, excessuum, negligentiaruui, et 
sdelictorum suorum condignis, usque ad dignitatum, offici- 
orum, et niinisteriorum respective privationem et amo- 
tioDem inclusive, ad stipendiorum, et emolumentorum 
suomm sicut in dividentiis excrescentium, communiis, 
annona, caeterisque proventibus suis ecclesiasticis indies 

lopervenient. sequestrationem, vel quamcunque aliam con- 
gruam et corapetentem coercionem, puniend. et corrigend. 
ad probatiores vivendi mores, et canonicum magis officio- 
rum suorum ministerium, raodis omnibus, quibus poteritis, 
reducend. contumaces item et rebelles, si quos inveneritis, 

iscujuscunque fiierint status vel conditionis, tam per cen- 
suras ecclesiasticas et alia juris remedia compescend. 
aliisque jurisdictionem ecclesiasticam durante visitatione 
vestra in ecclesiis et locis prsedictis exercere inhibend. 
prout inhibemus per praesentes. Insuper chartas regias, 

^oindulta, privilegia, inimunitates, libros, statuta (si quae 
sint) registra, computa, et alia scripta, seu munimenta 
quaecunque dietarum ecclesiarum, hospitalium, domorum, 
scholarum, episcoponim, decanorum, capitulonim, eanon- 
icorum, praebendariorum, ministrorum, officiariorum prae- 

25 diet, fundationem, incorporationem, dotationem, negotia, 
vel statum quoquomodo tangen. sive concemen. petend. 
exigend. vobisque proferri et exhiberi mandand. et 
faciend. ea recipiend. et diligenter examinand. necnon 
injimctiones et statuta, quae vobis pro commodiori ordine 

30 et gubematione ecclesiarum, hospitalium, domorum, 
scholarum, decanorum, capitulonim, canonicorum, prae- 
bendariorum, ministrorum, et officiariorum praedict. vide- 
buntur idonea, tam durante visitatione praedicta quam 
postea, condere et edere, eisque nobis propositis, et per 

35 nos stabilitis, ea decanis, capitulis, canonicis, praebendariis, 
ministris, officiariis, atque aliis quibuscunque in eisdem 

262 Lit^ce patentes pro f>isit(Uione Sg'c, [OXLIV. 

ecclesiis, liospitalibus, domibus, scholis, et locis com- 
moraiitibus vel ministrantibus, per ipsos et eorum suc- 
cessores observanda, nomine nostro tradend. et auctoritate 
nostra eis indieend. et injungend. in eorum violatores 
poenas infligend. decernend. et ordinationes et consiietu-5 
dines (si quas inveneritis) eisdem inidoneas tolleDd. et 
penitus abolend. et omnia alia, quae circa praemissa 
requisita vel necessaria fuerint aut opportuna, faciend. et 
exequend. vobis, do quorum sinceritate, religione, et 
doctrina ac mornm probitate, et rebus gerendis provida'® 
circunispectione, et industria plenius in bac parte con- 
fidimus, ex eerta scientia et mero motu nostris, ac 
suprema auctoritate nostra regia vices et auctoritatem 
nostras, omni appellatione remota, conjunctim et cuilibet 
et quibuslibet vestrum separatim vel divisim committendo, 15 
plenam tenore pra^sentium damns et committimus potes- 
tateni ; vosque ac singulos vestnim et quoslibet vestrum 
separatim vel divisim delegates et commissaries nostros 
ad praemissa omnia et singula exequend. nominamus, 
ordinamus, et deputamus per praesentes, eatenus duratur.M 
donee eisdem supersedend. fore decreverimus ; etiamsi 
hnjnsmodi sint, (juae specialia magis et expressa verba re- 
qniruut. Ac licet ecclesiae, bospitalia, domus, scholae, 
episco])i, decani, capitnia, canonici, praebendarii, caeterique 
ministri et officiarii aut alii in eisdem ecclesiis sive locis ^s 
sint de» jjatronatu nostro vel de fundatione nostra, vel 
progenitorum nostrorum, et sint exempta vel nobis imtne- 
diate sub<lita, vel non exempta, cum auctoritate proce- 
dendi in pnvniissis summari(» et de piano et sine strepitu 
et fignra judicii, solum roi veritate inspecta, lequitateao 
attenta, ac mm cujuslibet legitimae coercionis potestate; 
mandantos omnibus et singulis episcopis, decanis, alt?hi- 
diaconis, canonicis, praebondariis, ministris, et officiariis in 
ecclesiis et locis pra^lictis, ac aliis in eisdem degentibus, 
vel minister. exerciMitibus, necnon omnibus et singulis 35 
vicecomitibus, custodibus ])acis, constabulariis, ballivis. 

1637O Proceedings and judgments d^c, S63 

prsepositisy necnon rectoribus ecclesianiniy vicariis, hospi- 
talium et scholarum praefectis, ac clero et populo per 
totam dicec. et provinciam Cant, constitutis, quod vobis 
et qoibuslibet et cuilibet vestrum in praemissis sint inten- 

sdentes, auxiliantes, et obtemperantes in omnibus, prout 
decet. Nolumus tamen quod vos prsedictus episcopus, 
Nathanael, Thomas, Isaacus, Johannes, Thomas, Richardus, 
Arthurus, vel Robertus, vel vestrum aliqui in legibus et 
fitatutis prselibatis condendis vel edendis statuatis, vel 

loaliquis vestrum statuat vobis praefato archiepiscopo incon- 
miltis. In cujus rei testimonium has literas nostras fieri 
fecimus patentes. Teste meipso apud Westm. tricesimo 
primo die Martii, anno regni nostri decimo tertio. 


Aruhiepitc. Cant. Anno Chritti Re^. Anglias 

OuiL. Laud 4. 1637. Carol. 1. 13. 

Proceedings and judgments about ecclesiastical courts. — 

Ibid. fol. 272. a. 

IN camera stellata coram consilio ibidem 12. die Maii, 
anno decimo tertio Caroli regis. 
This day several petitions being read in open court, pre- 
sented on the behalf of John Bastwick, doctor in physic, 

Proceedings and judgments'] The union that had taken place between 
the rulers of the church and the supporters of high prerogative, aided 

2o and brought to a point by the odium which, in the progress of this 
combination, the former had inevitably contracted, had now induced 
the discontented party to direct their attack against what appeared to 
them to be the most vulnerable part of the constitution, the power and 
authority of bishops. In Trinity Term 1637, an information was 

25 brought before the star-chamber against Bastwick, Prynne, and Burton, 
for publishing seditious, schismatical and libellous books against the 
hierarchy and the government. Tlie most offensive books published 

264 Proceedings and judg^nenU [CXLV. 

and William Pnn gent, defendants, at the suit of his 
majesty's attorney general, the most reverend father in 
God, the lord archbishop of Cant, his grace informed the 
court, that in some of the libellous books and pamphlets 
lately published, his grace and others the reverends 
bishops of the realm are said to have usurped upon his 
majesty's prerogative royal, and to have proceeded in the 
high commission and other ecclesiastical courts, contrary 
to the laws and statutes of the realm ; about which he 
prayed the judges might be attended, and they prayed lo 
and required by this court to certify their opinion therein. 
Upon consideration whereof, the court hath ordered, that 
the two lord chief justices, now present in court, the lord 
chief baron, and the rest of the judges and barons shall 
be attended by his majesty's learned council, touching the 15 
particulars hereafter ensuing, videlicet, 

I. Whether process may not issue out of the ecclesias- 
tical courts in the name of the bishops? 

II. ^^'hether a patent under the great seal be neces- 
sary for the keeping of the ecclesiastical courts, audio 
enabling of citations, suspensions, excommunications, and 
other censures of the church ; and whether the citation 
ought to be in the king's name, and under the seal of 

by the first were entitled, " Apologeticus ad prsesules Anglicanos" and 
** The letanv of John Bastwicke ;*' the libel of Prvnne was *• The new8*5 
from Ipswich," a severe commentary on the strict discipline then exer- 
cised in the diocese of Norwich ; and all of them charged the bishops 
in course and scurrilous language with invading the prerogative, with 
countenancing profaneness, with despising the holy Scriptores, and 
promoting poperv', superstition, and idolatry. On this occasion (June 30 
14, 1637.) archbishop Laud made his memorable speech against the 
charge of '* innovation," and summed up his opinions as to the power 
and authority of bishops in the following words : " Our being bishops 
by divine right takes nothing from the king's right or power over us. 
For though our office be from God and Christ immediately, yet may 35 
we not exercise that power, either of order or jurisdiction, bat as God 
hath appointed us ; that is, not in his majesty's, or any Christian king's 

'^370 (iiaui ecclesiastical courts. 265 

arms, and the like for institutions and inductions to bene- 
fices, and correction of ecclesiastical offences ? 

III. Whether bishops, archdeacons, and other ecclesias- 
tical persons may or ought to keep any visitation at any 
5 time, unless they have express commission or patent 
under the great seal of England to do it, and that as his 
majesty's visitor only, and in his name and right alone ? 

M. Goad. 

Irrotulat. in memorand. scaccarii domini regis nunc 
«o Caroli apud Westm. de anno regni sui decimo ter- 

tio, videlicet, inter communia de termino sancta; 
Trinitatis rot. 

Ex parte rememoratoris regis. 
Irrotulat. coram domino rege apud Westm. termino 
15 sanctse Trinitatis, anno regni domini Caroli, nunc 

regis Angliae, etc. tertio decimo rot. tertio inter pla- 
cita regis. 

Jo. Kellynge. 

Irrotulat. coram justic. de banco termino sanctse Trini- 
tatis anno regni domini Caroli, nunc regis Angliae, 
20 decimo tertio inter placita rot. Iv. 

R. Brownlowe. 

kingdoms, bat by and ander the power of the king, g^ven us so to do." 
Rashw vol. iii. App. p. 1 1 7. 

"The bishops before the reformation issued process from their 

35 coarts in their own names. By the statute i Edw. VI. c. 2. all eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction is declared to be immediately from the crown ; and 
it is directed that persons exercising it shall use the king's arms in 
their seal, and no other. This was repealed under Mary ; but her act 
18 itself repealed by i Jac. I. c. 25. §.48. This seems to revive the 

50 act of Eklward ; but the question being referred by the star-chamber to 
the twelve judges, they g^ve it under their hands that the statute of 
Edward was repealed, and that the practice of the ecclesiastical courts 
in this respect was agreeable to law." Hallam, vol. i. p. 503. 


^66 Proceedings and judgmmU [C X L V . 

14. Julii M.Dc.xxxvii. Fidelitur registrater in registro 
curiae commissionariorum regiorum ad causas eccle- 
siasticas facta diligent] collatione per nos 

Ste. Knight, 
Jo. Crohfton. 5 

May it please your lordships. 

According to your lordships' order, made in his ma- 
jesty's court of star-chamber the 12th of May last, we 
have taken consideration of the particulars, wherein our 
opinions are required by the said order, and we have all lo 

That process may issue out of the ecclesiastical courts 
in the names of the bishops, and that a patent under the 
great seal is not necessary for the keeping of the said 
ecclesiastical courts, or for the enabling of citations, sus- '5 
pensions, excommunications, and other censures of the 
church, and that it is not necessary, that summons, cita- 
tions, or other process ecclesiastical in the said courts, or 
institutions or inductions to benefices, or correction of 
ecclesiastical offences by censure in those courts be in^ 
the king's name, or with the style of the king, or under 

The measures adopted in the time of archhishop Bancroft (see N®. 
CXXIII.) and now continued hy archhishop Laud, for the purpose of 
extending the authority of ecclesiastical courts at the expense of the 
courts of common law, had increased and embittered the other 0011-15 
tentions of the times, by placing the members of that powerful profes- 
sion in constant opposition to the church; inducing them, as lord 
Clarendon observes, " to take all opportunities, uncharitably « to im- 
prove mistakes into crimes, and unreasonably transfer and impute the 
follies and faults of particular men to the malignity of their order and fi 
function ; and so to whet and sharpen the edge of the law, to wound 
the church in its jurisdiction, and at last to cut it up by the roots and 
demolish its foundation." Clarendon, Hist. vol. i. p. 400. See also 
Rushw. vol. ii. pp. 380. 450. Collier, vol. ii. p. 773. Neal, Purit 
vol. i. p. 590. Hallam, vol. i. p. 504. Heylin's Laud, p. 341.3s 
Clarendon, vol. i. p. 270. Lingard, vol. vi. p. 520. 

1637*] oioti^ eedmcutical eaurU, 267 

the king's seal, or that their seals of office have in them 
the king's arms, and that the statute of 1 Edward VI. 
chap. 2. which enacted the contrary, is not now in force. 
We are also of opinion, that the bishops, archdeacons, 
sand other ecclesiastical persons may keep their visita- 
tions, as usually they have done, without commission 
under the great seal of England so to do. Prime die 


John Bramston. Geo. Croke. 

>o Jo. Finch. Tho. Trevor. 

Humphrey Davenport. Geo. Vernon. 

Will. Jones. Robert Berkeley. 

Jo. Dinham. Fr. Crawley. 

Richard Hutton. Ric. Weston. 

15 Irrotulatur in memorand. scaccarii, etc. ut supra. 

In camera stellata coram concilio ibidem quarto die 
Julii, anno decimo tertio Caroli regis. 

This day was read in court the certificate of the two 
lords chief justices, the lord chief baron, and other the 

9ojustices of the courts of king's bench, and common pleas, 
and barons of the exchequer, made according to an order 
of reference to them granted the twelfth of May last, 
upon a motion made in the cause, wherein his majesty's 
attorney general is plaintiff against John Bastwick, doctor 

15 in physic, and other defendants; in which certificate the 
said judges have declared their opinions in point of law 
touching the several matters to them referred by the 
aforesaid order ; and the same being so read in court, his 
majesty's attorney general humbly prayed, that the said 

30 certificate may be recorded in this court, and in all other 
the courts at Weatm. and in the high commission and 
other ecclesiastical courts, for the satisfaction of all men, 
that the proceedings of the high commission and other 
ecclesiastical courts are agreeable to the laws and sta- 

1>68 King Charles' letter to proceed agaimt [GXLVI. 

tutes of the realm ; which the court held reasonable, and 
hath ordered it shall be so, and that after the same is 
enrolled in this court and other the courts aforesaid, the 
original certificate of the said judges shall be delivered to 
the most reverend father in God the lord archbishop ofs 
Cant, his grace, to be kept and preserved amongst the 
records of his court. 

M. GrOAD. 

Irrotulatur in memorand. scaccarii etc. ut supra. 


Ardiiepisc. Caiit. Anno Chritti Re({. AngUas 

GuiL. Laud 5. 1637. Cakol. I. 13. 

Kinq Charles' letter to the high commissioners to proceed 
against such as refujue to take the oath^ etc. — Reg. Laud. 
fol. 287. a. 

Charles Rex. 

MOST reverend father in Grod, right trusty and right lo 
entirely beloved counsellors ; right trusty and right 
well beloved cousins and counsellors; right reverend 

King Charles letter] The oath ' ex officio' was an oath " whereby 
any person might be obliged to make any presentment of any crime or 
offence, or to confess or accuse himself of any criminal matter or thing* 15 
whereby he might be liable to any censure, penalty, or punishment 
whatsoever." This process, utterly unknown in the courts of common 
law, and irreconcilable with the spirit of English jurisprndence, had 
been employed in ecclesiastical courts on the authority of ancient canons, 
and was justified on the ground that such inquiries were not taken to to 
be '* pocnse" but *' medicina;," tending to the reformation of the delin- 
quent, and the satisfaction of the church. (Strype, Whitg. vol. iii. 
p. 235.) This process however, oppressive as it would be considered at 
all periods, was made most formidable in the year 1583, when queen 
Elizabeth, on issuing a new high commission, empowered the court to 35 

^^37-1 ^*^^ ^ refme to take the oath. S69 

fether in Grod, right trusty and well beloved ; right trusty 
and well beloved counsellors, and right and well beloved, 
we greet you well. Whereas we are given to understand, 
that divers disorderly and refractory persons have been 

5 seduced, or withdrawn themselves from their obedience 
to our ecclesiastical laws into several ways of separation, 
sects, schisms, and heresies ; and being convented for the 
same, or for other their misdemeanours and enormous 
offences before you our commissioners for causes eccle- 

losiastical, are grown to that obstinacy and disobedience, 
that some of them refuse to take their oath, and others 
being sworn refuse to answer to the articles and matters 

administer the oath with penalties for obstinacy or disobedience, and 
archbishop Whitgift provided twenty-four articles of examination for 

>5 the service of the court, " so comprehensive as to embrace the whole 
scope of clerical uniformity, and yet so precise and minute as to leave 
no room for evasion." The opinion entertained of them at that period 
may be expressed in the following words of lord Burghley, in a letter 
written by him to the archbishop, July 15, 1584. "T have read your 

20 twenty-four articles, and find them so curiously penned, so full of 
branches and circumstances, as I think the inquisitors of Spain use not 
so many questions to comprehend and to trap their prey. It may be 
the canonists may maintain this proceeding by rules of their laws ; but 
though * omnia licent/ yet ' omnia non expediunt.' I pray your grace 

Q5 bear that one (perchance a) fault, that I have willed them not to answer 
these articles, except their conscience may suffer them." (Strype, 
Whitg. vol. iii. p. 106.) The period was a critical one, owing to the 
influence of Cartwright and the system of discipline newly established 
by the nonconformists ; and although lord Burghley remonstrated, and 

y> the house of commons soon afterwards joined in the remonstrance, the 
queen would not suffer any alteration to be made in the proceedings of 
the court. Fresh interrogatories were added, as the altered circum- 
stances of dissent seemed to call for them, and more especially in the 
year 1590, when the discipline was established as a system in various 

35 parts of the kingdom. (Bancroft's Dangerous Positions, p. 91.) 

Another important epoch in the history of this oath was in the reign 
of James I., when archbishop Bancroft endeavoured to extend the au- 
thority of the ecclesiastical courts, and met with a powerful antagonist 
in the person of sir Edward Coke. That able judge in his Institutes, 
40 (P. iv. p. 324,) confines the powers of a high commission within very 

S70 King Charles letter to proceed against [CXLVI. 

there objected unto them, or by equivocation, or other 
undue evasions do not make full and plain answer to the 
same, as by law they ought ; now forasmuch as you our 
said commissioners for causes ecclesiastical are authorized 
by our letters patents under our great seal, and that yours 
proceedings are not only and wholly according to the 
formal manner and terms of the civil or canon laws, but 
with some relation to the form of proceeding used in our 
courts of star-chamber, chancery, or courts of requests, 
and exchequer, wherein defendants and delinquents haveio 
always used to answer upon their oaths in causes against 
themselves, and also to answer interrogatories touching 

narrow limits ; and in the actual warrant which he was directed to issuei 
he omitted the power of fining for refusal to take the oath, leaving the 
commissioners, as lord keeper Williams expressed it, (Cahala, p. 306,) >5 
" nothing but the rusty sword of the. church, excommunication, to vin- 
dicate the authority of the court." He ruled also in the king's bench 
in the year 161 6, after three terms' deliberations, that two persons who 
had been committed bv the commissioners for refusal to take the oath 
must be delivered, because it was illegal to require any one to accuse^ 
himself of the breach of a penal law. (Croke's Reports, P. ii. p. 388. 
Comp. N". CXXIll.) The oath had originally been employed against 
Romanists as well as puritans, but with little success in the former case 
For " the practice/' says Dr. Lingard, " compelled some persons, chiefly 
among the catholics, to adopt the doctrine of mental reservation." 15 
(Hist. vol. v. p. 51Q.) Dr. Bancroft had stated in the year 1593. 
(Dangerous Positions, p. 4,) that they " dallied with their oaths," shelter- 
ing themselves under the note given in the Rhemish Testament on the 
23rd chap, of the Acts of the Apostles ; he also accused the puritans 
(Survey, &c. p. 249.) of being infected with the same evil principle of 3^ 
the Jesuits. 

The increased authority which king Charles conveyed to the court of 
high commission by his letter of February 1638 was of very short du- 
ration. The court was abolished by the long parliament in the year 
1 64 1 (Stat. 16. Car. I. c. 1 1.) and immediately after the restoration tdifi 
Charles 11. it was enacted (Stat. 13 Car. II. c. 12.), that the oath *ex 
officio' should never again be administered. Collier, vol. ii. pp. 60 a. 
682. Neal, Purit. vol. i. pp. 271. 342. Stry|>e, Whit. vol. ii. pp. 28^33. 
HaUam, vol. i. pp. 216. 227. Burn, Eccl. Law, art. Oatha. Blackst. 
Com. vol. iii. p. 67. Barlow's Conference, .3rd day. 49 

1637O 9ueh as re/use to take the oath, 271 

their own contempts and crimes objected to them, which 
coarse in those courts is daily practised and held agreeable 
to the laws and customs of this our realm ; therefore for 
the better regulating of such contemptuous persons in 

5 and for their obedience to our ecclesiastical laws, we do 
hereby declare and signify of our own mere motion, and 
certain knowledge, and by our supreme power eccle- 
siastical do order and appoint, that all such persons, as 
shall be legally called into our high commission court 

JO before you our said commissioners, shall and may law- 
fully by you be enjoined to take their corporal oaths, and 
by virtue thereof to answer to such articles and interro- 
gatories as shall be there objected against them, being of 
ecclesiastical cognizance, and within the limits of our said 

15 commission by our said letters patents granted unto you 
our said commissioners ; and if any person or persons out 
of their own perverse will or obstinacy shall either refuse 
to take such oath before you our said commissfoners, or 
being sworn shall refuse to answer, or not make a full and 

20 plain answer to the said articles or interrogatories to them 
objected, that then after due monition given, and intima- 
tion made to the said persons in that behalf, if they shall 
still continue and persist in this their contumacy, every 
such person so refusing to be sworn, or being sworn 

25 refusing to answer, or not fully and plainly answering to 
the said articles and interrogatories, shall and may be de- 
clared and adjudged by you our said commissioners " pro 
confesso,** and shall be held and had as confessed and con- 
victed legally of all those articles and matters, to which 

30 he so refuseth to \ye sworn, or being sworn shall refuse to 
answer, or not make full and plain answer as aforesaid : 
and these our letters shall be a sufficient warrant and dis- 
charge in that behalf. Given under our signet at our 
palace of Westm. the fourth day of February, in the 

35 xinth year of our reign. 

To the most reverend father in God ; our right trustj/ 

^n King Charhi letter about ike [CXLVII. 

and right entirely beloved counsellors William^ lord 
archbishop of Cant, primate and metropolitan of all 
England^ and Richard, lord archbishop of York, pri- 
mate and metropolitan of England, and to the rest of 
our commissioners of our court of high commissions 
now being, and to all and singular the commissioners 
of that court that hereafter for the time shall be. 


Sede Cniit. Anno ChrUti R«|f. Anglue 

vacaiite. 1660. Cabol II. is. 

The king's majesty's most gracious letter and declaration 
to the bishops, deans, and prebends, etc. about the aug- 
mentation of small vicarages. — Collated with Wh. Ken- 
net's Case of Impropriations, p. 158. 

Charles R. 

AS nothing is more in our desires, than to provide that 
the church of EngLand, under our reign, might be 
furnished with a religious, learned, sober, modest, and 
prudent clergy ; so we are ready to give encouragement to 

TTie king's majesty's most gracious letter"] " Soon after the reaton- 
tion a bill was brought into the house of commons for erectiDg and 
augmenting of vicarages, and had a first reading* but proceeded no 
further; having, as is supposed, been superseded and laid aaide (at 
least for that time) in consideration that the ends proposed in it would 15 
be in some degree answered by his majesty's letter to the several 
bishops respectively. And this design was the more practicable at 

that time by reason of the number and largeness of the fines that were 
then due. And accordingly many and large augmentations were then 
made. But the design was not intended barely for augmentations then w 
to be made at that particular time, but also for the making thereof by 
the same bodies in future times. And to confirm and perpetuate the 
same the statute 29 Charles II. c. 8. was made." This statute, dtmg 
his majesty's letter, and giving it the date of the first day of June, in 

1 66a] attffmmtation of email mcarages. 273 

to their labours and study in their several degrees and 
stations, that they may give check to all profaneness and 
superstition, and as zealously affect to remove all scan- 
dals and reproach from them and their callings. Con- 
5ceiving therefore a competent maintenance to be a neces- 
sary encouragement; and that all other persons, who 
have power to dispose of tithes, may be invited to cherish 
a learned and godly ministry; we do resolve, that be- 
cause where tithes have been appointed for the support 

loof bishops, deans, and chapters, collegiate churches and 
colleges, and other single persons, that have not taken 
due care to provide and ordain sufficient maintenance for 
the vicars of their respective places, or for the curates, 
where vicarages were not endowed ; to settle for the 

15 future some good addition and increase on such vicarages 
and curates' places. Our will therefore is, that forthwith 
provision be made for the augmentation of all such vicar- 
ages and cures, where your tithes and profits are appro- 
priated to you and your successors, in such manner, that 

«othey who immediately attend upon the performance of 
ministerial oflSces in every parish, may have a competent 
portion of every rectory impropriate to your see [*belong- 

tbe twelfth year of his reign, confirms all augmentations made in com- 
pliance therewith, and all other augmentations which might thence- 

35 forward be made under certain expressed conditions. Bnm^ £kx;l. Law, 
art. Appropriations. Comp. N®. CLVIII. Burnet, Own Times, vol. i. 
p. 338. Neal, Purit. vol. iii. p. 65. Grey's Examination of Neal, vol. iii. 
pp. 269-274. 

This declaration was issued within two days after king Charles' entry 

30 into London, and was intended to mediate between the two parties 
whose interests were at stake, and who would both have a strong claim 
upon the sympathy of the nation ; as, in conformity with the decision 
of the long parliament, the impropriations of bishops and of deans and 
chapters had not been sold, like the rest of the confiscated property, 

35 but had been reserved to increase the maintenance of poor ministers. 
(Ludlow's Mem. vol. i. p. 300.) A committee was appointed by the 
house of commons to collect and digest materials for a bill on this 

s Desunt in Kennet. 

VOL. n. T 

274 King Charles' letter ahaui the [CXLVII. 

iiig to you or your successors]. And to this end our 
further will is, that no lease be granted of any rectories 
or parsonages belonging to your see, belonging to you or 
your successors, until you shall provide, that the respec- 
tive vicarages, or curates' places, where are no vicarages 5 
endowed, have so much revenue in glebe, tithes, or other 
emoluments, as will commonly amount to 100/. or 802^ 
per annum, or more, if it will bear it, and in good form 
of law settle it upon them and their successors. And 
where the rectories are of small value, and cannot admit 10 
of such proportions to the vicar and curate ; our will is, 
that one half of the profit of such a rectory be reserved 
for the maintenance of the vicar or curate, ["^and if any 
leases or grants of such forenamed rectories have been 
made by you since the first day of June last past, and you 15 
did not order a competent augmentation of the vicarages 
and cures in their respective places, that out of the fines, 
which you have received, or are to receive, you do add 
such increase to the vicar and curate] as is agreeable to 
the rate and proportion formerly mentioned. And our 10 
further will is, that you do employ your authority and 
power, which by law belongeth to you as ordinary, for the 
augmentation of vicarages and stipends of curates, and 
that you do with diligence proceed in due form of law 
for the raising and establishing convenient maintenance's 

perplexing qaestion, bat having sat for a considerable lengtb of time 
without making effectual progress, it was found to be inadequate to its 
purpose. On the 7th of August 1660, a royal message was delivered 
to the house, communicating his majesty's declaration to the bishops; 
and it was accordingly resolved, that a bill should be drawn up imme-i^ 
diately, reciting the substance of the declaration, and containing pro- 
visions for carrying it into effect. It appears however that nothing 
w^as done till the year 1677 ; when the statute 29 Charles II. c. 8. was 
passed ; and even that statute did nothing more than confirm and per- 
petuate the arrangements that were made voluntarily by the parties 35 
concerned. Commons' Journals. Tanner MSS. vol. Izxxix. p. 248. 

^ Desunt in Kennet. 

i66o.] augmmtation of small vicarages, 275 

for those, who attend holy duties in parish churches. 
And if any prebendary in any church (the corps of whose 
prebend consists of tithes) shall not observe these our 
commands, then we require you, or the dean of the 

s church, to use all due means in law, where you or he 
hath power, to compel them ; or that otherwise you re- 
port to the bishop of the diocese, where the said corps 
doth lie, that he may interpose his authority for fulfilling 
this our order. And if any dean, or dean and chapter, or 

loany that holdeth any dignity or prebend in the cathedral 
church, do not observe these our commands, that you call 
them before you, and see this our will be obeyed. And 
if you or any bishop do not your duty, either in their 
own grants, or seeing others to do it, then we will, that 

15 upon complaint, the archbishop of the province see all 
performed according to this our declaration, will, and 
pleasure. And whereas there are divers rural prebends, 
where the vicarages are not sufficiently endowed, we re- 
quire you to see these our commands fully to be observed 

10 by them. And we do declare our will and pleasure in 
all the particulars forecited to be, that if you or any of 
your successors, or dean, or dean and chapter of that our 
cathedral church, or any other person holding any office, 
benefice, or prebend in the same, do or shall refuse or 

25 omit to observe these our commands, we shall judge them 
unworthy of our future favour, whensoever any prefer- 
ment ecclesiastical shall be desired by them from us. 
And lastly, our will and command is, that you or your 
successors do, at or before the first day of October in 

30 every year, render an account to the archbishop of 
[^Canterbury] how these our orders and commands are 
observed, that the archbishop afterwards may represent 
the same unto us. 

By his majesty*s command^ 
,5 Edward Nicholas. 

c Deest in Kennet. 
T 2 

976 Commigtion to examn« ik$ »ale$ [C XL VIII. 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi Rcf^. Angiliv 

GuiL. JuxoN I. t66o. Caboi.. II. 12. 

His majestjfs gracious commission to search into and ejv 
amine tlie pretended sales and purchases of the honours, 
manors^ lands^ and hereditaments of and belonging to 
his majesty^ his royal mother^ the archbishops, bishops, 
deans, and chapters, prebends, and other ecclesiastical 
persons ; giving such powers and authorities as is neces* 
sary for the ends, intents, and purposes in and by the 
said commission specified and expressed. 

CHARLES the Second, by the grace of God king of 
England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, defender 
of the faith, etc. to our trusty and right well beloTed 
counsellor Edward lord Hyde, lord chancellor of Eng- 
land ; and to our right trusty and right well beloTeds 

His majesty 8 gracious eommission] One of the first and tiie moit 
embarassing of the questions that offered themselves to the legidaturft 
on the restoration of king Charles II. was the arrangement to be made 
between the purchasers of confiscated estates and the crown or the 
charch, to which they had originally belonged. Tliey had been sold '^ 
by authority of the long parliament in and about the year 1649; ^^^ 
the purchasers of them could urge in their own favour not only what^ 
ever plea of right such an authority could g^ve them, but also the fuft 
that in most instances the fiill value had been paid for the estates, the 
prices amounting generally to the clear income of 15, x6, and 1715 
years. (Ludlow's Mem. vol. i. p. 299.) But it soon appeared from 
the progress of the debates that the property of the crown was to be 
restored without reserve or limitation ; and the property of the charch« 
although the dignitaries themselves would have readily entered into 
sume amicable adjustment, was connected with so many interests andio 
difficulties, that the house of commons was not able to come to any 
arrangement respecting it before their adjournment on the 13th of 
September 1660. On that day, in compliance with their request that 
a royal commission might be appointed for the purpose, bis majesty 

1 66o.] and purehoieB of crown and church property. 377 

cousins and counsellors Thomas earl of Southampton, 
lord treasurer of England, and the lord chancellor, lord 
high treasurer of England, and the chancellor of the 
exchequer for the time being ; and to our right trusty 
5 and entirely beloved cousin and counsellor George duke 
of Albemarle ; and to our right trusty and right well 
beloved cousins and counsellors James marquess of Or- 
mond, steward of our household, Edward earl of Man- 
chester, chamberlain of our household ; and to our right 

«o trusty and right well beloved cousin Jerome earl of Port- 
land, and to our right trusty and well beloved counsellor 
John lord Roberts, and to our right trusty and well 
beloved John lord Finch, Francis lord Seymour, chan- 
cellor of our duchy of Lancaster, and to the chancellor 

»s of our duchy of Lancaster for the time being, John lord 
Lucas; and to our trusty and well beloved counsellors 
Denzill Hollis esquire, sir Edward Nicholas, and sir Wil- 
liam Morris, knights, our principal secretaries of state, 

informed the two hooses, that he " had not heen without mach thought 

aoupon the argument, and had done much towards the accommodation 
of many particular persons ; and that he would put the business into 
such a way of dispatch that they should find a good progress made in 
it before their coming together again." (Commons' Journals.) It is 
clear that the king's government had determined to put the business 

'5 into the hands of commissioners appointed by themselves, having seen 
that it was a matter of too many details to be directed by an act of 
parliament, and that the royal commission, already employed in de* 
ciding on similar claims in the two universities, had provided them 
with a good precedent for their purpose. This commission accord- 

.)o ingly was issued on the 7th of October, and the parliament met, after 
its adjournment, on the 6th of November, and was dissolved at the 
end of the following month. It had become evident in the mean time 
that the prevailing opinion in places of influence was in favour of the 
unconditional restoration of all confiscated estates ; and that the con- 

35 vention parliament, which had too much of the republican leaven within 
it, would be succeeded by one altogether royalist. Clarend. Life, vol. ii. 
p. 7. Wood's Ann. an. 1660. Neal, Purit. vol. iii. p. 4*- Hallam, 
voL ii. p. 170. Lingard, vol. vii. p. 359. 

S78 Commission to examine the tales [CXLVIII. 

sir Anthony Ashly Cooper baronet, Arthur Anneslej 
esquire ; and to our trusty and well beloved sir Robert 
Foster knight, chief justice of our bench, sir Orlando 
Bridgeman knight and baronet, lord chief justice of our 
court of Common Pleas, sir Robert Hyde knight, ones 
other of the justices of our said court of Common Pleas, 
sir Edward Atkins, and sir Christopher Turner knights, 
two of the barons of our court of Exchequer, and to the 
barons of our Exchequer for the time being, sir Jeoffiy 
Palmer knight and baronet, our attorney general, sir^ 
Henoage Finch knight and baronet, our solicitor general, 
sir Charles Harbord knight, our surveyor general, and to 
our attorney, solicitor, and surveyor general for the time 
being ; sir Edward Turner, sir Allan Broderick, knights, 
Samuel Brown, and Matthew Hale, Serjeants at law, "5 
John Crewe, esquire, Richard Kinsman, one of the au- 
ditors of our revenue. Job Charleton Serjeant at law, 
Thomas Beverley esquire, Francis Phillips, and Richard 
Newman esquires. As it is our duty to be ever mindful 
of the great mercies of Almighty God vouchsafed to us » 
and our late oppressed people, in restoring us to the ex- 
ercise of our royal authority by a calm and miraculous 
hand of divine Providence, thereby delivering them firom 
the violence and tyranny of the late usurped powers to 
the peaceable enjoyments of their ancient rights esta-15 
Wished by the known laws of this nation ; so we have 
been most careful to pursue our declaration made before 
our return from beyond the seas, in securing the lives, 
liberties, and estates of our good subjects, by passing an 
act of general pardon, and such other acts as have beeni* 
tendered unto us by our parliament, whereby we hope 
we have given a general satisfaction to them, as we have 
received much comfort and contentment in their expres- 
sions of their affections to us and our government. And 
albeit by the vote of our commons, as by the order of thc^ 
parliament assembled, we have been restored to the im- 

i66o.] and purchases ofcroma and church property, 279 

mediate possession of our lands, and might in justice as 
well as divers of our subjects, have entered and taken 
the profits thereof from the four and twentieth day of 
June last ; yet that it may appear how really we intend 
5 to perform all our gracious promises and professions made 
to the officers and soldiers of our army, who did corre- 
spond or join with our said general, or sir George Booth, 
in their design towards our happy restoration, and to such 
other of our subjects, as have been induced to purchase 

•'oand to possess any of our said lands, or those of the join- 
ture of our dear mother the queen, or any of the lands or 
possessions of any archbishop, bishop, dean and chapter, 
prebend, or other ecclesiastical person, we were gra- 
ciously pleased to accept the humble petition of the said 

15 officers and soldiers, presented unto us in July last, and 
to commend the same to the commissioners of our trea- 
sury, as we have since done to our high treasurer of Eng- 
land, who have authorized our surveyor general to receive 
such particulars of our lands purchased and claimed by 

«o the said officers and soldiers, to their own uses and not 
in trust for others, as they should tender under their 
bands, and thereupon to keep them in the quiet posses- 
sion of the same without account (which hath been duly 
observed) until we should be informed of the true states 

noi their several interests, and should thereupon declare 
our further pleasure touching their satisfaction. And we 
were also graciously pleased to accept of another petition 
presented unto us, in the names of all the purchasers of 
our lands, together with certain proposals touching the 

30 same, which by advice of our privy council we did refer 
to the consideration of our chief baron, and other the 
barons of our court of Exchequer, and our surveyor gene- 
ral, who taking the same into serious consideration, did 
represent unto us, and our said council, the various na* 

35tures of the said purchases, and that it will require much 
time and industry to examine and consider the particular 

S80 Cmnmissian to examine the sales [CXLVIII* 

interests of the several purchasers, before it will be pee- 
sible to make any report upon their said petition and 
proi)osa s fit for our judgment therein. Whereupon we 
were pleased, and did command that our said surveyor 
general should allow unto them all their arrears of rents 5 
due before the four and twentieth day of June last to 
their own use without account, and the Michaelmas rent 
also since due upon such security, as he should think 
reasonable to be answerable for the same, which hath 
been accordingly pursued by him as we commanded, and lo 
we do hereby ratify and confirm the same. Now to the 
end that we may leave nothing undone, which honour 
and justice can require at our hands, for the establish- 
ment of the just rights and interests of all persons, and 
quiet their minds, and reconcile their affections, which 15 
the injury of the late times of change, and absolute, arbi- 
trary ])ower, had corrupted and alienated from us, and 
divided amongst themselves ; we have thought fit to 
issue this our commission, and do therefore hereby re- 
quire, and authorize you the said Edward lord Hyde, so 
Thomas earl of Southampton, the lord dhancellor, lord 
treasurer of England, and the chancellor of the exche- 
quer for the time being, George duke of Albemarle, 
James marquess of Ormond, Edward earl of Manchester, 
Jerome earl of Portland, John lord Roberts, John lord^s 
Finch, Francis lord Seymour, chancellor of our duchy of 
Lancaster, and the chancellor of our duchy of Lancaster 
for the time being, John lord Lucas, Denzill Hollis, sir 
Edward Nicholas, sir Will. Morris, sir Anthony Ashly 
Cooper, Arthur Annesley, sir Robert Foster, sir Orlando i» 
Bridgenian, sir Robert Hyde, sir Edward Atkins, sir 
Christ. Turner, barons of the exchequer for the time 
being, sir Jeoffry Palmer, sir Heneago Finch, sir Charles 
Harbord, our attorney, solicitor, and surveyor general finr 
the time being, sir Edward Turner, sir Allen Brodrick,35 
Matthew Ilale, Samuel Brown, John Crewe, Richard 


i66o.] and purchases of croum and church property, 281 

£jn8inan. Job Charletoii, Thomas Beverly, Francis Phil- 
lips, and Richard Newman, to be our commissioners for 
and touching the premises, hereby giving and granting 
unto you, or any five or more of you, full power and au- 
5 thority to call, and cause to appear before you, as well 
the said officers and soldiers, and all other persons, who 
have purchased, or do claim any of the said lands of us, 
or of the jointure of our dear mother, or of any the said 
archbishops, bishops, deans and chapters, prebends, and 

*o other ecclesiastical persons whatsoever, and every or any 
of them, as also the officers, servants, or agents of the 
jsaid archbishops, bishops, deans and chapters, prebends, 
or other ecclesiastical persons, all or any of them, by 
your good discretion; and to inquire and inform your- 

'5 selves, or by such other lawful ways or means, as you in 
your discretion shall think meet, which of the said lands, 
honours, manors, lordships, castles, parks, chases, forests, 
houses, timber trees, woods, underwoods, mills, mines, 
fee-farm rents, or other rents, or hereditaments, leases, or 

^oliELrms were sold, given, or granted by or under the late 
pretended parliament, or usurped power or authority; and 
to inquire and find out the true value of the said lands, 
honours, manors, lordships, castles, parks, chases, forests, 
timber trees, woods, underwoods, mills, mines, fee-farm 

^5 rents, or other rents or hereditaments, leases, or farms, as 
the same were then worth by the year, or otherwise by your 
judgments and discretion, and how much ready money was 
then, or at any time since really, and "bona fide" paid for 
the same, and how much in true bills and debentures, as 

30 they were then worth in ready money, and whether any 
bills or debentures, which have been allowed upon any of 
the said sales or purchases, were counterfeited or altered in 
part, or in all, and by whom the same were done, and to 
what value and proportion, and how far the same have 

35 been discovered, and when, and by whom, and in what 
manner ; and what profits or sums of money have been 

^82 Commission to examine the sales [C X L V I II. 

raised or made by any of the purchasers, or possessors, or 
pretended owners of any the said lands or other premises 
so sold or given as aforesaid, or any part thereof, by after 
sales or exchanges of land, or by sale of woods, or timber, 
or by ploughing up or improving the same lands, or any 5 
other part of the premises, or by sale of any iron, stone, 
lead, timber, or other materials of churches, chapels, or 
other houses that have been pulled down, altered, or 
defaced, or by the receipts, or rents, or by any ways or 
means whatsoever, and when, and by whom, and for'® 
whoso use and benefit the same have been so raised or 
made. And to inquire and find out which of the pur- 
chases of any of the said lands or premises were made by 
the tenants themselves to preserve their houses, tenuaries, 
lands, woods, or estates from waste and injury, and which ij 
of them were made by others for gain and advantage, 
and when and by whom the same was done, and what 
profit, gain, or advantage hath been made thereby; and 
to inquire and find out what damage or danger hath 
accrued or may arise to us and these our kingdoms by«« 
the destruction or waste of timber trees from off any the 
premises that were serviceable for our navy, or otherwise; 
and to inquire which of the said purchasers or late pre- 
tended owners of any of the said lands or premises have 
relinquished or offered up the same unto us, or any of«5 
the said ecclesiastical persons, or shall yield up the same 
unto you for our use, or for the use of any of the said 
ecclesiastical persons, or any of them ; and also to inquire 
and find out all other things which you in your discretion 
shall think meet for your perfect information in audj^ 
touching the premises. And thereupon you are to pro- 
ceed and compose all differences arising between the said 
archbishops, bish(>|>s, deans and chapters, prebends, and 
other ecclesiastical persons, and the said purchasers or 
pretended owuers, jxnd thereupon to make orders aud^ 
agreements between them in writing under your hands 

i66o.] and purchases ofcratcn and church property. 283 

and seals, and in such manner as you in your discretion 
sball find just and reasonable with their consents ; and in 
case of refusal or disagreement on either part, then you 
are forthwith to certify the same unto us, and our council, 
5 whereupon you shall receive such further order therein 
as shall be m^et : and you are then also to propose unto 
the said officers and soldiers, and other purchasers of our 
own lands such satisfaction for and in respect of their 
several pretended interests in the same, as upon consi- 

<o deration of their several interests, you shall think fit to 
advise in that behalf, and thereof you shall certify us with 
all convenient speed. And for your better information 
and proceeding in the premises, we do hereby will and 
authorize you to send for and convene before you all 

15 such treasurers, receivers, accountants, registers, wit- 
nesses, clerks, officers and other persons as you shall 
think fit, and to examine all or any of them upon their 
corporal oaths to be administered unto them, or any of 
them by your discretion, and to send for and peruse all 

'^osuch books of account, register books, surveys and other 
writings, as you shall think meet for your better discovery 
and finding out of the truth in all things touching the 
premises, and what monies have been raised by the said 
sales, and to whom the same hath been paid, and how 

^5 the same hath been accounted for and disposed of, and 
how much remains in the treasurers', receivers', or ac- 
countants' hands, or any others*, and how long it hath 
remained. And we do also hereby will and authorize 
you, to inquire by the oaths of good and lawful men of 

30 every county, city, or privileged place, wherein the said 
lands and premises or any of them do lie, of all things 
comprehended in this our commission : hereby willing 
and commanding all our sherifTs, mayors, bailiffs, and all 
other officers and ministers, whom it may concern, upon 

35 your precepts and warrants to return good and sufficient 
jurors for the better inquiry and finding out of the truth 

fi?84 Commission to examine the eabe 4rc. [CXLVIII. 

of the premises, and to be obedient, aiding^, and assisting 
unto you in all things, tending to the execution of this 
our commission. And whatsoever you, or any five, or 
more of you shall do or cause to be done in or about the 
premises, we do hereby ratify, confirm, and approve of. 5 
And our will and pleasure is, and we do hereby require 
the said archbishops, bishops, deans and chapters, pre- 
bends, and other ecclesiastical persons by themselves or 
by other persons sufficiently authorized by them to apjiear 
before you, when they shall be so required, to the end lo 
that your mediation and interposition may be the more 
effectual ; we in no wise doubting of their readiness to 
comply with us in the end of this our commission, and 
that they will accept such reasonable conditions, as shall 
be tendered to them by you on the behalf of such as 15 
have been purchasers of any lands held from them or 
their respective churches, according to the several con- 
siderations of the persons and their interests, and that 
they will do no act to the prejudice of any purchasers, bj 
granting any new or concurrent leases, whereby their to 
present interest or possession may be hurt or disturbed, 
whilst the same is under your deliberation, and until our 
pleasure be further known. In witness whereof we have 
caused these our letters to be made patents. Witness 
ourself at Westminster the seventh day of October, iuts 
the twelfth year of our reign. 

i66o.] King Charles^ dedaroHon 8fc. 285 


Ardiiepiac. Cant. Anno Christi Re^. Anglin 

OuiL. Juxow I. 1660. Cabol. II. 12. 

His majesty's declaration to all his loving stihfects of his 
kingdom of England and dominion of Wales^ concern- 
ing ecclesiastical affairs. 

Charles Rex. 

HOW much the peace of the state is concerned in the 
peace of the church, and how difficult a thing it is 
to preserve order and government in civil, whilst there is 
no order or government in ecclesiastical affi^irs, is evident 
5 to the world ; and this little part of the world, our own 
dominions, hath had so late experience of it, that we may 
very well acquiesce in the conclusion, without enlarging 
ourself in discourse upon it, it being a subject we have 

His maje8ty*8 declaration] When the convention-parliament was 

loadjoomed on the 13th of September 1660, the lord chancellor [Cla- 
rendon] in the course of his speech gave the following notice : " This 
disquisition [respecting religion] hath cost the king many a sigh, many 
a sad hour, when he hath considered the almost irreparable reproach 
the protestant religion hath undergone, from the divisions and distrac- 

15 tions which have been so notorious within this kingdom. What pain» 
he hath taken to compose them, after several discourses with learned 
and pious men of different persuasions, you will shortly see by a Decla- 
ration he will publish upon that occasion : by which you will see his 
great indulgence to those who can have any pretension from conscience 

20 to differ with their brethren." The declaration was issued on the 25th 
of October ; and on the 6th of November, the day on which the parlia- 
ment assembled after its adjournment, a committee of the house of 
commons was appointed, with sir Matthew Hale at its head, to bring 
in a bill for the purpose of making his majesty's gracious declaration 

25 effectual. A bill was consequently brought in, and was ordered to be read 
on the 22nd of the same month ; but on that day the king sent down a 
message, announcing his intention to dissolve the parliament in the next 

286 King Charles declarati<m [CXLIX. 

had frequent occasion to contemplate upon, and to lament, 
abroad as well as at home. 

In our letter to the speaker of the house of commons 
from Breda we declared how much we desired the ad- 
vancement and propagation of the protestant religion; 5 
that '' neither the unkindness of those of the same faith 
towards us, nor the civilities and obligations from those 
of a contrary profession (of both which we have had 
abundant evidence) could in the least degree startle us, 
or make us swerve from it, and that nothing can be pro- io 
posed to manifest our zeal and affection for it, to which 
we will not readily consent ;" and we said then, " that we 
did hope in due time, ourself to propose somewhat for 
the propagation of it, that will satisfy the world, that we 
have always made it both our care and our study, and have n 
enough observed what is most like to bring disadvantage 
to it." And the truth is, we do think ourself the more 
competent to propose, and with God's assistance to deter- 
mine many things now in difference, from the time we 
have spent, and the experience we have had in most of«> 

month, and a few days afterwards it was determined, on a division, to 
proceed no further in the business. It was probably the wish of hii 
majesty's government to delay the consideration of ecclesiastical mat- 
ters, not so much because the acts of the convention-parliament would 
require confirmation afterwards, as because the ancient inatitations of S5 
the church were more likely to meet with favour and protection from 
any future parliament. The declaration itself, drawn up originally by 
lord Clarendon, was revised by bishops Morley and Henchman for the 
church, and Reynolds and Calamy for the dissenters, with the lords 
Anglesea and HoUis as referees (Baxter's Life, p. 151) ; and there cer-io 
tainly was at this period a strong disposition among the clergy in favour 
of moderate measures, occasioned partly by an earnest wish for peace 
and union, and partly by the circulation of such works as archbishop 
Usher's Reduction of Episcopacy, and Stillingfleet's Irenicum. But 
the royalists in general, and more especially those who had resided on 35 
the continent, were opposed to any deviation from the ancient model of 
church government. Lord Clarendon (Life, vol. i. p. 483.) deariy 
foresaw that the king could not act upon the terms of the dedaration ; 

i66o.] concerning e^clesinstical affairz, 287 

the reformed churches abroad, in France, in the Low 
Countries, and in Germany, where we have had frequent 
conferences with the most learned men, who have unani- 
mously lamented the great reproach the protestant reli- 

sgion undergoes from the distempers and too notorious 
schisms in matters of religion in England: and as the 
most learned amongst them have always with great sub- 
mission and reverence acknowledged and magnified the 
established government of the church of England, and 

lothe great countenance and shelter the protestant religion 
received from it, before these unhappy times ; so many of 
them have with great ingenuity and sorrow confessed, 
that they were too easily misled by misinformation and 
prejudice into some disesteem of it, as if it had too much 

IS complied with the church of Rome ; whereas they now 
acknowledge it to be the best fence God hath yet raised 
against popery in the world ; and we are persuaded they 
do with great zeal wish it restored to its old dignity and 

«o When we were in Holland, we were attended by many 
grave and learned ministers from hence, who were looked 

one of the secretaries of state is said to have voted in the house of 
commons against its passing into a law ; and in the following parlia- 
ment^ in which the royalists greatly prevailed, an act of uniformity was 

95 passed (13 and 14 Charles II. c. 4.) which put an end to all projects 
of comprehension. Whether the king's government had foreseen and 
provided from the first, that such should he the issue of the matter^ 
and had dissembled with the presbyterian party, or were originally sin- 
cere in their promises^ and had afterwards discovered the impossibility 

30 of carrying them into effect, is a question on which, as strong evidence 
may be produced on each side, it is not necessary to pronounce a judg- 
ment. It is manifest, however, h'om the reference made to synods and 
acts of parliament, that the arrangements and concessions of the decla- 
ration were, in themselves, only conditional and temporary, whatever 

35 might be the designs of his majesty's government. Commons' Journals. 
Kennet's Register, p. 209. Neal, Purit. vol. iii. p. 58. Burnet's Own 
Times, vol. i. p 322. Bates' Sermon on Baxter. Collier, vol. ii. p. 873. 
Hallam, vol. ii. p. 182. Lingard, vol. vii. p. 362. 

288 King CharM dedaration [GXLIX. 

upon as the most able and principal asseiton of the 
presbyterian opinions ; with whom we had as much con- 
ference, as the multitude of affairs which were then upon 
us would permit us to have, and to our great satisfaction 
and comfort found them persons full of affection to us, of 5 
zeal for the peace of the church and state, and neither 
enemies, as they have been given out to be, to episcopacy, 
or liturgy, but modestly to desire such alterations in 
either, as without shaking foundations, might best allay 
the present distempers, which the indisposition of tbeio 
time, and the tenderness of some men's consciences had 
contracted. For the better doing whereof, we did intend, 
upon our first arrival in this kingdom, to call a synod of 
divines, as the most proper expedient to provide a proper 
remedy for all those differences and dissatisfactions which >5 
had or should arise in matters of religion ; and in the 
mean time, we published in our declaration from Breda, 
'* a liberty to tender consciences, and that no man should 
be disquieted or called in question for differences of 
opinion in matter of religion, which do not disturb the* 
peace of the kingdom ; and that we shall be ready to 
consent to such an act of parliament, as upon mature 
deliberation shall be offered to us, for the fnll granting 
that indulgence." 

Whilst we continued in this temper of mind and^s- 
resolution, and have so far complied with the persuasion 
of particular persons, and the distemper of the time, as 
to be contented with the exercise of our religion in our 
own chapel, according to the constant practice and laws 
established, without enjoining that practice, and theJ^ 
observation of those laws in the churches of the king- 
dom ; in which we have undergone the censure of many, 
as if we were without that zeal for the church which we 
ought to have, and which by God's grace we shall alivays 
retain; we have found ourself not so candidly dealt with-u 
as we have deserved, and that there are unquiet and 

i66o.] eaneeminy ecclesiasiical affioAn, ^9 

restless spirits, who without abating any of their own 
distemper in recompense of the moderation they find in 
us, continue their bitterness against the church, and 
endeavour to raise jealousies of us, and to lessen our 
5 reputation by their reproaches, as if we were not true to 
the professions we have made: and in order thereunto, 
they have very unseasonably caused to be printed, pub- 
lished, and dispersed throughout the kingdom a declara- 
tion heretofore printed • in our name during the time of 

loour being in Scotland, of which we shall say no more 
than that the circumstances, by which we were enforced 
to sign that declaration, are enough known to the world ; 
and that the worthiest and greatest part 'of that nation 
did even then detest and abhor the ill usage of us in that 

'5 particular, when the same tyranny was exercised there by 
the power of a few ill men, which at that time had spread 
itself over this kingdom ; and therefore we had no reason 
to expect that we should at this season, when we are 
doing all we can to wipe out the memory of all that hath 

iobeen done amiss by other men, and we thank God, have 
wiped it out of our own remembrance, have been ourself 
assaulted with those reproaches, which we will likewise 

Since the printing this declaration, several seditious 

«5 pamphlets and queries have been published and scattered 
abroad to infuse dislike and jealousies into the hearts of 
the people, and of the army ; and some who ought rather 
to have repented the former mischief they have wrought, 
than to have endeavoured to improve it, have had the 

.^o hardiness to publish, that the doctrine of the church, 
against which no man, with whom we have conferred, 

* a declaration heretofore printecT] The declaration issued in August 

1650, in which the king embraced the covenant, condemned the 

wicked measures of his father, lamented his mother's idolatry, and ab- 

35 jured all popery, superstition, prelacy, heresy, schism, and profaneness. 


290 Kinp Charles declaration [GXLIX. 

Imth excepted, ought to be reformed as well as the disci- 

This over passionate and turbulent way of proceeding, 
and the impatience we find in many for some speedy 
determination in these matters, whereby the minds ofs 
men may be composed, and the peace of the church 
established, hath prevailed with us to invert the method 
we had proposed to ourself, and even in order to the 
better calling and composing of a synod (which the pre- 
sent jealousies will hardly agree upon) by the assistance lo 
of God's blessed Spirit which we daily invoke and suppli- 
cate, to give some determination ourself to the matters in 
difference, until such a synod may be called as may with- 
out passion or prejudice give us such further assistance 
towards a perfect union of affections, as well as submis- 15 
sion to authority, as is necessary : and we are the rather 
induced to take this upon us, by finding upon the full 
conference we have had with the learned men of several 
persuasions, that the mischiefs, under which both the 
church and state do at present suffer, do not result from 90 
any formed doctrine or conclusion which either party 
maintains or avows, but from the passion, and appetite, 
and interest of particular persons, who contract greater 
prejudice to each other from those affections, than would 
naturally rise from their opinions; and those distempers 15 
must be in some degree allayed, before the meeting in a 
synod can be attended with better success, than their 
meeting in other places, and their discourses in pulpits 
have hitherto been ; and till all thoughts of victory are 
laid aside, the humble and necessary thoughts for the vin-jo 
dication of truth cannot be enough entertained. 

We must for the honour of all those of either persua- 
sion, with whom we have conferred, declare, that the pro- 
fessions and desires of all** for the advancement of piety 

^ fJic professions and desires of all] *• The king treated them [the.f5 


i66o.] eoneeming ecclesiastieal affdirz. 291 

and true godliness are the same ; their professions of zeal 
for the peace of the church the same ; of affection and 
duty to us the same : they all approve episcopacy ; they 
all approve a set form of liturgy ; and they all disprove 
5 and dislike the sin of sacrilege, and the alienation of the 
revenue of the church ; and if upon these excellent foun- 
dations, in submission to which there is such a harmony 
of affections, any superstructures should be raised, to the 
shaking those foundations, and to the contracting and 

lo lessening the blessed gift of charity, which is a vital part 
of Christian religion, we shall think ourself very unfortu- 
nate, and even suspect that we are defective in that 
administration of government with which God hath 
entrusted us, 

15 We need not profess the high affection and esteem we 
have for the church of England as it is established by 
law, the reverence to which hath supported us with 
God's blessing against many temptations; nor do we 
think that reverence in the least degree diminished by 

«oour condescensions, not peremptorily to insist on some 
particulars of ceremony, which however introduced by 
the piety, and devotion, and order of former times, may 
not be so agreeable to the present, but may even lessen 
that piety and devotion, for the improvement whereof 

»5 they might happily be first introduced, and consequently 
may well be dispensed with ; and we hope this charitable 
compliance of ours will dispose the minds of all men to a 
cheerful submission to that authority, the preservation 
whereof is so necessary for the unity and peace of the 

30 church; and that they will acknowledge the support of 

nonconformist ministers] very respectfully, and renewed his professions 
of his earnest desires of an accommodation of the differences ; told them 
he was well pleased that they were for a liturgy, and yielded to the es- 
sence of episcopacy ; and promised them that the places where the old 
35 incumbents were dead, should according to their desire be confirmed 
to the possessors." Baxter's Life, p. 143. 

U 2 

S92 Kitiff CharM dedanUum [GXLIX. 

the episcopal authority to be the best support of religion, 
by being the best means to contain the minds of men 
within the rules of government: and they who would 
restrain the exercise of that holy function within the 
rules, which were observed in the primitive times, musts 
remember and consider that the ecclesiastical power being 
in those blessed times always subordinate and subject to 
the civil, it was likewise proportioned to such an extent 
of jurisdiction, as was most agreeable to that ; and as the 
sanctity, and simplicity, and resignation of that age did lo 
then refer many things to the bishops, which the policy 
of succeeding ages would not admit, at least did other- 
wise provide for, so it can be no reproach to primitive 
episcopacy, if where there have been great alterations in 
the civil government, from what was then, there have been '5 
likewise some difference and alteration in the ecclesia^- 
tical, the essence and foundation being still preserved. 
And upon this ground, without taking upon us to cen-* 
sure the government of the church in other countries, 
where the government of the state is different from wbatM 
it is here, or enlarging ourself upon the reasons why, 
whilst there was an imagination of erecting a demo* 
cratical government here in the state, they should be 
willing to continue an aristocratical government in the 
church, it shall suffice to say, that since by the won*t5 
derful blessing of God the hearts of this whole nation are 
returned to an obedience to monarchic government in the 
state, it must be very reasonable to support that govem- 
ment in the church, which is established by law, and with 
which the monarchy hath flourished through. so many3» 
ages, and which is in truth as ancient in this island as the 
Christian monarchy thereof, and which hath always in 
some respects or degrees been enlarged or restrained, as 
hath been thought most conducing to the peace and 
happiness of the kingdom ; and therefore we have not theu 
least doubt, but that the present bishops will think the 


i66o.] caneeminff ecelesiastical affairs, 99S 

present concessions now made by us to allay the present 
distempers, very just and reasonable, and will very cheer- 
fully conform themselves thereunto. 

I. We do in the first place declare our purpose and 

5 resolution is and shall be to promote the power of godli- 
ness, to encourage the exercises of religion both public 
and private, and to take care that the Lord's day be 
applied to holy exercises, without unnecessary divertise- 
ments; and that insufficient, negligent, and scandalous 

lo ministers be not permitted in the church; and that as 
the present bishops are known to be men of great and 
exemplary piety in their lives, which they have mani- 
fested in their notorious and unexampled sufferings during 
these late distempers, and of great and known sufficiency 

»5of learning, so we shall take special care, by the assist- 
ance of God, to prefer no men to that office and charge, 
but men of learning, virtue, and piety, who may be them- 
selves the best examples to those who are to be governed 
by them ; and we shall expect and provide the best we 

>ocan, that the bishops be frequent preachers, and that 
they do very often preach themselves in some church of 
their diocese, except they be hindered by sickness, or 
other bodily infirmities, or some other justifiable occasion^ 
which shall not be thought justifiable if it be frequent. 

«5 II. Because the dioceses S especially some of them, are 

^ II. Because the dioceies] '* About discipline/' says Baxter, " we de- 
signedly adhered to bishop Usher's model, without a word of alteration ; 
that so they might have less to say against our offers as being our own ; 
and that the world might see that it was episcopacy itself which they 

50 refused ; and that we pleaded not at all with them for presbytery, unless 
a moderate episcopacy be presbytery." Kennet, Reg. p. 195. The 
point at issue however was of great importance with reference to a 
controversy which had been much agitated in the church. Arch- 
bishop Usher's plan of a diocesan synod was, that it should consist of the 

35 suffragans and the rest of the incumbents, or a certain portion of them, 
" with whose consent, or the major part of them, all things might be 
concluded by the bishop or superintendant (caU him whether you will). 

$294 King Charles' dedaraium [GXLIX. 

thought to be of too large extent, we will appoiut such 
a number of suffragan bishops in every diocese, as shall 
be sufficient for the due performance of their work, 

III. No bishop shall ordain or exercise any part of 
jurisdiction which ap{>ertains to the censures of thes 
church, without the advice and assistance of the pres- 
byters ; and no chancellors, commissaries, or officials, as 
such, shall exercise any act of spiritual jurisdiction in 
these cases, viz. excommunication, absolution, or wherein 
any of the ministry are concerned, with reference to their » 
pastoral charge. However our intent and meaning is to 
uphold and maintain the profession of the civil law so far 
and in such matters, as it hath been of use and practice 
within our kingdoms and dominions ; albeit as to excom- 
munication, our will and pleasure is, that no chancellor, >5 
commissary, or official shall decree any sentence of ex- 
commuuication, or absolution, or be judges in those 
things wherein any of the ministry are concerned, as is 
aforesaid. Nor shall the archdeacon exercise any juris- 
diction without the advice and assistance of six ministers*^ 
of his archdeaconry, whereof three to be nominated by 
the bishop, and three by the election of the major part 
of the presbyters within the archdeaconry. 

IV. To the end that the deans and chapters may be 
the better fitted to afford counsel and assistance to the>5 
bishops, both in ordination and the other offices men- 
tioned before, we will take care that those preferments 
be given to the most learned and pious presbytew of the 

or in his absence by one of the suffragans whom he shall depate to be 
moderator in his stead." This model could not be adopted by anvjo 
persons who held the doctrine respecting episcopacy which had been 
first brought into notice by Dr. Bancroft (see No. OIL) and had more 
recently been enforced by Dr. Joseph Hall, then bishop of Exeter, is 
bis " Episcopacie by divine right asserted ;*' who maintained that "the 
imparity of government and episcopal jurisdiction was founded by ChriitlS 
and erected by his apostles, both by their practice and recommenda- 
tion." (p. 91. edit. 4'**. 1640) 


i66o.] co^icemhhg ecclesiastical affairs, 295 

diocese ; and moreover, that an equal number (to those 
of the chapter) of the most learned, pious, and discreet 
presbyters of the same diocese, annually chosen by the 
major vote of all the presbyters of that diocese present 
5 at such elections, shall be always advising and assisting, 
together with those of the chapter, in all ordinations, 
and in every part of jurisdiction, which appertains to the 
censures of the church, and at all other solemn and 
important actions in the exercise of the ecclesiastical 

lojurisdiction, wherein any of the ministry are concerned : 
provided that at all such meetings the number of the 
ministers so elected, and those present of the chapter 
shall be equal, and not exceed one the other, and that to 
make the numbers equal, the juniors of the exceeding 

'5 number be withdrawn, that the most ancient may take 
place ; nor shall any suffragan bishop ordain or exercise 
the forementioned offices and acts of spiritual jurisdic- 
tion, but with the advice and assistance of a sufficient 
number of the most judicious and pious presbyters an- 

3o Dually chosen as aforesaid within his precincts: and our 
will is that the great work of ordination be constantly 
and solemnly performed by the bishop and his aforesaid 
presbytery, at the four set times and seasons appointed 
by the church for that purpose. 

25 V. We will take care that confirmation be rightly and 
solemnly performed, by the information and with the 
consent of the minister of the place; who shall admit 
none to the Lord's supper, till they have made a credible 
profession of their faith, and promised obedience to the 

30 will of God, according as is expressed in the cousidera^ 
tions of the rubric before the Catechism : and that all 
possible diligence be used for the instruction and refor- 
mation of scandalous offenders, whom the minister shall 
not suffer to partake of the Lord's table, until they have 

.35 openly declared themselves to have truly repented and 
amended their former naughty lives, as is partly ex« 

296 Kit^g Charts' deelaraiim [CXLIX. 

pressed in the rubric, and more fully in the canons ; pro- 
vided there be place for due appeals to superior powers. 
But besides the suffragans and their presbytery, every 
rural dean (those deans, as heretofore, to be nominated 
by the bishop of the diocese) together with three or fours 
ministers of that deanery, chosen by the major part of all 
the ministers within the same, shall meet once in every 
month, to receive such complaints, as shall be presented 
to them by the ministers or churchwardens of the respec- 
tive parishes; and also to compose all such differences lo 
betwixt party and party, as shall be referred unto them 
by way of arbitration, and to convince offenders, and 
reform all such things, as they find amiss, by their pas- 
toral reproofs and admonitions, if they may be so re- 
formed ; and such matters as they cannot by this pastoral 15 
and persuasive way compose and reform, are by them to 
be prepared for, and presented to the bishop ; at which 
meeting any other ministers of that deanery may, if they 
please, be present and assist. Moreover, the rural dean 
and his assistants are in their respective divisions to see, 20 
that the children and younger sort be carefully instructed 
by the respective ministers of every parish, in the grounds 
of Christian religion, and be able to give a good acconnt 
of their faith and knowledge, and also of their Christian 
conversation conformable thereunto, before they be con- as 
firmed by the bishop, or admitted to the sacrament of the 
LorcPs supper. 

VI. No bishop shall exercise any arbitrary power, or 
do or impose any thing upon the clergy or the people^ 
but what is according to the known law of the land. ^ 

VII. We are very glad** to find, that all with whom we 

^ VII. We are very glad] It appears that in the first instance the 
declaration contained a statement in favour of the Liturgy to the fol- 
lowing effect : "Tlie king declared his own constant practice of the 
Common Prayer ; and that he would take it weU from those who osed is 
it in their churches, that the common people might be again acquainted 

i66o.] canceminff eededastical affairs. 297 

have conferred, do in their judgments approve a liturgy, 
or set form of public worship to be lawful ; which in our 
judgment for the preservation of unity and uniformity 
we conceive to be very necessary: and though we do 

5 esteem the liturgy of the church of England, contained 
in the book of Common Prayer, and by law established, 
to be the best we have seen ; and we believe that we 
have seen all that are extant and used in this part of 
the world, and well know what reverence most of the 

lorefonned churches, or at least the most learned men in 
those cburches have for it; yet since we find some 
exceptions made against several things therein, we will 
appoint an equal number of learned divines of both per- 
suasions, to review the same, and to make such altera- 

fstions as shall be thought most necessary, and some 
additional forms (in the scripture phrase as near as may 
be) suited unto the nature of the several parts of worship, 
and that it be left to the minister's choice to use one or 
other at his discretion. In the mean time, and till this 

9obe done, although we do heartily wish and desire, that 
the ministers in their several churches, because they dis- 
like some clauses and expressions, would not totally lay 
aside the use of the book of Common Prayer, but read 
those parts, against which there can be no exception; 

35 which would be the best instance of declining those 
marks of distinction, which we so much labour and 
desire to remove ; yet in compassion to divers of our good 
subjects, who scruple the use of it as now it is, our will 
and pleasure is, that none be punished or troubled for not 

.musing it, until it be reviewed, and effectually reformed, 
as aforesaid. 

VIII. Lastly, Concerning ceremonies, which have ad- 

with the piety, gravity, and devotion of it ; and which he thought would 
facilitate their living in a good neighbourhood together." Lord Claren- 
35 don charges the nonconformists with having induced the king to omit 
this clause by means of false protestations. See Ldfe, vol. i. p. 481 . 

298 Kinff Charhi deelaration [C^XLIX. 

ministered so much matter of diifcrence and contention, 
and which have been introduced by the wisdom and au- 
thority of the church, for edification, and the improve- 
ment of piety, we shall say no more, but that we have 
the more esteem of all, and reverence for many of them, 5 
by having been present in many of those churches, where 
they are most abolished, or discountenanced; and it 
cannot be doubted, but that as the universal church 
cannot introduce one ceremony in the worship of God, 
that is contrary to God's word expressed in the scrip- w 
ture, so every national church, with the approbation 
and consent of the sovereign power, may, and hath always 
introduced such particular ceremonies, as in that con- 
juncture of time are thought most proper for edification 
and the necessary improvement of piety and devotion in 15 
the people, though the necessary practice thereof cannot 
be deduced from scripture; and that which before was, 
and in itself is indifferent, ceases to be indifferent, after it 
is once established by law: and therefore our present 
consideration and work is to gratify the private con-»o 
sciences of those, who are grieved with the use of some 
ceremonies, by indulging to and dispensing with their 
omitting those ceremonies, not utterly to abolish any 
which are (established by law, (if any are practised con- 
trary to law, the same shall cease,) which would be un-ts 
just, and of ill example ; and to impose upon the con- 
science of some, for the satisfaction of the conscience of 
others, which is otherwise ])rovided for. As it could not 
be reasonable that men should expect, that we should 
ourself decline, or enjoin others to do so, to receive thej^ 
blessed sacrament upon our knees, which in our con- 
science is the most humble, most devout, and most agree- 
able posture for that holy duty, because some other men, 
upon reasons best, if not only, known to themselves, 
choose rather to do it sitting or standing ; we shall leave 35 
all decisions and determinations of that kind, if they shall 

1 66o.] e(mceminp eedeHcutical ajuirs. 299 

be thought necessary for a perfect and entire unity and 
uniformity throughout the nation, to the advice of a 
national synod, which shall be duly called after a little 
time, and a mutual conversation between persons of dif- 

5 ferent persuasions hath mollified those distempers, abated 
those sharpnesses, and extinguished those jealousies^ 
which make men unfit for those consultations ; and upon 
such advice, we shall use our best endeavour, that such 
laws may be established, as may best provide for the 

lo peace of the church and state. Provided that none shall 
be denied the sacrament of the Lord's supper, though 
they do not use the gesture of kneeling in the act of 

In the mean time, out of compassion and compliance 

•stewards those, who would forbear the cross in baptism, 
we are content that no man shall be compelled to use 
the same, or suffer for not doing it ; but if any parent 
desire to have his child christened according to the form 
used, and the minister will not use the sign, it shall be 

'o lawful for that parent to procure another minister to do 
it ; and if that proper minister shall refuse to omit that 
ceremony of the cross, it shall be lawful for the parent, 
who would not have his child so baptized, to procure 
another minister to do it, who will do it according to his 

as desire. 

No man shall be compelled to bow at the name of 
Jesus, or suffer in any degree for not doing it, without 
reproaching those who out of their devotion continue that 
ancient ceremony of the church. 

30 For the use of the surplice, we are contented that all 
men be left to their liberty to do as they shall think fit, 
without suffering in the least degree for wearing or not 
wearing it ; provided, that this liberty do not extend to 
our own chapel, cathedral, or collegiate churches, or to 

asany college in either of our universities, but that the 

300 King Charles' declaraHam [CXLIX. 

several statutes and customs for the use thereof in the 
said places, be there observed as formerly. 

And because some men, otherwise pious and learned, 
say, they cannot conform unto the subscription required 
by the canon, nor take the oath of canonical obedience ;s 
we are content, and it is our will and pleasure (so they 
take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy) that they shall 
receive ordination, institution, and induction, and shall be 
permitted to exercise their function, and to enjoy the 
profits of their livings, without the said subscription ono 
oath of canonical obedience ; and moreover, that no per- 
sons in the universities shall for the want of such sub- 
scription be hindered in the taking of their degrees. 
Lastly, that none be judged to forfeit his presentation or 
benefice, or be deprived of it, ui)on the statute of the»5 
thirteenth of queen Elizabeth, chapter the twelfth, so he 
read and declare his assent to all the articles of rcli^on, 
which only concern the confession of the true Christian 
faith, and the doctrine of the sacraments comprised in the 
book of articles in the said statute mentioned. In a^o 
word, we do again renew what we have formerly said in 
our declaration from Breda, for the liberty of tender con- 
sciences, that no man shall be disquieted or called in 
question for differences of opinion in matters of religion, 
which do not disturb the peace of the kingdom ; and »5 
if any have been disturbed in that kind since our ar- 
rival here, it hath not proceeded from any direction 
of ours. 

To conclude, and in this place to explain what we 
mentioned before, and said in our letter to the house 0(30 
commons from Breda, that " we hoped in due time, our- 
self to propose somewhat for the propagation of the pro- 
testant religion, that will satisfy the world, that we have 
always made it both our care and our study, and have 
enough observed what is most like to bring disadvantage 3S 

]66o.] ooneermnp ecclesiastical affairs, SOI 

to it ;" we do conjure all our loving subjects to acquiesce 
in and submit to this our declaration concerning those 
differences, which have so much disquieted the nation at 
home, and given such offence to the protestant churches 
5 abroad, and brought such reproach upon the protestant 
religion in general, from the enemies thereof; as if upon 
obscure notions of faith and fancy, it did admit the prac- 
tice of Christian duties and obedience to be discounte- 
nanced and suspended, and introduce a license in opinions 
loand manners, to the prejudice of the Christian faith. 
And let us all endeavour, and emulate each other in 
those endeavours, to countenance and advance the pro- 
testant religion abroad, which will be best done by sup- 
porting the dignity and reverence due to the best re- 
15 formed protestant church at home ; and which being once 
freed from the calumnies and reproaches it hath under- 
gone from these late ill times, will be the best shelter for 
those abroad, which will by that countenance both be the 
better protected against their enemies, and be the more 
«o easily induced to compose the differences amongst them- 
selves, which give their enemies more advantage against 
them : and we hope and expect that all men will hence- 
forward forbear to vent any such doctrine in the pulpit, 
or to endeavour to work in such manner upon the affec- 
ts tions of the people, as may dispose them to an ill opinion 
of us and the government, and to disturb the peace of 
the kingdom ; which if all men will in their several voca- 
tions endeavour to preserve with the same affection and 
zeal we ourself will do, all our good subjects will by 
30 God's blessing upon us enjoy as great a measure of felicity 
as this nation hath ever done, and which we shall con- 
stantly labour to procure for them, as the greatest bless- 
ing God can bestow upon us in this world. Given at 
our court at Whitehall this twenty-fifth day of October, 

35 MDCLX. 

SOS A proclamatioH [CL. 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Anglia 

GuiL. JuxoN I. 1660. CaBOIm II. IS. 

A proclamation prohibiting all unlawful and seditious 
meetings and conventicles under pretence of religious 

Charles R. 

ALTHOUGH nothing can be more unwelcome to us, 
than the necessity of restraining some part of that 
liberty, which was indulged to tender consciences by our 
late gracious declaration ; yet since divers persons (known 
by the name of Anabaptists, Quakers, and Fifth-monarchy 5 
men, or some such like appellation, as a mark of dis- 
tinction and separation) under pretence of serving (5od, 
do daily meet in great numbers in secret places, and at 
unusual times, by reason whereof they begin to boast of 
their multitudes, and to increase in their confidences, as 10 
having frequent opportunities to settle a perfect corre- 
spondency and confederacy between themselves, of which 
some evil effects have already ensued, even to the dis- 
turbance of the public peace by insurrection and murder, 
for which the offenders must answer to the law, and fiir 15 
worse may be still expected, unless some speedy course 
be taken to prevent their further growth. 

A proclamation] The insurrection of Venner and the fifth-monarchy 
men (of whose opinions sir Henry Vane was the principal promoter) 
took place on the 7th of January 1 66 1 . The quakers and anabaptists 10 
disowned all connection with them, on finding themselyea indoded 
within the terms of the proclamation. Kennet, Reg. p> 357. Clarke's 
Life of James II. vol. i. p. 388. Lingard, vol. vii. p. 365. 


i66o.] prohibiting eeditiom meetings^ S^c, 803 

To the intent therefore that none of those persons, 
who have presumed to make so ill an use of our in- 
dulgence, may be strengthened in such their proceedings 
by any general words or expressions in our late declara- 
5tion; w.e have thought fit by these presents to publish 
and declare our royal will and pleasure, that no meeting 
whatsoever of the ])ersons aforesaid, under pretence of 
worshipping God, shall at any time hereafter be per- 
mitted or allowed, unless it be in some parochial church 

lo or chapel in this realm, or in private houses by the per- 
sons there inhabiting. And that all meetings and assem- 
blies whatsoever in order to any spiritual exercise, or 
serving of God by the persons aforesaid, unless in the 
places aforesaid, shall be esteemed, and are hereby de- 

15 clared to be unlawful assemblies, and shall be prosecuted 
accordingly, and the persons therein assembled shall be 
proceeded against as persons riotously and unlawfully 

And for the better execution of this our proclamation, 

30 and the prevention of all illegal and seditious meetings 
and conventicles, we do hereby straitly charge and com- 
mand all mayors, sheriffs, justices of the peace, constables, 
head-boroughs, commanders, and other our chief officers, 
and ministers, whom it may concern, that they cause 

»s diligent search to be made from time to time in all and 
every the places, where any such meetings or conven- 
ticles, as aforesaid, shall or may be suspected. And that 
they cause all and every the persons therein assembled to 
be apprehended and brought before one or more justices 

30 of the peace, and to be bound over to appear at the next 
sessions within the respective precincts, and in the mean 
time to find sureties for their good behaviour, or in de- 
fault thereof to be committed to the next gaol. 

And further we do will and command our justices of 

35 the peace, that they cause the oath of allegiance to be 
tendered to every person so brought before them, and 

a04 Kitig Charles' letter to arehbiih^ JuMm. [CLI. 

upon his or their refusal to proceed, according as by the 
statute made in the seventh year of the reign of our royal 
grandfather, of ever blessed memory, they are directed 
and commanded. Given at our court at Whitehall the 
tenth day of January, in the twelfth year of our reign, 5 



Archiepisc Cant. Anno Christi • R^> Anglia 

GuiL. JuxoN 3. 1661. CaboIm II. 14. 

Kinff Charles' letter to the archbishop of Canterbury about 

some abuses in the church. 

To the most reverend father in God, William^ lord arch- 
bishop of Cantei'buiy. 

MOST reverend father in God, we greet you well. 
Whereas the bold abuses and extravagancies of 
preachers in the pulpit have not only by the experience 

King Charles' letter] A canon had passed in convocation on the 10 
1 2 th of May 1662, and had afterwards heen confirmed by act of par- 
liaroent (Wilkins, Cone. vol. iv. p. 575,) enjoining uniform reverenoep 
decency and order to be observed by all people in churches. The act 
of uniformity also (13 and 14 Charles II. c. 4) began to take effect on 
the 24th of August. In the October following the king issued his letter H 
with directions for the government of the clergy in their preaching and 
exhortations. Bishop Burnet gives the following description of the 
kind of sermon which Tillotson, Lloyd, and Wilkins delivered, and the 
king a])proved. '* The style their discourses generally ran in was dear, 
plain, and short. They gave a short paraphrase of their text. unleaiM 
where great difficulties required a more copious enlargement : but even 
then they cut off unnecessary shows of learning, and applied themselvea 
to the matter, in which they opened the nature and reasons of things 
so fully, and with that simplicity, that their hearers felt an iuatruction 
of another sort than had commonly been observed before.'* Own Times. 15 
vol. i. p. 348. Kennet, lleg. p. 794. Comp. N®. CXXXII. 

i662.] King Charles^ l^er to archbishop Juxon. 305 

of former ages been found to tend to the dishonour of 
God, the scandal of reh'gion, and disturbance of the peace 
both of church and state, but have also (through the 
licentiousness of the late times) much increased, to the 
5 inflaming, fomenting, and heightening, of the sad distem- 
pers and confusions that were among us: and whereas 
even at this present (notwithstanding the merciful pro- 
vidence of God, so signally manifested in restoring us to 
our crown, and our pious care and endeavours to govern 
loour realms in peace and tranquillity) the said abuses do 
yet continue in a very high measure in sundry parts of 
this realm, through the busy diligence of some unquiet 
and factious spirits, who instead of preaching the pure 
word of God, and building up the people in faith and 
»5 holiness, have made it a great part of their business to 
beget in the minds of their hearers an evil opinion of 
their governors, by insinuating fears and jealousies, to 
dispose them to discontent, and to season them vnth 
such unsound and dangerous principles, as may lead them 
^ointo disobedience, schism, and rebellion : and whereas 
also sundry young divines, and ministers, either out of a 
spirit of contention and contradiction, or in vain osten- 
tation of their learning, take upon them in their popular 
sermons to handle the deep points of God's eternal coun- 
ts gels and decrees, or to meddle with the affairs of state 
and government, or to wrangle about forms and gestures, 
and other fruitless disputes and controversies, serving 
rather to amuse, than profit the hearers ; which is done 
for the most part, and with the greatest confidence, by 
30 such persons as least understand them: we out of our 
princely care and zeal for the honour of God, the ad- 
vancement of piety, peace, and true religion, and for the 
preventing for the future, as much as lieth in us, the 
many and great inconveniences and mischiefs that will 
•^5 unavoidably ensue, if a timely stop be not given to these 
and the like growing abuses, do, according to the exam- 


306 fing CharM directianf cwiceming preaAtn. [CIJ. 

pies of several of our predecessors of blessed memoiy, by 
these our special letters straitly charge and command you 
to use your utmost care and diligence, that these direc- 
tions, which upon long and serious consideration we have 
thought good to give concerning preachers, and which 5 
we have caused to be printed, herewith sent unto you, 
be from henceforth duly and strictly observed by all the 
bishops within your province. And to this end, our will 
and pleasure is, that you forthwith send them copies of 
these our directions, to be by them speedily communi-io 
cated to every parson, vicar, curate, lecturer, and minister 
in every cathedral, collegiate, and parish church within 
their several dioceses ; and that you earnestly require 
them to employ their utmost endeavour for the due ob- 
servation of the same, whereof we shall expect a strict is 
account, both of you, and every one of them : and these 
our letters shall be your sufficient warrant and dischaige 
in that behalf. Given at our court at Whitehall the 14th 
day of October, in the 14th year of our reign, MDCLxn. 

By his majesty's command. 

Ed. Nicholas. 

Directions concerning preachers. 

T. rriHAT no preachers in their sermons presume to 
-L meddle with matters of state, to model new 
governments, or take upon them to declare, limit, or 
bound out the power and authority of sovereign princes, 15 
or to state and determine the differences between princes 
and the people; but that upon all good occasions they 
faithfully instruct the people in their bonnden duty of 
subjection and obedience to their governors, superior 
and subordinate of all sorts, and to the established lawsjo 
according to the word of God, and the doctrine of the 
church of England, as it is contained in the homilies of 


i662-] King Charles* directions concerning precushers, 807 

obedience, and the articles of religion set forth by public 

IT. That they be admonished not to spend their time 
and study in the search of abstruse and speculative no- 
5 tions, especially in and about the deep points of election 
and reprobation, together with the incomprehensible 
manner of the concurrence of God's free grace, and man's 
free will, and such other controversies as depend there- 
upon; but howsoever, that they presume not positively 
loand doctrinally to determine any thing concerning the 

III. That they forbear in their sermons ordinarily and 
causelessly to enter upon the handling of any other con- 
troversies of less moment and difficulty ; but whensoever 

»5they are occasioned by invitation from the text they 
preach upon, or that in regard of the auditory they 
preach unto, it may seem requisite or expedient so to 
do, that in such cases they do it with all modesty, 
gravity, and candour, asserting the doctrine and discipline 

»oof the church of England from the cavils and objections 
of such as are adversaries to either, without bitterness, 
railing, jeering, or other unnecessary or unseemly provo- 

IV. That for the more edifying of the people in faith 
n and godh'ness (the aforesaid abuses laid aside) all ministers 

and preachers in their several respective cures shall not 
only diligently apply themselves to catechise the younger 
sort, according as in the book of Common Prayer is ap- 
pointed; but also shall in their ordinary sermons insist 

30 chiefly upon catechetical doctrines, (wherein are contained 
all the necessary and undoubted verities of Christian reli- 
gion,) declaring withal unto their congregations, what in- 
fluences such doctrines ought to have in their lives and 
conversations, and stirring them up effectually, as well by 

IS their examples as their doctrines, to the practice of such 

X 2 

308 King Charlei directions concerning preaeken. [VIA. 

rcli^oiis and moral duties, as are the proper results of 
the said doctrines, as self-denial, contempt of the world, 
humility, patience, meekness, temperance, justice, mercy, 
obedience, and the like ; and to a detestation and shun- 
ning of sin, especially such sins as are so rife among us,5 
and common to the age we live in ; such are those usually 
styled the seven deadly ones ; in short, all kind of de- 
bauchery, sensuality, rebellion, profaneness, atheism, and 
the like. And because these licentious times have cor- 
rupted religion even in the very roots and foundations, lo 
that where there is an afternoon's exercise, it be especially 
spent either in explaining some part of the church cate- 
chism, or in preaching upon some such text of scripture, 
as will properly and naturally lead to the handling of 
something contained in it, or may conduce to the exposi- '5 
tion of the liturgy, and prayers of the church, (as occasion 
shall be offered,) the only cause they grew into contempt 
amongst the people being this, that they were not under- 
stood. That also the minister, as often as conveniently 
ho can, read the prayers himself; and when he cannot 80» 
do, he procure or provide some fit person in holy orders, 
who may do it with that gravity, distinctness, devotion, 
and reverence, as becomes so holy an action : and when- 
soever by reason of his infirmity, or the concurrence of 
other offices, the time may seem too short, or he unable «5 
to perform the office of both prayers and sermon at 
length, he rather shorten his discourse or sermon, than 
omit any thing of the prayerS; lest he incur the penalty 
of the act for uniformity, requiring them to be read 
according as the book directs. jo 

V. And further our will and pleasure is, that all 
ministers within their several cures, be enjoined publicly 
to read over unto the people such canons, as are or shall 
be in force, at least once, and the thirty-nine articles 
twice every year, to the end they may the better unde^J5 

1 66^.] King Charles' directiims concernififf preachers, 809 

Stand and be more throughly acquainted with the doctrine 
and discipline of the church of England, and not so easily 
drawn away from it as formerly they have been. 

VI. Since preaching was not anciently the work of 
5 every priest, but was restrained to the choicest persons 

for gravity, prudence, and learning ; the archbishops and 
bishops of this kingdom are to take great care whom 
they license to preach, and that all grants and licenses 
of this kind heretofore made by any chancellor, official, 

lo commissary, or other secular person (who are presumed 
not to be so competent judges in matters of this nature) 
be accounted void and null, unless the same shall like- 
wise be allowed by the archbishop or the bishop of the 
diocese ; and that all licenses of preachers hereafter to be 

15 made or granted by any archbishop or bishop, shall be 
only during pleasure, otherwise to be void to all intents 
and purposes, as if the same had never been made nor 

VII. Lastly, That for the better observing of the 
ao Lord's day, too much neglected of late, they shall, as 

by often and serious admonitions, and sharp reproofs, 
endeavour to draw off people from such idle, debauched, 
and profane courses, as dishonour God, bring a scandal on 
religion, and contempt on the laws and authority eccle- 

^5 siastical and civil ; so shall they very earnestly persuade 
them to frequent divine service on the Lord's day, and 
other festivals appointed by the church to be kept 
solemn ; and in case any person shall resort unto any 
tavern, alehouses, or use any unlawftil sports and exer- 

socises on such days, the minister shall exhort those, which 
are in authority in their several parishes and congrega- 
tions, carefully to look after all such offenders in any 
kind whatsoever, together with all those that abet, re- 
ceive, or entertain them, that they may be proceeded 

35 against according to the laws and quality of their of^ 

310 The arMishop of OanUrbwry's leUer 4re. [CLI. 

fences, that all such disorders may for the time to come 
be prevented. Given at our court at Whitehall October 
the 14th, in the 14th year of our reign, mdclxii. 

By his majesty's command. 

Ed. Nicholas. 5 

The lord archbp. of Cantos letter to the lords the bishops 

within his grace's province. 

AFTER my hearty commendations. I have lately 
received letters from his majesty, wherein he takes 
notice of the continuance and increase of some bold 
abuses and extravagancies in the church, especially in 
preachers, notwithstanding his great indulgence usedio 
towards them; and foreseeing the mischief and incon- 
veniences likely to ensue thereupon, if not timely pre- 
vented and repressed, hath, out of his princely and tender 
care of the peace of the church, sent withal certain direc- 
tions to be strictly observed by the bishops in their several 15 
dioceses, (as by the copies thereof, which I have sent here 
enclosed, your lordship will more fully understand,) and 
for the more speedy dispatch and ease in the communi- 
cation hath been graciously pleased to command so many 
copies thereof to be printed as shall be needful, a pro-» 
portionable number whereof will be forthwith sent unto 
your lordship for your diocese. Now as we cannot but 
with all thankfulness acknowledge his majesty's affec- 
tionate care and zeal in this his providing for the good 
and welfare of the church by all means, which he finds ss 
may be conducible thereunto ; so my earnest desire and 
hope is, we shall not be so much wanting to our own 
good, as not to second those his majesty's commands with 
the utmost of our endeavours; but that your lordship^ 
when you shall have given order for the careful dispeningje 

i662.] Hu majesty 8 declaration ^c. 311 

and communicating those copies, as is required, will by 
your diligent inspection and serious admonitions to your 
clergy, as occasion shall be offered, be able in due time 
to return an account of the success in the observation, 
5 answerable to his majesty's expectation and pious desires 
in this his injunction. And so with my prayers to Grod 
for a blessing upon your endeavours herein, I commit you 
to his holy protection, and rest 

Your lordship's very loving friend and brother ^ 

lo Lambeth, Oct. 23, W. CaNT. 



Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi Rc^. Angli» 

CluiL. JuxoN 3. 1662. Carol. II. 14. 

His majestj/s declaration to all his loving stthjects. — From 

an original in the Bodleian library. 

Charles R. 

AS it hath pleased Almighty God so wonderfully to 
restore us to the throne of our ancestors, and our 
subjects to happy peace and tranquillity without the least 
I* bloodshed by the military sword ; so having still earnestly 
wished that both might be secured and maintained with 
the least effusion possible of the same by the sword of 

His majesty* 8 declaration] The act of uniformity (13 and 14 Charles 
IL c. 4.) had passed May 19, and was to take effect on the 24th of 

TO August followmg, that day being fixed upon, says bishop Burnet, (al- 
though it was manifestly too early,) for the purpose of anticipating the 
period at which the principal tithes of the year would become due. 
The act itself was exceedingly stringent, and so earnest were the com- 
mons in its favour, that the house of lords vainly endeavoured to intro- 

H duce more lenient provisions in behalf of schoolmasters, and in respect 
to the use of the surplice and the sign of the cross. The king was 
frequently and strongly importuned by the nonconformists to grant 

SU His fnajeity'8 dedaraiian [CLI*. 

justice, as desiring much rather to cure the ill intentions 
of the disaffected by our clemency, than to punish the 
effects by rigour of law : we cannot but express our great 
grief and trouble, that the unpardonable as well as in- 
curable malignity of some should have carried them anew 5 
to such traitorous practices against our person and go- 
vernment, as have necessitated us to make fresh examples 
by the death of any more of our subjects. But as the 
publicness of tlieir trial in the ordinary course of law, 
hath by their conviction sufficiently satisfied the world of 10 
the enormity of their crimes, so we have thought fit, at 
the same time that we are forced to punish, to endeavour, 
as much as in us lieth, the preventing all occasions of 
the like for the future by this declaration ; wherein our 
principal aim is, to apply proper antidotes to all those 15 
venomous insinuations, by which (as we are certainly 
informed) some of our subjects of inveterate and unalter- 
able ill principles, do daily endeavour to poison the aflTec^ 
tions of our good people, by misleading their understand- 
ings, and that principally by four sorts of most fiilse and «> 
malicious scandals, which we do look upon as the grounds 
of those traitorous attempts. 

The first, B?/ suggesting unto therny that having attained 
our ends in reestablishing our regal authority^ and gaining 
the power into our own hands by a specious condescension >5 
to a geyieral act of iyidermiity^ ice intend nothing less than 

them his protection; and partly from the facility of his natare» and 
partly from other consideration?, private as well as public, he was 
induced to promise them that their prayer should be granted. His 
intention was to dispense, by his royal supremacy, with the execation 3^ 
of the act for a limited period ; but being told by the conformists that 
its provisions would nevertheless take effect, and being earnestly en- 
treated to consider the perilous condition of the church, be again 
yielded, and promised acquiescence in the wishes of his present adviserB 
as readily as he had previously done in those of their opponents. TlieiS 
measure finally adopted was his declaration of the 26th of December, 
in which he endeavours to satisfy the nonconformists by aasuring them 

i662.] to (Ul his loving mbjects, 313 

the observation of it ; but on the contrary by degrees to 
subject the persons and estates of all siLch who stood in need 
of that law^ to future revenge^ and to give them up to the 
spoil of tlioscy who had lost their fortunes in our service. 

5 Secondly, That upon pretence of plots and practices 
against us, we intend to introduce a military way of go- 
vemment in this kingdom. 

Thirdly, That having made use of such solemn promises 
from Breda, and in several declarations siiice, of ease and 

^o liberty to tender consciences, instead of perfm*ming any 
part of them, we have added straiter fetters than ever, and 
new rocks of scandal to the scrupulous, by the act of uni- 

Fourthly and lastly, we find it as artificially as mali- 

"5 ciously divulged throughout the whole kingdom, That at 
the same time we deny a fitting liberty to those other sects 
of our subjects, whose consciences will not allow them to 
conform to the religion established by law ; we are highly 
indulgent to papists, not only in ea^empting them from the 

^penalties of the law, but even to such a degree of counte- 
nance and encouragement, as may even endanger the pro- 
testant religion. 

Upon occasion of all which wicked and malicious sug- 
gestions, although we are confident that the innate loy- 

«s alty and good affections of the generality of our people, 
strengthened by a due sense of the late calamities brought 

that he would incline the wisdom of parliament to the mitigation of all 
penal statutes in matters of religion. By this method the king hoped 
to gain the reputation of openness and generosity, whilst he was at the 

30 same time preparing the way for the accomplishment of his own secret 
projects. He was willing to ohtain some further indulgences for the 
nonconformists, hut he intended to make use of the same opportunity 
in favour of the Romanists. It appears that the preshyterians saw 
through his stratagem, and would not give him their assistance in the 

35 prosecution of it. Burnet, Own Times, vol. i. p. 335. Neal, Purit. vol. 
iii. p. 1 1 1. Clarend. Life, vol. ii. p. 143. Baxter's life, p. 305. North's 
Examen, P' 43 1. Hallam, vol. ii. p. 208. Lingard, vol. vii. p. 421. 

SI 4 Hi8 majesty* B declaration [(/LI*. 

upon them by the same arts, will hinder seeds of so de- 
testable a nature from taking root, and bringing forth the 
fruits aimed at by the sowers of them : yet we think that 
iu our fatherly care to prevent any misleading of those 
who are so dear to us, we owe unto them and to ourselves 5 
this publication of our steadfast resolutions in all these 

As to the first point, concerning the act of indemnity ; 
certainly there can be no greater evidence that the pass- 
ing it proceeded from the clemency of our nature, as well '^ 
as from the present conjuncture of that j)arliament where- 
in it was first framed, than that we have been pleased to 
make it our especial care to have it confirmed by a new 
act in this, a parliament composed of members so full of 
affections to our person, and of zeal for the public good, 15 
as we could never have cause to apprehend their exacting 
from us a confirmation of any thing that had been ex- 
torted, or had at present been judged by us prejudicial to 
either : and therefore as we not only consented unto, but 
most earnestly desired the passing that act at first, and m 
confirming it since, as being no less conformable to our 
nature, than conducible to a happy settlement ; so we do 
hereby most solemnly renew unto all our subjects con- 
cerned in it, this engagement, on the word of a king. That 
it shall never be in the power of any person or interest's 
whatsoever, to make us decline from the religious ob- 
servance of it : it having been always a constant profes- 
sion of ours. That we do and shall ever think our royal 
dignity and greatness much more happily and securely 
founded on our own clemency and our subjects' loves, 3^ 
than in their fears, and our power. 

Which most sincere profession of ours may suffice also 
to expose the wickedness and falsehood of the other 
malice concerning the design of introducing a vraj of 
government by military power. 35 

It is true, that we should not think we discbaiged 

i662.] to cM hii Umng subjects. 315 

rightly what we owe to the public peace, and to the 
freedom and security of parliaments, as well as to the 
safety of our person, if whilst we daily discover such mul- 
titudes of distempered minds, and such dangerous prac- 

5 tices issuing from them, we should from want of sufficient 
guards put it in the power of those rebellious spirits to 
undertake probably at any time, what they have at seve- 
ral times so madly attempted for the ruin and destruction 
of us all. Of which certainly, besides the present occa- 

lo siou of new precaution as well as new severity, we sup- 
pose all our good subjects need not a livelier nor more 
moving instance, than what their memories can furnish 
them with, from the desperate undertaking of Venner, 
and his crew, which (as mad as it was) we leave to all 

15 the world to judge of how dangerous a consequence it 
might have been, without that little strength remaining 
of those forces, which (to give our people a testimony of 
our founding all our security rather in their affections 
than in any military power) we had so frankly disbanded, 

20 and which afterwards, by advice of our council, merely 
upon motives of the public safety, we consented to in- 
crease to that moderate proportion, which was indeed 
absolutely necessary, and hath since been sufficiently 
proved to be so, by the security which we owe to them 

15 from the late dangerous practices. 

But the reasons of such precautions once ceasing, we 
are very sure that what guards soever may be found 
necessary for us to continue, as in former times, for the 
dignity and honour of our crown ; the sole strength and 

30 security we shall ever confide in shall be the hearts and 
affections of our subjects, endeared and confirmed to 
us by our gracious and steady manner of government, 
according to the ancient known laws of the land ; there 
being not any one of our subjects who doth more from 

35 his heart abhor, than we ourselves, all sort of military and 
arbitrary rule. 

316 Hi8 majesty^s (ieclaratien [CLI*. 

As for the third, concerning the non-perfonnance of our 
promises, we remember well the very words of those from 
Breda ; viz. We do declare a liberty to tender consciences^ 
and that 7io man shall be disquieted or called in question 
for differences of opinion in matters of religionj which dos 
not disturb the peace of the kingdom : and that we sJmU be 
ready to consent to such an act of parliament^ as upon 
mature deliberation shall be offered to us for the full grant- 
inq that indulgence. 

We remember well the confirmations we have made '<> 
of them since upon several occasions in parliament : and 
as all these things are still fresh in our memory, so are 
we still firm in the resolution of performing them to the 
full. But it must not be wondered at, since that parlia- 
ment, to which those promises were made in relation to 15 
an act, never thought fit to offer us any to that purpose, 
and being so zealous as we are (and by the grace of God 
shall ever be) for the maintenance of the true protestant 
religion, finding it so shaken (not to say overthrown) as 
we did, we should give its establishment the precedency to 
before matters of indulgence to dissenters from it. But 
that once done, (as we hope it is sufficiently by the bill 
of uniformity,) we are glad to lay hold on this occasion 
to renew unto all our subjects concerned in those pro- 
mises of indulgence by a true tenderness of conscience, 15 
this assurance: 

That as in the first place we have been zealous to settle 
the uniformity of the church of England, in discipline, 
ceremony, and goveniment, and shall ever constantly 
maintain it ; 30 

So as for what concerns the penalties uj)on those who 
(living peaceable) do not conform thereunto through 
scruj)le and tenderness of misguided conscience, but mo- 
destly and without scandal perform their devotions in 
their own way, we shall make it our special care so far^ 
forth as in us lies, without invading the freedom of par- 

1 662.] to aU his Umng subjects, 617 

liament, to incline their wisdom at this next approaching 
sessions, to concur with us in the making some such act 
for that purpose, as may enable us to exercise with a 
more universal satisfaction, that power of dispensing, 

5 which we conceive to be inherent in us. Nor can we 
doubt of their cheerful cooperating with us in a thing 
wherein we do conceive ourselves so far engaged, both in 
honour and in what we owe to the peace of our dominions, 
which we profess we can never think secure, whilst there 

lo shall be a colour left to the malicious and disaffected to 
inflame the minds of so many multitudes upon the score 
of conscience, with despair of ever obtaining any effect of 
our promise for their ease. 

In the last place, as to that most pernicious and inju- 

■5 rious scandal, so artificially spread and fomented, of our 
favour to papists ; as it is but a repetition of the same 
detestable arts, by which all the late calamities have 
been brought upon this kingdom in the time of our royal 
father, of blessed memory, (who, though the most pious 

ao and zealous protestant that ever reigned in this nation, 
could never wash off the stains cast upon him by that 
malice, but by his martyrdom,) we conceive all our sub- 
jects should be sufficiently prepared against that poison 
by memory of those disasters ; especially since nothing is 

n more evident, than that the wicked authors of this scan- 
dal are such as seek to involve all good protestants under 
the odious name of papists, or popish ly affected : yet we 
cannot but say upon this occasion, that our education 
and course of life in the true protestant religion has been 

30 such, and our constancy in the profession of it so eminent 
in our most desperate condition abroad among Roman 
catholic princes, whenas the appearance of receding from 
it had been the likeliest way in all human forecast, to 
have procured us the most powerful assistances of our 

35 reestablishment, that should any of our subjects give but 
the least admission of that scandal unto their beliefs, we 

3 1 8 His maj^ffy*8 dedaraii<m f CLI *. 

should look upon it as the most unpardonable offence 
that they can l>e guilty of towards us. Tis true, that as 
we shall always according to justice retain, so we think 
it may become us to avow to the world, a due sense we 
have of the greatest part of our Roman catholic subjects 5 
of this kingdom, having deserved well from our royal 
father, of blessed memory, and from us, and even from 
the protestant religion itself, in adhering to us vnth their 
lives and fortunes for the maintenance of our crown in 
the religion established, against those who, under theio 
name of zealous protestants, employed both fire and 
sword to overthrow them both. We shall with as much 
freedom profess unto the world, that it is not in our in- 
tention to exclude our Roman catholic subjects, who have 
so demeaned themselves, from all share in the benefit of 15 
such an act, as in pursuance of our promises, the wisdom 
of our parliament shall think fit to ofier unto us for the 
ease of tender consciences. It might appear no less than 
injustice, that those who deserved well, and continued to 
do so, should be denied some part of that mercy, which » 
we have obliged ourself to afford to ten times the num- 
ber of such who have not done so. Besides, such are the 
capital laws in force against them, as though justified in 
their rigour by the times wherein they were made, we 
profess it would be grievous unto us to consent to the 15 
execution of them, by putting any of our subjects to death 
for their opinions in matter of religion only. But at the 
same time that we declare our little liking of those sao- 
guinary ones, and our gracious intentions already ex- 
pressed to such of our Roman catholic subjects as shall jo 
live peaceably, modestly, and without scandal ; we would 
have them all know, that if for doing what their dutii*8 
and loyalties obliged them to, or from our acknowledg- 
ment of their well-deserving, they shall have the pre- 
sumption to hope for a toleration of their profession, or km 
taking away either those marks of distinction, or of our 

i66a.] to all his laving subjects. 319 

displeasure, which in a well-governed kingdom ought 
always to be set upon dissenters from the religion of the 
state, or to obtain the least remission in the strictness of 
those laws, which either are or shall be made to hinder 

5 the spreading of their doctrine, to the prejudice of the 
true protestant religion; or that upon our expressing 
(according to Christian charity) our dishke for bloodshed 
for religion only, priests shall take the boldness to appear 
and avow themselves to the offence and scandal of good 

'^protestants, and of the laws in force against them, they 
shall quickly find we know as well to be severe, when 
wisdom requires, as indulgent when charity and sense of 
merit challenge it from us. 

With this we have thought fit to arm our good sub- 
's jects' minds against the practices of our ill ones, by a true 
knowledge of our own ; of which now rightly persuaded, 
we make no question, but that whosoever they be from 
whom they can derive the spreading or fomenting of any 
of those wicked suggestions, they will look upon them 

*owith detestation, as the most dangerous enemies of our 
crown, and of the peace and happiness of the nation : and 
that what we have here published will happily prepare 
them all to a cheerful expectation of the approaching 
sessions of parliament ; an assembly so eminent in their 

^5 loyalty, and their zeal for the peace and prosperity of our 
kingdoms, that having already made those happy settle- 
ments for the maintenance of the religion established, 
and of our just rights, their full concurrence with us can 
no way be doubted in the performance of all our promises, 

scand to the effecting of those gracious intentions which 
(God knows) our heart is full of, for the plenty, j)rospe- 
rity, and universal satisfactions of the nation. 

In order to which, although it be foreign to the main 
scoi)e of this our declaration, which is principally to pre- 

35 vent the mischiefs aimed at by the scandals therein men- 
tioned, and that wherein we reserve the enlargement of 

SW His majesty's dedaratum ^e. [CLI «. 

ourself till the opening of the next sessions of parliament, 
yet we cannot forbear hinting here unto our good sub- 
jects four particulars, wherein we think to give them the 
most important marks of our care. First, In punishing 
hy severe laws that li€e?itious7wss and impiety^ which since ^ 
the dissolution of government tee find to our great grief 
hath overspread the nation. Secondly, As well by sump- 
tuary lawSy as hy our oivn ea^ample offrugalityy to restrain 
the ea?cess in ?nen*s eapenses^ which is grotim so general and 
so exorbitant, bej/ond aU bounds either of thMr qualities or «• 
fortunes. Thirdly, So to perfect what we have already 
industriously begun in th^ retrenching of all our own ordi^ 
nary and ea^traordinary charges in navy^ garrisons^ house^ 
hold^ and all their dependants^ as to bring them within the 
compass of our settled revenue^ that thereby our subjects n 
may have little cause to apprehend our frequent pressing 
them for neu^ assistants. And lastly, So to improve the 
good consequences of these three particulars to the advance- 
ment of trade^ that all our subjects finding (as well as other 
nations envying) the advantage this hath of them in that^^ 
prime foundation of plenty^ they may aU with minds hap- 
pily composed by our clemency and indulgence {instead of 
taking up thoughts of deserting their professions^ or trans- 
planting) apply themselves comfortably and with redotMed 
industry to their several vocatimis^ in such manner as thtii 
private iiitei-est of every one in particular may encourage 
him to contribute cheerfully to the general prosperity. 

Given at our court at Whitehall, this twenty-sixth day 
of December, in the fourteenth year of our reign. 

1 665-] AreUniihap ShddofCs letter about noncon/ormistt. dSl 


ArchiepiM. Cant. AnnoChrJRti Reg. Anglian 

GiLB. Sheldon 7. 1665. Carol. II. 17. 

The archbishop of Canterbury's letter to the bishop of Lon- 
don about nonconformists. — Reg. Sheldon fol. 205. 

RIGETT reverend, and my very good lord. After my 
hearty commendations, etc. Having heard frequent 
complaints from many parts of my province, not only of 
great disorders and disturbances caused by the crafty in- 

ssinuations and turbulent practices of factious noncon- 
formist ministers, and other disaffected to the govern- 
ment of the church, but also of divers unworthy persons, 
that even of late years have crept into the ministry, to 
the scandal of the church, and dissatisfaction of good 

lomen, a great part of which miscarriages are imputed to 
the easiness, or inadvertency at least, of the bishops, who 
ought to have a watchful eye against such growing mis- 
chiefs; I have therefore thought good, as in like cases 
hath often been done by my predecessors, to i-ecommend 

15 to your lordship, and the rest of my brethren, the bishops 
of my province, the orders and instructions herewithal 
sent, desiring and requiring your lordship and them duly 
to observe the same, and to give unto me such account 

The archbishop of Canterbury's letter'] The orders and instructions 
20 which accompanied this letter had evidently two distinct objects in 
view, the improvement of the orthodox clergy, and the suppression of 
nonconformity. The discipline of the church appears at this time, 
as indeed might be expected from the recent disorders, to have been in 
a worse condition than at any other period. However eminent may 
25 have been some of the prelates at the time of the Restoration, the 
church had to contend with these cumulative difficulties, that its oppo- 
nents among the laity were for the most part men of moral character, 
and religious profession, and its friends were the members and ad** 


S^ Archbishop ShMon's wrd^r$ [GUI. 

and certificates, as are thereby required. Which that it 
may be performed, I desire your lordship, that you will 
impart the tenor of this my letter, together with a true 
copy of the said orders and instructions, to every one of 
my brethren, the bishops of my province, with all conve-s 
nient speed. And so I bid your lordship heartily farewell. 

Your hrdship^s 
vert/ affectionate friend and brother^ 

Lambeth July 7. GiLB, CaNT. 


Postscript. T desire that your lordship, in your letters » 
to my brethren the bishops, will quicken them to make 
a speedy return to his majesty's instructions, for inquiries 
concerning hospitals, by me lately sent, and recommended 
to your lordship and them by his majesty's command. 

Orders and instructions by the most reverend father in '5 
God Gilbert J lord archbishop of Cant, his grace^ primate 
of all England and metropolitan^ given to all the bishops 
of his province, and required to be observed and certified 
asfoUoweth ; videlicet [Ibid. fol. S05.] 

T. Conceiming ordinations. «o 

THAT all and every the said bishops within their 
several dioceses and jurisdictions be veiy careftil 

herents of a dissolute and irreligious court. A pamphlet printed at 
Cambridge in 1663, and entitled, "Ichabod or five groans of the 
church," complains heavily of undue ordination, loose profaneness, on- >5 
conscionable simony, careless non-residence, and encroaching pln- 
ralities. It is at this period that the word curate became confined to its 
modem meaning ; and it is now introduced by the archbishop into hii 
instructions, as the title of a distinct and subordinate office, haying pre- 
viously been applied generally to all pastors and ministers. But thonghio 
the improvement of the regular clergy is made the prominent olject of 

i665.] to the bishops of his province. 323 

what persons they receive into the ministry ; and that 
none be admitted into holy orders, unless he bring with 
him letters dimissory, according to the 34th canon ; and 
that no bishop, being not within his own proper diocese, 
5 do at any time hereafter confer orders upon any person 
without license first from us obtained; and that in all 
things the canons concerning ordination be duly and 
punctually observed ; and that once every year, videlicet, 
vdthin thirty days after the feast of the annunciation of 
to our blessed lady St. Mary the virgin, every bishop do 
certify unto us the names, degrees, titles, and orders of 
every person by him ordained, within the year before, 
ending at Christmas then last past. 

II. Concerning pluralists and their curates. 

•5 That before the feast day of the annunciation of our 
blessed lady St. Mary the virgin next coming, they and 
every of them certify to me particularly the names, sur- 
names, and degrees of all clergynien, that, together with 
any benefice with cure, do hold also any prebend, or 

to these instrQctions, it was a point of no little importance at this period 
to obtain accurate knowledge of the numbers and the residence of the 
nonconformists. They had given offence to the government by op- 
posing the war which was then carried on against the Dutch, and it 
was determined to subject them to new and effectual restraints. The 

25 parliament had assembled in the month of March ; but owing to the 
breaking out of the plague, had been several times prorogued, and met 
eventually for the dispatch of business at Oxford, in the month of 
October. On the 14th of that month was brought in the bill " for 
suppressing unconforming ministers and schoolmasters," which imposed 

^a strict oath upon them, and such limitations respecting residence, as 
have since given it the name of " the five-mile act.'* The archbishop'^ 
instructions as to nonconformists bearing date on the 7th of July, 
would seem to have been given in anticipation of this memorable act, 
and for the purpose of making it effectual as soon as it was passed. 

35 Commons' Journals. Kennet's Hist. vol. iii. p. 280. Baxter's Life, 
p. 311. Hallam, vol.ii. p. 212. Tanner MSS. vol. cclxxxiii. p. 93. Lin- 
gard, vol. vii. p. 45 1 . 

Y 2 

324 Archbishop Sheldon's orders [CLII. 

ecclesiastical dignity, or promotion, or sinecure witb the 
names and places of the said benefices, prebends, dig;ni- 
ties, promotions, and sinecures ; and also the names, sur- 
names, and degrees of all clergymen, that hold two or 
more ecclesiastical benefices, with or without cure, whe-s 
tber within the same diocese, or in several dioceses, and 
the names and places wherein the said benefices are, and 
within what distance, or commonly reputed distance of 
miles ; and whether they hold the same by lawful quali- 
fication and dispensation ; and upon which of their bene- lo 
fices, prebends, dignities, or promotions they do reside ; 
and whether they keep and maintain able, orthodox, and 
conformable curates upon the said benefices, where they 
do not reside ; and whether any of them keep any curate, 
where they themselves do usually reside; and what are 15 
the names, surnames, and degrees of the said curates, 
and whether they be licensed and approved by the bishop, 
as they ought. 

riT. Concerning lectures and lecturers. 

That before the said feast day of our blessed lady 
St. Mary the virgin, they and every of them particularly m 
certify unto me, what lectures are set up, and lecturers 
maintained within their respective dioceses; in what 
towns, places, and churches the same are set up ; what 
allowances are made and established for any such lec- 
tures; what are the names, surnames, degrees, and quali-«5 
ties of all and every such lecturers; and whether such 
lectures be set up by and with the consent of the bishop 
of the diocese ; and whether the said lecturers be lawfully 
licensed preachers, and by whom ; and how they appear 
affected to the government of his majesty, and the doo-jo 
trine and discipline of the church of England. 

1665O to the bishops 0/ his province. S9S 

IV. Concerning schoolmasters and instructors of youth. 

That before the said feast day of our blessed lady St. 
Mary the virgin, they and every of them particularly cer- 
tify me, how many, and what free schools are within their 

5 respective dioceses, and where, and by whom founded, 
and how endowed, and the names, surnames, and degrees 
of the schoolmasters and ushers in the said free schools ; 
and also the names, surnames, and degrees of all other 
public schoolmasters, and ushers, or instructors, and 

10 teachers of youth in reading, writing, grammar, or other 
literature, and whether they be licensed, and by whom ; 
as also of all public mistresses of schools and instructors 
and teachers of young maids or women ; and of all other 
men and women, that keep scholars in their houses to 

15 board or sojourn, and privately teach them or others 
within their houses ; and whether the said schoolmasters, 
ushers, schoolmistresses, and instructors, or teachers of 
youth publicly or privately, do themselves frequent the 
public prayers of the church, and cause their scholars to 

«o do the same ; and whether they appear well affected to 
the government of his majesty and the doctrine and 
discipline of the church of England. 

V. Concerning practisers of physic. 
That before the said feast day of our blessed lady 

25 IV. Concerning schoolmasters'] The power of the ordinary in granting 
license to schoolmasters had been declared in the Injunctions of queen 
Elizabeth (N<>. XLIII.) in the canons of 1603, in the statutes 23 Eliz. 
c. I . and I James i. c. 4 ; but the further power of requiring such school- 
masters to subscribe a declaration of conformity to the liturgy of the 

30 church of England, was given for the first time in the act of uniformity, 
13 and 14 Charles XL c. 4. The house of lords remonstrated against 
this clause, but was overcome by the pertinacity of the commons. 

V. Concerning practisers of physic"] By statute 3 Henry VIII. c. 11,^ 
bishops and their vicars general had the right of licensing physicians 

35 and surgeons in their respective dioceses. 

326 Archhishop Shddon's orders 4rc. [CLII. 

St. Mary the virgin, they and every of them particularly 
certify me the names, surnames, degrees, and qualities of 
all practisers of physic within their respective dioceses; 
in wtiat towns, villages, or places they live; whether 
licensed, and by whom ; and how they appear affected tos 
his majesty's government, and the doctrine and discipline 
of the church of England. 

VI. Concerning ?wnconfbrfnuft ministers. 

That before the feast of they and every of them 

particularly certify me the names, surnames, and degrees 
of all nonconformist ministers, that within their respective lo 
dioceses have been ejected out of any ecclesiastical bene- 
fice, promotion, or charge for nonsubseription, or noncon- 
formity ; and where, and how, and in what profession of 
life they now do live ; and how they behave themselves 
in relation to the peace and quiet as well of the church, 15 
as of the state; and further, if any such like noncon- 
formist shall have removed from any other diocese into 
any of their respective dioceses, that they ceitify the 
same things concerning them, as well as of the others, in 
this instruction mentioned. Given at my manor house m 
at Lambeth in the county of Surrey, July the 7th, 


1670.] ArcUnskop tihddont letUr Sfc. 827 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Anglise 

GiLB. Sheldon 8. 1670. Carol. II. 22. 

The archbishop of Canterbury's letter to the commissary^ 
the dean^ and archdeacon of Canterbury concerning the 
king's directions to the clergy. — Ex autographo penes 
Thom. episc. Assaven. 

Right worshipful Mr, commissary^ and right reverend Mr. 
dean^ and Mr. archdeacon. 

IT having pleased his majesty and the two houses of 
parliament, out of their pious care for the welfare of 
5 this church and kingdom , by making and publishing the 
late act for preventing and suppressing conventicles, to 
lay a hopeful way for the peace and settlement of the 
church, ahd the uniformity of God's service in the same ; 
it becomes us the bishops, ecclesiastical judges, and 

'o The archbishop of Canterbury's letter'] An act had passed in the 
year 1664 (16 Charles II. c. 4.) "To prevent and suppress seditious 
conventicles," but had expired in the year 1 667 ; and the Oxford act of 
1665 being supposed to be inoperative in that respect without it, there 
was no longer any sufficient restraint upon the holders and frequenters 

15 of conventicles. The archbishop issued a letter to the commissary of 
his diocese in the year 1669 on the subject, which was soon followed 
by a royal proclamation for the suppression of such meetings, and for 
proceedings to be adopted against the preachers in them. (Wilkins, 
Cone. vol. iv. p. 588.) But under the guidance of such men as Baxter 

3o and Manton, and with the secret support of the king and his courtiers, 
the nonconformists persisted in holding their religious meetings, till 
the act for suppressing seditious conventicles was renewed in the year 
1670 (32 Charles II. c. 1.) with additional restrictions. It is to this 
act that the archbishop refers in the present letter. Baxter's Jjife, 

25 p. 328. Kennet, Hist. vol. iii. p. 305. Neal, Purit. vol. iii. p. 164. 

8^ Archbishop ShddoffCs letter ooneeming [GLIIL 

clergy, as most particularly sensible of the good pro- 
vidence of Cod, to endeavour, as much as in us lies, the 
jiromoting so blessed a work. And therefore having well 
considered what will be proper for me in my place to do, 
I have thought fit and do hereby recommend unto you,5 
as my conmiissioners, jointly and severally these counsels 
and methods, which I desire, that in my stead, through- 
out my ])articular diocese of Cant, as well in places 
exempt as not exemj)t, you will pursue; and which I 
have also by my letters given in charge to all the rest of >« 
my brethren, the bishops of my province, being thereunto 
encouniged by his majesty's approbation and express 
direction in this affair. 

In the first place therefore I advise and require you, 
that you will call before you not only all oflScials,i5 
registers, and other ecclesiastical officers within my dio- 
cese ; but that also by such means, and at such places as 
you shall judge most convenient, you assemble before 
you or some one or more of you the several parsons, 
vicars, and curates of my diocese and jurisdiction within m 
their several deaneries; and that you impart unto them 
resi)ectivoly, as they shall come before you, the tenor of 
these my letters, requiring them in my name, that in their 
several capacities and stations they all perform their duty 
towards God, the king, and the church, by an exemplary 35 
conformity in their own persons and practice to his 
majesty's laws, and the rules of the church in this behalf. 

Secondly I advise, that vou admonish and recommend 
to all and every of the pai-sons, vicars, and curates within 
my said diocese and jurisdiction strictness and sobriety ofi© 
life and conversation, checking and punishing such as 
tmnsgrcss, and encouraging such as live orderly ; that so 
by their virtue and religious deportment they may shew 
themselves patterns of good living to the |)eople under 
their charge. And next, that you require of them, hah 
they will answer the contrary, that in their own persons 

1670.] the king's directions to the clergy. »S29 

in their churches they do decently and solemnly perform 
the divine service by reading the prayers of the church, 
as they are appointed and ordered in and by the book of 
Common Prayer, without addition to or diminishing from 
5 the same, or varying, either in substance or ceremony, 
from the order and method, which by the said book is 
set down, wherein I hear and am afraid, too many do 
offend ; and that in the time of such their officiating, 
they ever make use of, and wear their priestly habit, the 

10 surplice and hood; that so by their due and reverent 
performance of so holy a worship, they may give honour 
to God, and by their own example instruct the people of 
their parishes, what they ought to teach them in their 

15 Thirdly, having thus counselled the ecclesiastical officers 
and clergy of my diocese in their own particular duties, 
you are further desired to recommend unto them the 
care of the people under their respective jurisdictions and 
charges, that in their several places they do their best to 

20 persuade and win all nonconformists and dissenters to 
obedience to his majesty's laws, and unity with the 
church ; and siich as shall be refractory, to endeavour to 
reduce by the censures of the church, or such other good 
means and ways as shall be most conducing thereunto. 

25 To which end, I advise that all and every of the said 
ecclesiastical judges and officers, and all and every of the 
clergy of my diocese, and the churchwardens of every 
parish by their respective ministers be desired in their 
respective stations and places, that they take notice of 

30 all nonconformists, holders, frequenters, maintainers, 
and abettors of conventicles and unlawful assemblies, 
under pretence of religious worship, especially of the 
preachers and teachers in them, and of the place wherein 
the same are held, ever keeping a most watchfiil eye 

35 over the cities and greater towns, from whence the mis- 
chief is for the most part derived into the lesser villages 

330 ArdUn^hop ShskUnCn letter ^, [CLIII. 

luxl hamlets. And wherever they find such wilfiil 
offenders, that then with a hearty affection to the worship 
of God, the honour of the king and his laws, and the 
peace of the church and kingdom, they do address them- 
selves to the civil magistrates, justices, and others con- 5 
cerncd, imploring their help and assistance for the pre- 
vention or suppression of the same, according to the said 
late act made and set forth in that behalf. 

Lastly, for the better direction to all those who shall 
be concerned in the advices given by this letter, I desire lo 
you will give out amongst ecclesiastical officers and clergy 
as many copies of the same, as you shall think most con- 
ducible to the ends for which it is designed. 

And now, what the success will be, we must leave to 
God Almighty. Yet I have this confidence under God, 15 
that if we do our parts now at first^ diligently, by God's 
help and the assistance of the civil power (considering the 
abundant care and provisions this act contains for our 
adviintages) we shall within a few months see so great an 
altemtion in the distractions of these times, as that the" 
seduced people returning from their seditious and self- 
serving teachers to the unity of the church, and uniformity 
in God's service, it will be the glory of Grod, the welfare 
of the church, the praise of his majesty's government, and 
the happiness of the whole kingdom. And so I bid you«5 
heartily farewell, and am, 

Your most affectionate friends 

GiLB. Cant. 

Lambeth hoti^e. 
May 7, MDCLxx. 

1 670. J Arehbi$hcp Sheldon's letter to residentiari«a. 331 


Arcbiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi Res. An^lia* 

Gi LB. Sheldon 8. 1670. Carol. II. 22 

T^e archbishop of Canterbury\s circular letter to cathedrals^ 
thai the residentiaries should in their own persons per- 
form divine service on Sundays and holidays at least. — 
Ex MS. penes Thom. epise. Assaven. 

EIGHT reverend and my very good lord. T have 
thought this a fit time to give your lordship, and all 
the rest of my brethren, the bishops of my province, 
notice of some things, which within some of our own 

5 cathedrals, and in the service of God there, are not so 
orderly performed as they ought to be. Our cathedrals 
are the standard and rule to all parochial churches of the 
solemnity and decent manner of reading the liturgy, and 
administering the holy sacraments. And certainly there 

10 is none in those places, whom it better becomes to shew 
a good example, than those who have the chief prefer- 
ments within those cathedrals ; that is, the deans, canons, 
prebendaries, and other dignitaries within the same. But 
with some trouble I must needs tell you, I have from 

15 many places heard, that the duties of reading the church 
service, and administering the holy communion, have 
been too much neglected by those dignified persons ; and 
as if it were an office below them, left for the most part 
to be performed by their vicars, or petty canons, to the 

^o offence of some of our friends, the advantage of sectaries, 
and their own just reproach. Upon this, my lord, my 

The archbishop of Canterbury's circular letter'] The circular letter to 
cathedrals is taken from the Tanner MSS. vol. cclxxxii. p. 102. There 
is also another copy at p. 1 06 of the same volume, and it may be found 
in the chapter- book at E^y. 

332 Archbishop Sheldon's letter to resinleniiaries. [CLIV. 

advice is, and I do hereby desire your lordship, that you 
will call before you the dean, and canons, or prebendaries 
of your cathedral churches, or as many as conveniently 
you can get together, and having imparted this my letter 
unto them, that your lordship will, as well in mine ass 
your own name, counsel, and persuade, or otherwise 
require them, that they take care, as much as may be, 
that divine service, and administering the holy conunu- 
nion be celebrated by one of themselves, at least every 
Sunday and holiday in the year; and that they order lo 
their residence and attendance on the church, so as (if 
possible) one of them in person may officiate, as is before 
desired. This, I am assured, will be very agreeable to 
his majesty's good pleasure, conducible to the honour of 
God's service, and their own esteem and reputation. And is 
so expecting from your lordship and them an account of 
what is done hereupon, as soon as conveniently it may be, 
at least within three months after the date hereof, I bid 
your lordship heartily farewell, and am, 

( J/y Im'd) your hrdship^s ^ 

very affectionate friend and brother^ 

(iiLB. Cant. 

Lambeth house, 
June 4, MDCLxx. 

For the right reverend father in God^ my very good tardus 
and brother, Seth lord bishop of Sarum. 

1 67 1 .] Bi$ mofetty'B deelaratim to all his loving tuijeett. 383 


Archu^iNC Cant, Anno Christi Reg. Angli» 

GiLB. Sheldon 9. 1671. (arol. II. 24. 

His majesty's declaration to all his loving subjects. — From 

an original in the Bodleian library. 

OUR care and endeavours for the preservation of 
the rights and interests of the church, have been 
sufficiently manifested to the world, by the whole 
course (Vf our government, since our happy restaura- 
5 tion, and by the many and frequent ways of coercion 
that we have used for reducing all erring or dissent- 
ing persons, and for composing the unhappy differences 
in matters of religion, which we found among our 

His majesty's declaration] Lord Clarendon having gone into banish- 

loment at the end of the year 1667, and his administration being suc- 
ceeded by that of the Cabal, the king was now at liberty to pursue his 
own projects, not only without restraint, but even with the aid of coun- 
sellors more fertile in expedients and more regardless about conse- 
quences than he himself was. And this was the darkest and most 

15 intricate period of a reign which may justly be called throughout the 
greater portion of it a mystery of iniquity. Within the compass of a 
few years the king resolved to be independent of parliaments, entered 
into a war to which the nation was generally adverse, declared his 
treasury insolvent, united himself with France and became the pen- 

20 sioner of the French monarch, formed a secret compact to surrender 
the liberties and the religion of his own kingdoms, and issued a decla- 
ration which directly dispensed with the observance of the law, and in- 
directly claimed the exercise of absolute power. 

The declaration issued on the 15th day of March 1673 is an in- 

^5 stance, among many, of the dishonest and tortuous policy by which the 
king endeavoured to accomplish his purposes. It seems to have been 
intended for the benefit of the nonconformists ; but was really designed 
to relieve the Romanists. For the former he felt as much compassion 
as could belong to a temper easy and indulgent by nature, but rendered 

.^o hard and reckless by profligate and irreligious habits ; and as for his 

^334 His majesty's dedaraUcn [CLIV*. 

subjects upon our return : but it being evident bj the 
sad experience of twelve years, that there is very little 
fruit of all those forcible courses, we think ourself 
obliged to make use of that supreme power in eccle- 
siastical matters, which is not only inherent in us, but 5 
hath been declared and recognised to be so by several 
statutes and acts of parliament: and therefore we do 
now accordingly issue this our declaration, as well for the 
quieting the minds of our good subjects in these points, 
for inviting strangers in this conjuncture, to come and live «« 
under us, and for the better encouragement of all to a 
cheerful following of their trade and callings, from whence 
we hope by the blessing of God, to have many good and 
happy advantages to our government; as also for pre- 
venting for the future the danger that might otherwise is 
arise from private meetings and seditious conventicles. 
And in the first place, we declare our express resolu- 

advisers, they had no sympathy except for atheists and RomanistB, and 
would naturally treat with contempt a class of men who looked upon 
their principles with ahhorrence. Nevertheless it was only by con- 20 
ciliating or by bribing the nonconformists that he could hope to obtain 
more favourable conditions for the Romanists ; and to this object he 
was now so far pledged, that he incurred the greatest hazard, and had 
recourse to the most unconstitutional methods, in order to accom- 
plish it. 25 

The parliament, which had been prorogued since the 22nd day of 
April 1 67 1 , was at last allowed to assemble on the 5th of February 
1673, and was addressed by the king, with reference to his Declaration, 
in the following manner : " Some few days before I declared the war I 
put forth my Declaration for indulgence to dissenters. . . .There is onei<> 
part of it that is su1)ject to misconstruction, which is that concerning 
the papists, as if more liberty were granted them than to the other 
recusants, when it is plain there is less. . . .In the whole conrse of 
this indulgence I do not intend that it shall any way prejudice the 
church ; but I will su[)port its rights and it, in its fiiU power. Having .15 
said this, I shall take it very, very ill, to receive contradiction in what 
I have done : and I will deal plainly with you, I am resolved to stick 
to mv Declaration." 

Nevertheless the commons proceeded to vote that " penal statates in 

167 1 -] to dU his Umiig suijects. 3S5 

tion, meaning and intention to be, that the church of' 
EfUfland be preserved, and remain entire in its doctrine, 
discipline, and government, as now it stands established 
by law ; and that this be taken to be, as it is, the basis, 

5 rule and standard, of the general and public worship of 
God, and that the orthodox conformable clergy do receive 
and enjoy the revenues belonging thereunto ; and that no 
person, though of a different opinion and persuasion, shall 
be exempt from paying his tithes or other dues whatso- 

loever. And further, we declare, that no person shall be 
capable of holding any benefice, living, or ecclesiastical 
dignity or preferment of any kind in this our kingdom of 
England, who is not exactly conformable. 

We do in the next place declare our will and pleasure 

15 to be, that the execution of all and all manner of penal 
laws in matters ecclesiastical, against whatsoever sort of 
nonconformists or recusants, be immediately suspended. 
And all judges, judges of assize and gaol-delivery, sheriffs. 

matters ecclesiastical cannot be suspended, but by act of parliament/^ 

20 and stated in reply to the king's defence of his proceedings, " that no 
such power was ever claimed or exercised by any of his predecessors.*' 
They shewed at the same time a readiness to grant relief to protestant 
dissenters, but a determination to oppose themselves to the additional 
dangers arising from the duke's open adoption of popery, and the 

asking's secret attachment to it. It is now known ft'om the Stoart 
papers (Life of James II. vol. i. p. 442) that the king had decided in 
the year 1669 to bring in the Romish faith, and had arranged with his 
brother to " go about it as wise men and good catholics ought to do." 
The Test Act was passed in the session of 1673, and the country party 

30 to which the nation was afterwards so much indebted, was established 
at the same period. 

The king assured the two houses that his suspension of penal laws 
** should not be drawn either into consequence or example," and 
the lord chancellor (Shaftsbury) stated, with his majesty's permission, 

35 that the Declaration under the great seal had been cancelled in his 
presence. Commons' Journals. Burnet, O. T. vol. ii p. 5. Neal, Purit. 
vol. iii. p. 185. Baxter's Life, p. 334. North's Exam. p. 455- Hallam, 
vol. ii. p. 255. Lingard, vol. vii. p. 499. 

336 Hia majesfifs declaration ^c, fCLIV* 

justices of the peace, mayors, bailiflls, and other officers 
whatsoever, whether ecclesiastical or civil, are to take 
notice of it, and pay due obedience thereunto. 

And that there may be no pretence for any of our sub- 
jects to continue their illegal meetings and conventicles^ 5 
we do declare, that we shall from time to time allow a 
sufficient number of ])laces, as they shall be desired, in 
all parts of this our kingdom, for the use of such as do 
not conform to the church of England^ to meet and 
assemble in in order to their public worship and devo-»o 
tion ; which places shall be open and free to all persons. 

But to prevent such disorders and inconveniences as 
may happen by this our indulgence, if not duly regulated, 
and that they may be the better protected by the civil 
magistrate, our express will and pleasure is, that none of >5 
our subjects do presume to meet in any place, until such 
place be allowed, and the teacher of that congregation 
be approved by us. 

And lest any should apprehend, that this restriction 
should make our said allowance and approbation difficult <• 
to be obtained, we do further declare, that this our indul- 
gence, as to the allowance of the public places of worship, 
and approbation of the teachers, shall extend to all sorts 
of nonconformists and recusants, except the recusants of 
the Roman catholic religion, to whom we shall in no>s 
wise allow public places of worship, but only indulge 
them their share in the common exemption from the 
execution of the penal laws, and the exercise of their 
worship in their private houses only. 

And if after this our clemency and indulgence, any of 30 
our subjects shall presume to abuse this liberty and shall 
preach seditiously, or to the derogation of the doctrine, 
discii)line, or government of the established church, or 
shall meet in places not allowed by us, we do hereby give 
them warning, and declare, we will proceed against them 35 
with all imaginable severity: and we will let them see 

1672.] ArehUsAop Sheldon's letter Src, 387 

we can be as severe to punish such offenders, when so 
justly provoked, as we are indulgent to truly tender 

Given at our court at Whitehall this fifteenth day of 
^ March, in the four and twentieth year of our reign. 


Archiepitc. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Anglias 

OiLB. Sheldon 10. 1672. Carol. II. 25. 

27ie archbishop of Canterbury's letter to his suffragans 
about the increase of sectSy etc. — Ex lib. instrum. episc. 

THE king's most excellent majesty being truly sensible, 
that the growing increase of the prevailing sects and 
disorders amongst us, proceeds chiefly from the general 
neglect of instructing the younger sort of persons (or 
10 their erroneous instruction) in the grounds and principles 
of true religion, is therefore pleased to command me, that 
in his name I require your lordship (and by you the rest 
of my brethren the bishops of this province) that by your- 

7%tf archbishop of Canterhttry's letter] When the act of uniformity 

15 was in progress, in the year 1662, the house of lords, in a conference 

with the commons, proposed that the clause requiring subscription 

from schoolmasters should be withdrawn, but were induced to abandon 

their proposition, on being told of the force of education, and the 

danger of entrusting it to the hands of dissenters. In this letter the 

to archbishop directs the power so obtained by the church to be employed 

for the purpose for which it was given. The Catechism to which he 

refers, was probably the small Catechism of dean Nowel, which was 

printed originally in 1570, again in 1572, in Ghreek and Liatin in i573> 


838 Jrchbp, Sheld(m^$ lett^ about the iriereate of ieeU. [CLV. 

selves and officers you will at all seasonable time rein- 
force the execution of such laws and constitutions, as 
enable us to enjoin the use and exercise of our said 
Catechism. And that (by the most effectual remedies 
that may be) such as, without license, either publicly ors 
privately teach school within your lordship's or their juris- 
diction, be forthvidth proceeded against, according to such 
rules as are prescribed unto us for their restraint. And 
to the end that this mischief may be prevented for the 
fiiture, he moreover strictly chargeth us, that none be"© 
admitted to that office without such subscription, oaths, 
and declaration, as are exactly requisite. But in the mean 
time I desire that your lordship and they will, with the 
first conveniency, let me know, how fitr we are already 
defective in these particulars, that I may be able to give >5 
such satisfaction as hereafter will be necessary. I bid 
your lordship heartily farewell. 

Your lordship's 
foery affectionate friend and brother^ 

Lambeth house, Feb. 6. GiLB. CaNT. * 


and so on from time to time in many subsequent impreasionB, and was 
used generally in schools, as Strype informs U8» down to his own time, 
the end of the 17th century. (Strype's Parker, voL ii. p. 18.) So 
strongly was the subject felt at this time, that daring the same month 
of February, the attorney general was desired to prepare a bill, " en- )5 
joining all persons possessed of ecclesiastical preferment » mider a 
penalty, to catechise and instruct the youth every Sunday in the after- 
noon in the Church Catechism, and to explain the same and ezpoimd 
thereupon to the congregation." Conmions' Journals. Comp. N^. 
LVI. CIX. CXXXII. Canons 77 and 79. !• 

1 6y6,] Archbp, Sheldon^ letter an to the number of dissenters. SS9 


Archiepisc Cant. Anno Christi Reg. AngH» 

GiLB. Shelook 13. 1676. ' Carol. II. 38. 

The archbishop of Canterbury's letter to the bishop of 
London concerning the number of dissenters. 

Right reverend and my very good lord. 

I HAVE thought fit, for some reasons me thereunto 
especially moving, to pray and require your lordship 
(and by you the rest of my brethren the bishops) that 
5 forthwith, upon receipt hereof, you send letters both to 
your archdeacons and commissaries within your respective 
dioceses^ willing and straitly charging them, that as well 
by conference with the ministers, as churchwardens of 
each parish within their jurisdiction, or such others as 
»omay best give them the most punctual satisfaction, they 
particularly inform themselves as to the several points 
and queries hereafter mentioned ; and that having gained 
the most certain information therein that they are able, 
they presently after their next visitation of Easter ended, 

»S The archbishop of Canterbury's letter'] From the time of the removal 
of lord Clarendon, in the year 1667, various attempts had been made 
to comprehend dissenters^ more especially the presbyterians, within the 
pale of the church of England. In the year 1673 a bill for their relief 
pcuBsed through the house of commons, and was read a third time, with 

3o amendments, in the upper house, but was not finally adopted by both 
houses before the parliament was prorogued. In the year 1675 several 
divines of the church of England, with Tillotson and Stillingfleet at 
their head, had private conferences with Baxter, Manton, and other non- 
conformists, for the purpose of arranging terms of accommodation ; but 

25 meeting afterwards with great opposition from the bishops, they aban- 
doned their plan, and Tillotson expressed their reason for doing so in 
the following manner : " It cannot pass in either house without the 
concurrence of a considerable part of the bishops, and the countenance 

z 2 

340 Archbishop Sheldm's lstt4r [CLVl . 

transmit their account thereupon in writing unto their 
several diocesans, and they unto your lordship, to be com- 
municated to me with your first conveniency. And to 
the end that they may be the more circumspect and 
sudden in the performance of this business, I think it not s 
unnecessary that there be some advertisement intimated 
unto them, that the matters inquired of may nearly con- 
cern them in the exercise of their jurisdictions. So not 
doubting of your lordship's care in the premises, etc. 

The inquiries are these that follow : «<> 

First, What number of persons, or at least families, 
are by common account and estimation inhabiting within 
each parish subject unto them ? 

Secondly, What number of popish recusants, or such 
as are suspected for recusancy, are there among sach the 15 
inhabitants aforesaid ? 

Thirdly, What number of other dissenters are resident 
in such parishes, which either obstinately refuse, or 
wholly absent themselves from the communion of the 
church of England at such times, as by law they are so 
required ? 

of his majesty, which at present I see little reason to expect." Never- 
theless the nonconformists had powerful arguments on their side, and 
were supported by able advocates. The duke of Buckingham proposed 
a bill for their relief in November 1675, urging the importance of thess 
measure for promoting the wealth, strength, and greatness of the 
nation. Bishop Wilkins, who died in 1672, had been inde&tigaUe in 
their favour, having spoken in the house of lords against the coaventiGle 
act in the year 1670, although the king had endeavoured to prevent 
him ; and bishop Croft published anon3rmou8ly (in 1675) "^ address to 30 
the lords and commons, under the title of " The naked truth," whidi 
recommended that " peace should be made with lesser enemies, in 
order to resist more successfully the encroachments of the greater." 
Among the topics urged at that period in favour of a oomprehensioD. 
great use was doubtless made of the supposed number and infloenoe of 15 
the dissenters, and this letter was issued by the archbishop for the 

I6j6.] concerning the nwmher of dissenters. 341 

It cannot be unknown unto your lordship, and the rest 
of my brethren the bishops, by what artifices and in- 
sinuations the established doctrine and discipline of the 
church of England hath been both heretofore and now 

5 lately impugned ; and amongst other specious pretences, 
the consideration of the number of dissenters hath been 
an argument much insisted upon, as if their party were 
either too formidable to be suppressed, or that the com- 
bination of the several factions being infinite, it were but 

»o lost labour to reenforce the censure and execution of the 
laws provided against them. For manifestation of which 
groundless and untrue assertion, and other important 
reasons me thereunto moving, I have thought fit at this 
time to pray and require your lordship. . . . And so soon as 

■5 1 shall receive satisfaction as to the particulars, I shall 
be able from the fact itself to unmask and lay open the 
prejudices and misapprehensions, wherewith some unwary 
persons are abused by the designs of our adversaries. I 
shall I hope justify the diligence, zeal, and integrity of 

^oboth myself and brethren, in the management of the 
charge committed to our care. And lastly, having done 
this, I do not doubt but the pretended increase of schism 

purpose of ascertaining what was the degree of credit to which it was 
entitled. We learn from a pamphlet, written hy hishop Sherlock in 

^5 vindication of the test act, what was the result. " The nonconformists 
of all sorts (including papists as weU as others) were computed to be 
in proportion to the members of the church of England, in the year 
1676, as one to twenty ; a number in proportion too small to have any 
natural strength to hurt the constitution." (p. 44. edit. 1790.) It is 

50 evident however that such a proportion of discontent was too great to 
continue stationary. State Tracts, 1693. p. 62. Neal, Purit. vol. iii. 
p. 198. Baxter, Life, p. 345. North's Examen, p. 44. Hallam, voL iL 
p. 266. Common's Journals. Lingard, vol. vii. p>552. 

In the copy of this letter preserved in the Tanner MSS. (vol. cclxxzii. 

35 p. 1 04.) is the following note on the words * What number of persons :' 
" Bishop of Norwich doubts whether the word was to be restrained to 
such only as were of years fit to communicate ; so. above the age of 16/' 

342 Archbishop Sanerofts direetians [CLVII. 

and superstition will no longer be imputed to our easiness 
or inadvertency, and the just number of dissenters being 
known, their suppression will be a work very practicable, 
if they be not emboldened by the countenance of other 
authority than ourselves. ^ 


An?liiepiM% Cant. Anno ChrUti Reg. Anglbe 

GuiL. Sancroft I. 1678. Caeol. II. 50. 

Directions from the archbishop of Cant to his suffragans^ 
concerning testimonials to be granted unto candidates 
fm* holy orders^ dated from Lambeth house Aug. 23. 


" ^ALUTEM in Christo." My lord- Whereas the easy 
O and promiscuous granting of letters testimonial 
(which is in itself a sacred thing, and in the first inten- 
tion of great and very weighty importance) is by the 
lapse of time and the corruption which by insensible ^^ 
degrees is crept into the best institutions, come to be 
both in the universities and elsewhere abroad in the dio- 
ceses a matter of mere formality, and piece of common 
civility, scarce denied to any that asked it, and many 
times, ui)on the credit of the first subscriber, attested by'S 
the rest, who have otherwise no knowledge of the person 
so adorned ; or else, where more conscience is made of 
bearing false witness even for a neighbour, is done fio 
perfunctorily, and in so low and dilute terms, as ought to 
signify nothing at ail to the great end, for which it is" 
designed to serve, and yet is sometimes with a like 

Directions from the archbishop] D'Oyly's Life of Sancroft, vol. i. 
p. 182. 

1678.] about testimonials for holy orders. 848 

easiness and remissness, received and proceeded upon; 
whereby great mischiefs in the church and scandals daily 
ensue, persons altogether undeserving, or at least not 
duly qualified, being too often, upon the credit of such 
5 papers, admitted into holy orders, and in consequence 
thereupon thrusting themselves into employments of high 
trust, and dignity, and advantage in the church, and by 
their numerous instructions preventing and excluding 
others of greater modesty and merit : concerning all 

«o which, your lordship cannot but remember, how many 
and how great complaints we met with both from our 
brethren the bishops, and others, during the late session 
of parliament, and what expedients for remedy thereof 
were then under debate and consideration among us. 

"5 Now, as the result of those counsels, and for the effectual 
redressing of those inconveniences, and preventing the 
like for the future, (though it would be abundantly suflS- 
cient to call all persons concerned, on both sides, to the 
serious perusal of, and exact compliance with those 

3o excellent constitutions and canons ecclesiastical, made in 
the year MDcni. which have most wisely and fully provid- 
ed to obviate all these evils,) yet because in the modem 
practice they seem not duly to be attended to, it is 
thought fit and necessary again to limit and regulate the 

15 grant, the matter, and the form of testimonials as fol- 
loweth : " videlicet," 

That no letters testimonial be granted only upon the 
credit of others, or out of a judgment of charity, which 
believes all things, and hopes all things, but from imme- 

aodiate and personal knowledge, and that owned and ex- 
pressed in the letters themselves. 

That (as to the form of these letters) every such testi- 
monial have the date, both as to time and place, expressly 
mentioned in the body of it, before it be subscribed by 

35 any, and pass also (as the canon requires) under hand and 
seal ; those namely from the universities, under the com- 

344 ArehbUhcp Sancroffs direetums ^c. [CLVII. 

mon seal of their respective colleges, attested by the sub- 
scription of the master, head, or principal perBon there, 
and those from other places, under the hands and seals of 
three priests at the least, of known integrity, gravity, and 
prudence, who are of the voisinage, where the persons 
testified of resides, or have otherwise known his life and 
behaviour by the space of three years next before the 
date of the said letters. 

And as to the matter of them, that they particularly 
express the present condition of the person, in whose i© 
behalf the testimony is given ; his standing and degree in 
the university ; his place of present abode, and course of 
life ; his end and design, for which he would make use 
of the said testimonial ; whether for obtaining the order 
of deacon or priest, or the employment of a parson, vicar, 15 
curate, or schoolmaster; and that the subscribers know 
him to be worthy, and in regard of learning, prudence, 
and holy life, duly qualified for the same respectively; 
and if he desires holy orders, his age too, if the sub- 
scribers know it, or else that they admonish him to bring m 
it otherwise credibly and sufficiently attested. Lastly, if 
such testimonial be to be made use of in another diocese, 
than that, where it is given; that it be by no means 
received without the letters dimissory of the bishop, or 
other ordinary of the place, attesting in writing the abi-^s 
lity, honesty, and good conversation of the person com- 
mended, in the place from whence he came. 

My lord, this is (I think) the sum of what was dis- 
coursed and resolved between us, when we were last 
together. I therefore desire you, with all convenient 30 
speed, to cause copies thereof to be transcribed and 
transmitted to the several bishops of this province, and 
vice-chancellors of the universities respectively, and to be 
by them communicated (as soon as may well be) to as 
many as are herein concerned, that they may not be dis- 55 
appointed by coming furnished with such testimonials 

i68o.] Archbishop Sancrqfi's letter Sfc. 845 

only, as will not, nor ought to be received to such great 
purposes, for which they are so often made use of. Com- 
mending your lordship and your great affairs to the bless- 
ing of God Almighty, I remain, 

Mt/ lord, your lordship^ s 

assured loving brother, 

£x schedula solata igipressa "^ CaNT 

anno mdclxxvih. 


Archiepisc Cant. Anno Christi Aeg. Anglias 

On L. Sancroft 4. 168a Carol. II. 33. 

The archbishop of Canterbury's letter to the bishop of 
London about the augmentation of vicarages and curO' 
cies. — Ex autographo penes Tho. episc. Assaven. 

My Lord, 

THE patrimony of the church (especially in the smaller 
vicarages) hath been so long and so often by unjust 
customs and otherwise invaded, and by degrees daily 
more and more diminished, and the little that is left of 
the old endowment, so likely by the same arts to be 
swallowed up and lost, that we have reason to bless God» 
15 who at the king's happy restoration put it into his heart 
by his letters to command us, upon the renewing of 
church leases, to make further reservations beyond the 

T%e archbishop of Canterbury's letter'] See No. CXLVII. D'Oyly's 
Sancroft, vol. i. p. 1 88. This letter is taken from the copy in the arch- 
20 bishop's handwriting preserved in the Tanner MSS. in the Bodleian, 
vol. cclxxxii. p. 115. 

346 Archbishop SancrofVs letter ^e. [CLVIIl. 

old rent for the augmenting the livelihood of poor vicars 
and curates ; which being done, he also past a law for the 
confirming and perpetuating such augmentations. After 
which pious care and provision, it would be an indelible 
blot upon us, if we should be found to have finally neg-5 
lected any act enjoined us by that statute, whereby the 
l)ayraent of those augmentations is directed to be evi- 
denced and secured. And yet (with grief I write it) I 
think I have ground to fear, that what in obedience to 
that excellent law ought to have been done by us above lo 
three years since, in order to so pious a purpose, is not to 
this day by us all universally performed. And therefore 
I desire your lordship to communicate this my letter to 
all our brethren, the bishops of this province, by them to 
be transmitted to their respective deans, archdeacons, and 15 
prebendaries, strictly requiring them, upon receipt hereof, 
to have recourse to the said act of parliament, and forth- 
with, punctually, and effectually to perform what is 
therein enjoined them. And when that is done, to the 
end T may be assured that at last it is done, that every w 
bishop, dean, and archdeacon send me a particular of all 
the augmentations respectively by them made or by their 
predecessor, with the names of the parishes, and the sum 
so reserved to the use of the incumbents, subscribed with 
their own hands; that so I may know what hath been 25 
done herein throughout the w^hole province. My lord, I 
doubt not of your lordship's readiness to promote so good 
a work ; which with your good lordship and all your 
great affairs I commend to God's blessing, and remain 

Your lordship's most affectionate friend and brother y 30 

Lambeth house, Feb. 2. 


'68 1,] ArdAishop SanerofCg letter 3fc. 847 


ArebiepisG. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Anglin 

GuiL. Sanceoft 4. 1 68 1. Carol. II. 33. 

The archbishop of Canterburj/s letter to the bishop of Lon- 
don concerning prosecution of popish recusants^ accord- 
ing to the canons of king JameSy lxv. lxvi. cxiv. 
Ex MS. penes Thom. episc. Assaven. 

Right reverend lord and brother, 

HIS majesty having yesternight in council (to the 
great satisfoction and joy of us all) declared his 
royal will and pleasure, that all papists and popish recu- 

5 The archbishop of Canterbury's letter'] The last parliament held in the 
reign of king Charles II. assembled at Oxford on the 22nd day of 
March 1681, and was dissolved six days afterwards, the commons having 
given extreme offence by their vigorous proceedings against popery, 
and more especially by the bill, which the king had denounced in a 

10 former parliament, for excluding the duke of York from the succession 
to the throne. On the 8th of April the. king in council issued a decla- 
ration " touching the causes and reasons that induced him to dissolve 
the two last parliaments;" in which was contained the following 
memorable passage : " We are resolved, by the blessing of God^ to have 

15 frequent parliaments^ and both in and out of parliament to use our 
utmost endeavours to extirpate popery, and to redress all the g^ev- 
ances of our good subjects, and in all things to govern according to the 
laws of the kingdom." It was at this council that the king expressed 
himself in such a manner, as to call for the gratitude of the archbishop 

20 and to give occasion for the present letter on the subject of recusants. 
But we have the following and different account of the matter from sir 
William Jones, a less credulous authority. " The declaration was not 
communicated to the privy council till Friday the 8th of April, when his 
majesty did graciously declare to them his pleasure to set it forth, with- 

25 out desiring from them any advice in the matter ; but M. Barillon, the 
French ambassador, did not only read it to a gentleman on the 5th of 
April, but advised with him about it, and demanded his opinion of it." 
(State Tracts, p. 167.) *• This declaration," says the writer of a letter 

348 Archbishop Sancrofts lettm* eanceming [CLIX. 

sants throughout the realm be. forthwith vigorously prose- 
cuted, and the laws of the land made against them effec- 
tually put in execution, to the end that by such whole- 
some severity (so seasonable and necessary at this time) 
they may by God's blessing upon his majesty's pious 5 
intentioiTs, and the endeavours of his good subjects, in 
pursuance of the same, be either reduced into the bosom 
of the church, or driven out of the kingdom ; I could not 
but immediately reflect how highly it concerns, and how 
well it may beseem me and my brethren, and all that are 10 
intrusted with the manage of any jurisdiction under us, 
to contribute all we can ; and particularly what the laws 

from a person of quality to his friend, " by the new style of ' his ma- 
jesty in council,* is ordered to be read in all churches and cbapeb 
throughout England ; which no doubt the blind obedience of our clergy 15 
will see carefully performed. Yet if it be true that there \b neither 
great seal, privy seal, nor order of council, nor any thing else but 
Mr. Gwyn's hand to authorize the publishing this paper, in sach a case 
our officious clergymen will prove publishers of false news, and invec- 
tives against a third estate of the kingdom ; and will be liable to be 10 
questioned for it." (State Tracts, p. 187.) The order that the deck- 
ration should be read in churches is said to have been proposed by the 
archbishop himself, and has occasioned much remark and rebuke, as 
furnishing the precedent for a similar order, which was issaed in the 
reign of James II. and was nobly resisted by the same archbishop aoda$ 
by the great body of the clergy. (Burnet, O. T. voL iii. p. 223. Ca- 
lamy*s Life, vol. i. p. 199.) 

Excommunication, which the lord keeper Williams had formerly called 
the " rusty sword of the church," (Cabala, p. 306,) was now found to 
be an effective and formidable weapon. It was directed in this instance )o 
against recusants, but it was also employed by the court in the year 
following against nonconformists, for the purpose of disqualifying them 
for voting at elections, or exercising any direct influence in boroughs or 
corporations. Kenneths Hist. vol. iii. p. 388. Commons' Journals. 
Neal, Purit. vol. iii. p. 228. Burnet, O. T. vol.ii. pp. 283. 337. North*8|5 
Exam. p. 105. Hallam, vol. ii. p. 320. Clarke's Life of James II. 
vol. i. p. 672. Lingard, vol. viii. p. 210. 

This letter is taken from a copy signed by the archbishop and now 
preserved in the Tanner MSS. vol. cclxxxii. p. 1 20. 


1 68 1 .] prosecution 0/ popish recusants . 349 

of the land, and the canons of the church require of ug, 
for the promoting and accomplishing (if it may be) so 
good a design, which tends so manifestly to the glory of 
God, the honour of his majesty's government, the pro- 
5 sperity and flourishing estate of that excellent religion by 
the peculiar blessing of Heaven established among us, and 
the quiet and tranquillity of the whole realm. I have 
therefore thought fit at present (till other and further 
methods may be debated and resolved on) to require all 

10 the bishops within this province, and every of them, and 
I do hereby require them, that those three canons against 
popish recusants, agreed upon in the synod begun at 
London A. D. mdciii. namely the Lxvth, Lxvith, and 
the cxivth be by them, and all that hold or exercise 

>5any jurisdiction under them, forthwith exactly observed 
and effectually put in ure ; considering how acceptable a 
service it will be to Almighty God to assist his majesty's 
pious purpose herein, and on the other side, how severe a 
punishment the last canon of the three appoints to those, 

10 who shall neglect their duty herein, which will (I doubt 
not) without partiality or connivance be inflicted on 
them. My lord, my request to your lordship is, that you 
will not only take notice of all this yourself, but cause a 
copy hereof, by you attested, to be transmitted to every 

35 bishop of this province, in the name of 

Your affectionate brother^ 
April 9, MDCLxxxi. W. Cant. 

850 Tie iinp'g warrant amc&mmg «eeltmattieal a^mirt. [CLX- 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. AngUa* 

OiTiL. Sakcboft 4. 1681. Cabol. II. ^. 

The king's warrant concerning ecclesiastical affairs. — Ex 

MS. |>enes Tho. episc. Assaven. 

Charles R. 

HAVING taken into our serious consideration, how 
much it will conduce to the glory of God, our owii 
honour, and the welfare both of church and universities, 
that the most worthy and deserving men be preferred 5 

The king's warranf] On the restoration, and after the paflsmg of 
the act of uniformity, there were bo many and such important eode* 
siastical places vacant in the patronage of the crown, that tnutees were 
appointed to nominate proper persons to succeed to them. " Dr. Shel- 
don/' says Isaac Walton, " was hy his majesty made a chief trustee to 10 
commend to him fit men to supply the then vacant bbhoprica." But 
that the warrant issued in 1681 was really serviceable to the best 
interests of the church, cannot be supposed, when we oonaider ^ther 
the composition of the board who were to select the proper persons, or 
the general prevalence of intrigue and duplicity among the coartierB of '5 
those unhappy times. And a case which bishop Burnet has rec(Hded 
respecting himself, and which seems to have occurred a few mondii 
after the warrant was issued, shews, in a pregnant instance, the real 
value of the security that was afforded by it. " Lord Uali&z pressed 
me vehemently to accept of preferment at court; and said if I would ^ 
give him leave to make promises in my name, he would obtain for me 

any preferment I pleased The mastership of the temple was like 

to fall, and I liked that better than any thing else. So both lord 
Halifax and lord Clarendon moved the king upon it. He promised I 
should have it." The sequel of the narrative is an example of the 15 
strange method in which the king was accustomed to throw out in the 
same conversation, expressions of sincere attachment to the church of 
England, and of utter indifference respecting it ; as though his memory 
had no more tenacity in it than his moral principles. Burnet, O. T. 
vol.ii. p. 294. Walton's Lives by Zouch, p. 421. N«. CLXIX'.^^ 
Tanner, MSS. vol. cclxxxii. p. 121. 

1 68 1.] The king's tjoarra/nt concerning ecclesiastical affairs, 351 

and favoured according to their merit ; and being satisfied 
that the lord archbishop of Canterbury, John earl of 
Radnor, George earl of Halifax, Lawrence viscount Hyde, 
the lord bishop of London, and Edward Seymour esq., 

5 are proper and competent judges in such cases ; we have 
thought fit, and do hereby declare our pleasure to be, 
that neither of our principal secretaries of state do at any 
time move us on the behalf of any person whatsoever, for 
any preferment in the church, or any favour, or dispensa- 

lotion in either of our universities, without having first 
communicated both the person and the thing, by him 
desired, unto the said lord archbishop of Canterbury now, 
and for the time being, John earl of Radnor, George earl 
of Halifax, Lawrence viscount Hyde, the lord bishop of 

15 London now, and for the time being, and Edward Sey- 
mour esq., and without having the opinion and attestation 
of them, or any four of them in the case. And if at any 
time we be moved in like manner by any other person 
whatsoever ; our pleasure is, and we do hereby declare, 

«o that neither of our principal secretaries shall present any 
warrant unto us for our royal signature in such a case, 
until the said lord archbishop of Canterbury, John earl of 
Radnor, George earl of Halifax, Lawrence viscount Hyde, 

1 the lord bishop of London, and Edward Seymour esq^ 

»5have been acquainted therewith, and have given their 
opinion and attestation as aforesaid. And to the end 
that this our declaration may stand as a lasting and 
inviolable rule for the future; our further pleasure is, 
that the same be entered not only in both the offices of 

30 our said principal secretaries, but also in the signet office, 
there to remain as upon record. Given at our comt at 
Windsor the 12th day of August, mdclxxxi. in the 
xxxiii. year of our reign. 

By his majeMy*s command^ 
35 L. Jenkins. 

35S Suspetuio Tkomee Wood, epise. Lic^. tt CoteiU. [CLX*< 


Arcliii'pisc. Cant. Anno Christi Reg. An||^« 

GuiL. Sancroft 7. 1684. Cabol. IL 36. 

Suspoisio Thom<B Wood^ S. T.P. episcapi Lichf. et Cotent' 
ab officiis ejiis exequendis. — E Regist. Sancroft. 

IN Dei nomine amen. Cum coram venerabili et egre- 
gio vir^o Dom. Ric. Lloyd milite et legam doctore 
surrogato venerabilis et egregii viri Dom. Rob. Wyseman 
militis et legiim doctoris almac curiae Cantuariensis de 
Arcubus Londin. officialis principalis legitime constituti^s 
quoddam negotium officii promotum per Philippum Jacob. 
gen. contra reverendum in CliriBto patrem ac dominum 
dominura Thomam permissione divina Covent. et Litchf. 
episcopum nuper pendebat et vertebatur : cumqae dictum 
negotium per praefatum Pbilippum Jacob promotoremio 
officii prffidicti et pra^fatum reverendum patrem dominum 
Thomam episcopum antedictum commissum et relatum 
fuerit arbitrio reverendorum in Christo patrum ac domi- 
norura dominonim Henrici permissione divina Londin. 
episcopi ac domini Wilh™^ permissione divina Petrobur-i5 
gensis episcopi arbitronim hinc inde electorum per eos 
audiendum et terminandum, prout in actis hujus alms 
curiae Cantuariensis de Arcubus plenius liquet et apparet : 

Suspensio Thomai'] " Thomas Wood, D. D. was consecrated bishop 
of Lichfield on the 2d of July 1 67 1 , and enjoyed that honour, thoo^ m 
a person of no merit, unless it was for his preaching, to the time of hii 
death. But so it was, that he not caring to live at Lichfield or Ecdes- 
hall (where is a seat belonging to the see), either for not being beloved, 
or to save charges, he retired to Hackney, and lived in the house where 
he was bom, in an ordinary condition ; whereupon Dr. Sancroft, arch-tj 
bishop of Canterbury, suspended him of his office. He died very 
wealthy at Astrop, near King's Sutton, in Northamptonshire, (where 
he had continued about two years for health's sake,) on the i8th of 
April, or thereabouts, in 1692." Ath. Oxon. vol. iv. p. 881. ed. Bliss. 
The suspension was removed in May 1686. D'Oyly*s Life of Sancroft, jo 
vol. i. p. 194. 

1684.] Stupensio Thanue Wood, episc, Lichf, et Covent 353 

cumque dicti reverend! patres per judicium lauduni sive 
sententiam eorum manibus et sigillis infra tempus eis 
prsefixum et limitatura, subscriptum sigillatum et delibe- 
ratum inter alia in dicto judicio laudo sive sententia prae- 
5 fatum reverendum dominum Thomam permissione divina 
Covent. et Litchf. episcopum ab officio suo et functione epi- 
scopali et a beneficiis proficuis et perquisitis episcopatus 
prsedicti suspendendum fore adjudicaverint et determina- 
verint, donee mihi Wilhelmo providentia divina Can- 

jotuariens. archiepiscopo plenam fecerit et debitam sub- 
missionem pro absentia sua a sua dioecesi, neglectu officii 
sui et cseteris criminibus contra eum allegatis et probatis : 
cum denique dictum judicium laudum et sententia arbi- 
trorum antedictorum fuerit et sit per sententiam definiti- 

15 vam hujus almse curiae Cantuariensis de Arcubus confirmat. 
ratificat. et sententiat. Idcirco nos Wilhelmus providentia 
divina Cantuariensis arcbiepiscopus totius Anglise primas 
et metropolitanus praefatum reverendum in Cbristo pa- 
trem ac dominum dominum Thomam permissione divina 

«o Covent. et Litchf. episcopum ab officio suo et functione 
episcopali et a beneficiiti, proficuis et perquisitis episco- 
patus prsedict. donee fecerit nobis plenam et debitam 
submissionem pro absentia sua a sua dioecesi neglectu 
officii sui et omnibus aliis criminibus contfa eum allegatis 

35 et probatis, suspendimus in his scriptis. ^ir p 

Lecta die Sabbath. 19 Julii 1684, inter horas undec. 
et duodec. antemeridianas per rev™, in Christo patrem ac 
dominum dominum Wilhelmum providentia divina Can- 
tuar. archiep. in capella sua infra manerium suum de 

^^Lambehyth in com. Surriae, ad humilem petitionem 
M. Everardi Erton etc. prsesentibus tunc et ibidem 
reverendo in Christo patre ac domino domino Francisco 
permissione divina Roffen. episcopo ac reverendo in 

35 Christo patre Joanne permissione divina insulae Man et 
Sodorensis episcopo domino Bristolen. electo. 
VOL. n. A a 

354 J iiieln reottlatiwi ordinations mut [CLXI. 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Chritti Reg. AngliB 

OuiL. Sancroft 8. 1685. Jacob. II. i. 

Articles for the better regulation of ordinations^ and insti- 
tutionSy and other admissions to cure ofsouh, into which 
much abuse and many uncanonical practices have lately 
crept. — Ex autographo archiep. Sancroft apud Tho. 
episc. Assaven. 

IT is agreed by and between the archbishop and bishops 
of the province of Canterbury, and they do hereby 
mutually and solemnly promise for themselves respect- 
ively to one another as followeth : 

I. That they will henceforth ordain no man deacon, & 
except he be 23 years old, unless he have a faculty; 
which the archbishop declares he will not grant, but . 
upon very urgent occasion ; nor priest, unless he be full j 

Articles for the better regulation] In the and article it is stated that J 
** none but those who are so ordained are by the late act of uniformity ** 
and the statute 13 Eliz. c. 12. §. 5. capable to be admitted to any ^ 
benefice with cure." Whatever might be the construction of the stat^ 
of Eliz. as applicable to the year 1685, it is certain that persons wh(^ 
had not been episcopally ordained, were admitted to benefices witk 
cure of souls from the time of queen Eliz. to the commencement of the ', 
civil war. The practice was effectually prevented by the act of unifor- 
mity 1 3 and 14 Charles II. c. 4. See No*. CII. CXLIX. Burnet, 
O. T. vol. i. p. 332. Baxter's Life, p. 448. 

These articles are taken from the copy written by the archbishop, 
and now preserved in the Tanner MSS. vol. cdzzxii. p. 116. In sam 
earlier copy of the same (at p. 144 of the same vol.) are the following 
notes in the archbishop's handwriting. " Letters dimissory from one 
bp. to another. Priorius dc Tris Canonicis, p. 77. 86. 89, &c." and 
" In ordination of ministers three things required, i) fUiprvpSa, 1 Urn. 
iii. 7. good testimonials. 2) doKifiaaia, Ibid, examination. 3) x^ipo$ma,H 
I Tim. iv. 14. imposition of hands." 

1685.] institutiofu to cure o/^oub, S55 

aind complete 24 years old, as it is indispensably required 
in the preface to the book of ordination ; nor unless the 
canonical age be either by an extract out of the register 
book of the parish, where the person to be ordained was 

s bom, under the hands of the minister and churchwardens 
there ; or if no register be kept or found there, by some 
other means sufficiently attested. 

II. That they will not admit or institute any person, 
who hath been formerly ordained, to cure of souls, unless 

o it appear by a like testimonial, that when he was ordained, 
he was of canonical age; none but those who are so 
ordained being by the late act of uniformity and the 
statute 13 Eliz. c. 12. §. 5. capable to be admitted to any 
benefice with cure. 

5 III. That they will ordain no man deacon or priest, 
who hath not taken some degree of school in one of the 
universities of this realm, unless the archbishop in some 
extraordinary case, and upon the express desire and 
request of the bishop ordaining, shall think fit to dispense 

^^ with this particular, the person, so to be dispensed with, 
being in all things else qualified, as the said 34th canon 

IV. That they will ordain none but such, as either 
have lived within their respective dioceses for the three 

^5 years last past, and are upon their own personal know- 
ledge, or by the testimony of three of the neighbouring 
ministers, whom they think fit to rely upon, found to be 
worthy of what they pretend to, or else do exhibit suffi- 
cient and authentic testimony thereof from the bishop or 

30 bishops, within whose jurisdiction they have resided for 
the three last years, or from some college in one of the 
universities, in which they are, or lately have been gre- 
mials ; to the end, that there may be (by one or more of 
these methods) suflScient moral assurance to the bishop, 

35 by competent witnesses, of the good life and conversation 
of the persons to be ordained, for full three years last 

Aa 2 

S56 Articles regulating ardtnaiians and [GLXI. 

past, as the said canon requires. And the archbishop 
doth declare, that he will not give any man, beneficed in 
one diocese, a iacultj to take and hold a benefice in 
another, unless the bishop, in whose diocese he is already 
beneficed, doth give him a fair dimission and testimony's 
together with his express consent to that very purpose. 

V. That they will admit none to holy orders but such 
as are presented to some ecclesiastical preferment then 
void in that diocese, or have some other title specified 
and allowed in the 33rd canon ; among which a curacy >o 
under a parson or vicar, during his pleasure, is not to be 
accounted to be one, unless that parson or vicar doth 
under his hand and seal, and before witnesses oblige 
himself to the bishop both to accept that person *' bona 
fide" (when he shall be ordained and licensed by the'S 
bishop) to serve under him, and assist him, and also to 
allow him such salary, as the bishop shall approve of, so 
long as he shall continue doing his duty there ; and lastly, 
not to put him out of that employment, but for reasons 
to be allowed by the bishop. «o 

VI. That they will ordain no man, who hath a title 
allowed by the canon, if the benefice, to which that title 
relates, lie within another diocese, except he exhibit 
letters dimissory from the bishop, in whose diocese his 
title and employment is. n 

VII. That they will ordain no man, but upon the 
Lord's days, immediately following the ** jejunia qnatuor 
temporum," except he have a iaculty to be ordained 
*^ extra tempora;" and such a fioculty, the archbishop 
declares, he will not grant, but upon very urgent occa-i^ 
sion, as (for instance) if one, who is not in full orders, 
be presented to some benefice ; for of it since the late 
act of uniformity he is not capable, till he be ordained 

Vni. That they will ordain no man (of what qualitie935 
or gifts soever) both deacon and priest in one day, nor 


1685.] institutions to cure o/souh. 867 

any man priest, until he shall have continued in the 
office of a deacon the space of a whole year, and behaved 
himself faithfully and diligently in the same. And if 
upon urgent occasion, it shall for reasonable causes seem 
5 good unto the bishop to shorten that time, yet even in 
that case, there being four times of ordination in the year, 
he shall give the deacon's order in the end of one Ember 
week ; and (if the case may bear that delay) the priest's 
order not till the next ensuing; or in the utmost neces- 
10 sity, not till the Sunday, or holiday next following ; and 
that too not without a &culty. But in the same day 
none shall be made both deacon and priest, that some 
decent shadow at least, or footstep of so ancient and 
laudable a practice may be however retained and observed 
>5 amongst us. 

IX. That they will ordain none, but such as shall, a 
fall month before the day of ordination, bring or send to 
the bishop notice in writing of their desire to enter into 
holy orders, together with such certificate of their age^ 
so and such testimonials of their behaviour and conversation, 
as are above required ; to the end, that the bishop may 
(if he think fit) make farther inquiry into all particulars, 
and also give open monitions to all men to except against 
such, as they may perhaps know not to be worthy, as it 
«5 is expressly required by that excellent canon mdlxiv. and 
may be performed, as othervrise, so generally by affixing 
a schedule of the names of the candidates upon the doors 
of the cathedral, for as long time before, as they are given 
in : nor any, but such as shall also repair personally to the 
30 bishop in the beginning of the Ember week, or on Thurs- 
day in that week, at the latest ; to the end, that there 
may be time for the strict and carefal examination of 
every person, so to be ordained, both by the archdeacon, 
and by the bishop himself, and such other as shall assist 
35 him at the imposition of hands, or he shall think fit to 
employ herein ; and that they may also be present in the 

358 Afiieles regulating ardinaUani ^e. [CLXI. 

cathedral, and observe the solemn fiut, and join in the 
solemn prayers, which are at that time to be put up to 
God in their behalf. 

X. Lastly, That some time in the week, after every 
ordination, whether "intra," or "extra tempera,'* the 5 
bishop ordaining shall send a certificate under his hand 
and seal, attested by the archdeacon, and such other 
clergymen, as assisted at the ordination, containing the 
names and surnames of all the persons then ordained, the 
place of their birth, their age, the college where theyio 
were educated, with the degree they have taken in the 
university, the title upon which they are ordained, and 
upon whose letters dimissory, if they came out of another 
diocese ; to which shall be subjoined a particular account 
of all such as then offered themselves to ordination, and 15 
were refused, as also of the reasons for which the bishop 
refused them. All which the archbishop doth undertake 
and promise to cause to be entered into a lieger book for 
that purpose, to the end that it may be, as it were 
" ecclesiffi matricula" for this province. » 

W. Cant. 
W, Asaph. William Norwich. 

Fran. Ely. 
Tho. Bath et Wells, 

1 687.] King Jame^ declaration for liberty of eontcimee. 869 


Ardiiepisc Cant. Anno ChriBti Reg. Anglia 

OuiL. Sancroft 10. 1687. Jacob. II. 3. 

King James the Second his gracious declaration to all his 
loving subjects for liberty of conscience. 

James R. 

IT having pleased Almighty Grod not only to bring us 
to the imperial crown of these kingdoms through the 
greatest difficulties, but to preserve us by a more than 

5 ordinary providence upon the throne of our royal an- 
cestors ; there is nothing now that we so earnestly desire, 
as to establish our government on such a foundation, as 
may make our subjects happy, and unite them to us by 
inclination as well as duty. Which we think can be done 

10 by no means so effectually, as by granting to them the 
free exercise of their religion for the time to come, and 
add that to the perfect enjoyment of their property; 
which has never been in any case invaded by us since 
our coming to the crown. Which being the two things 

15 men value most, shall ever be preserved in these king- 
doms, during our reign over them, as the truest methods 
of their peace and our glory. We cannot but heartily 

King James the Second] The first open rupture between king James II. 
and the established clergy was occasioned by the energy and ability 

30 they displayed in opposing the growth of popery. The king had re- 
published in the year 1 686 the directions concerning preachers which 
had been issued by king Charles II. in 1662 ^see N®. CLL), but under 
circumstances so difierent from those of the preceding reign, and with 
a purpose so hostile to the cause of protestantism, that no attention 

«5 was paid to his directions, and sermons were preached and treatises 
published, carrying the war against the church of Rome into every 

860 King James* declaration [CLXII. 

wish, as it will easily be believed, that all the people of 
our dominions were members of the catholic church; 
yet we humbly thank Almighty God, it is, and hath of 
long time been our constant sense and opinion, (which 
u])on divers occasions we have declared,) that consciences 
ought not to be constrained, nor people forced in matters 
of mere religion ; it has ever been directly contrary to 
our inclination, as we think it is to the interest of govern- 
ment, which it destroys by spoiling trade, depopulating 
countries, and discouraging strangers, and iBnally, that it '^ 
never obtained the end for which it was employed. And 
in this we are the more confirmed by the reflections we 
have made upon the conduct of the four last reigns. For 
after all the frequent and pressing endeavours that were 
used in each of them, to reduce this kingdom to an exact '5 
conformity in religion, it is visible the success has not 
answered the design, and that the difficulty is invincible. 
We therefore out of our princely care and affection unto 
all our loving subjects, that they may live at ease and 
quiet, and for the increase of trade, and encouragement^ 
of strangers, have thought fit by virtue of our royal pre- 
rogative to issue forth this our declaration of indulgence; 
making no doubt of the concurrence of our two houses 
of parliament, when we shall think it convenient for 
them to meet. *5 

In the first place we do declare, that we will protect 
and maintain our archbishops, bishops, and clergy, and all 

quarter of the controversy. The wrath of the king fell in the first 
instance on the bishop of London, for refusing to suspend Dr. Sharp, 
on account of some controversial sermons preached at St. Giles' ;. and-^ 
the bishop was summoned before the court of ecclesiastical commisnon, 
which had recently been restored in direct opposition to the law, and 
was himself suspended from his episcopal office. But having once de- 
clared his liostiiity to the estabhshed church, the king took measures 
for increasing the number and strcngtli of his supporters. He opened -^'^ 
offices for granting dispensations and licenses to dissenters, in the hope 
that as they had obtained independence through his assistance, they 

1687.] fi^ liberty of conscience. 361 

other our subjects of the church of England in the free 
exercise of their religion as by law established, and in the 
quiet and full enjoyment of all their possessions without 
any molestation or disturbance whatsoever. 

5 We do likewise declare, that it is our royal will and 
pleasure, that from henceforth the execution of all, and 
all manner of penal laws in matters ecclesiastical, for not 
coming to church, or not receiving the sacrament, or for 
any other nonconformity to the religion established, or 

10 for, or by reason of the exercise of religion in any manner 
whatsoever, be immediately suspended; and the further 
execution of the said penal laws and every of them is 
hereby suspended. 

And to the end, that by the liberty hereby granted, 

«5 the peace and security of our government in the practice 
thereof may not be endangered, we have thought fit, and 
do hereby straitly charge and command all our loving 
subjects, that as we do freely give them leave to meet 
and serve God after their own way and manner, be it in 

«o private houses or places purposely hired or built for that 
use; so that they take especial care, that nothing be 
preached or taught amongst them, which may any ways 
tend to alienate the hearts of our people from us or our 
government; and that their meetings and assemblies be 

«5 peaceably, openly, and publicly held, and all persons 
freely admitted to them ; and that they do signify and 
make known to some one or more of the next justices 

would be induced by a sense of gratitude to promote his wishes ; and 
to attach them to him the more completely, he determined to release 

30 them altogether from the operation of the test and the penal laws. 
He accordingly issued his declaration for liberty of conscience, a 
measure, which, though it professed to have arisen from the most 
paternal and patriotic feehng, had slavery for its object, and made use 
of revolutionary methods in order to accomplish it. Kennet, vol. iii. 

35 p. 486. Neal, Purit. vol. iii. p. 266. Burnet, O. T. vol. iii. p. 161. 
Baxter's Life, p. 375. Clarke's James II. vol. ii. pp. 91. 112. Lingard, 
vol. viii. p. 303. 

362 Kinff James' declaraium [OLXII. 

of the peace, what place or places they set apart for 
those uses. 

And that all our subjects may enjoy such their reli- 
gious assemblies with greater assurance and protection, 
we have thought it requisite and do hereby command, 5 
that no disturbance of any kind be made or given unto 
them, under pain of our displeasure, and to be farther 
proceeded against with the utmost severity. 

And forasmuch as we are desirous to have the benefit 
of the service of all our loving subjects, which by the law 10 
of nature is inseparably annexed to, and inherent in our 
royal person ; and that none of our subjects may for the 
future be under any discouragement or disability (who 
are otherwise well inclined and fit to serve us) by reason 
of some oaths or tests, that have been usually administered »5 
on such occasions ; we do hereby further declare, that it 
is our royal will and pleasure, that the oaths commonly 
called " The oaths of supremacy and allegiance," and also 
the several tests and declarations mentioned in the acts 
of parliament made in the 25th and SOth years of the » 
reign of our late royal brother king Charles II. shall not 
at any time hereafter be required to be taken, declared, 
or subscribed by any person or persons whatsoever, who 
is or shall be employed in any office or place of trust 
either civil or military under us, or in our government. «5 
And we do further declare it to be our pleasure and in- 
tention from time to time hereafter, to grant our royal 
dispensations under our great seal to all our loving sub- 
jects so to be employed ; who shall not take the said 
oaths, or subscribe or declare the said tests or declarations 30 
in the above mentioned acts, and every of them. 

And to the end that all our loving subjects may receive 
and enjoy the full benefit and advantage of our gracious 
indulgence hereby intended, and may be acquitted and 
discharged from all pains, penalties, forfeitures, and dis-is 
abilities by them or any of them incurred, or forfeited, or 

1687.] for liberty of eonicience, 368 

which they shall or may at any time hereafter be liable 
to, for or by reason of their nonconformity, or the exercise 
of their religion, and from all suits, troubles, or disturb- 
ances for the same; we do hereby give our free and 

sample pardon unto all nonconformists, recusants, and 
other our loving subjects, for all crimes and things by 
them committed or done contrary to the penal laws, for- 
merly made relating to religion, and the profession or 
exercise thereof; hereby declaring that this our royal 

10 pardon and indemnity shall be as good and effectual to 
all intents and purposes, as if every individual person had 
been therein particularly named, or had particular par- 
dons under our great seal, which we do likewise declare 
shall from time to time be granted unto any person or 

15 persons desiring the same: willing and requiring our 
judges, justices, and other officers to take notice of and 
obey our royal will and pleasure herein before declared* 

And although the freedom and assurance, we have 
hereby given in relation to religion and property, might 

30 be sufficient to remove from the minds of our loving 
subjects all fears and jealousies in relation to either ; yet 
we have thought fit further to declare, that we will 
maintain them in all their properties and possessions, as 
well of church and abbey lands, as in any other their 

25 lands and properties whatsoever. Given at our court at 
Whitehall the fourth day of April, mdclxxxvii. in the 
third year of our reign. 

364 King Jamti deelaraiion [CLXIII. 


Arc1iie)»i8C. Cant. Anno Christi Rc|?- Anglm 

C'lriL. SaNCROFT II. 1688. Jacx>b. II. 4. 

The king's declaratioji for liberty of conscience. 

OUR conduct has been such in all times, as ought to 
have persuaded the world, that we are firm and 
constant to our resolutions: yet that easy people may not 
be abused by the malice of crafty wicked men, we think 
fit to declare, that our intentions are not changed since 5 
the 4th of April mdclxxxvii. when we issued out our 
declaration for liberty of conscience in the following 
terms. [Here the declaration was recited verbatim, and 
then follows] Ever since we granted this indulgence, we 
have made it our principal care to see it preserved lo 
without distinction, as we are encouraged to do daily by 
multitudes of addresses, and many other assurances we 
receive from our subjects of all persuasions, as testimonies 
of their satisfaction and duty ; the effects of which we 

The king's declaration] King James had not allowed his parliament 15 
to meet for the dispatch of bueineBS since the 20th of November 1685, 
and had dissolved it on the 2nd of July 1687. His next object therefore 
was to make such appointments in all offices both civil and military 
throughout the kingdom, as might influence future electionB. and dis- 
pose public opinion in favour of his measures. His de8ig:n8 for the fo 
restoration of popery were announced without disguise or reservatioOp 
and he republished his " Declaration for liberty of conscience," »till 
using it as his g^eat weapon for the destruction of the established 
church, but now adding the further violence of making the church 
itself instrumental in the publication of it. The declaration bears date 35 
the 7th of April 1688, and on the 4th of May ensuing his majesty in 
council ordered that it should be '* read at the usual time of divine ser- 
vice upon the 20th and 27th of this month in all churches and chapeb 
w^ithin the cities of London and Westminster, and ten miles thereaboats ; 

1 688.] for likerty of comcience, 865 

doubt not but the next parliament will plainly shew ; 
and that it will not be in vain, that we have resolved to 
use our utmost endeavours to establish liberty of con- 
science on such just and equal foundation, as will render 

5 it unalterable, and secure to all people the free exercise 
of their religion for ever; by which future ages may reap 
the benefit of what is so undoubtedly for the general 
good of the whole kingdom. It is such a security we 
desire, without the burden and constraint of oaths and 

»«> tests, which have been unhappily made by some govern- 
ments, but could never support any ; nor should men be 
advanced by such means to offices and employments, 
which ought to be the reward of services^ fidelity, and 
merit. We must conclude, that not only good Christians 

15 will join in this, but whoever is concerned for the increase 
of the wealth and power of the nation. It would perhaps 
prejudice some of our neighbours, who might lose part of 
those vast advantages they now enjoy, if liberty of con- 
science were settled in these kingdoms, which are above 

^©all others, most capable of improvements, and of com- 
manding the trade of the world. In pursuance of this 
great work, we have been forced to make many changes 
both of civil and military officers throughout our do- 
minions, not thinking any ought to be employed in our 

25 and upon the 3rd and loth of June next in all other churches and 
chapels throughout the kingdom ;" and it was further ordered '* that 
the right reverend the bishops cause the said declaration to be sent and 
distributed throughout their several and respective dioceses to be read 
accordingly." (Kennet, vol. iii. p. 509. Burnet, O. T. vol. iii. p. 222. 

3oLingard, vol. viii. p. 439. Clarke's James II. vol. ii. p. 115.) In the 
summer of the same year the king issued instructions to the judges of 
assize, requiring them to call upon all persons to support his Declara- 
tion, and urging that " the free exercise of religion has been the chief 
visible cause of the g^eat riches that some of our nearest neighbours 

35 enjoy, and would be the certain means to make these kingdoms popu- 
lous, and the chiefest place of trade in the Christian world." Tanner, 
MSS. vol. zxviii. p. 100. 

366 King James declarcUion /or liberty of eonseienee. [GLX IIL 

service, who will not contribute towards establishing the 
peace and greatness of their country, which we most 
earnestly desire, as unbiassed men may see by the whole 
conduct of our government, and by the condition of our 
fleet, and of our armies, which with good management is 
shall be constantly the same, and greater, if the safety or 
honour of the nation require it. We recommend these 
considerations to all our subjects, and that they will reflect 
on their present ease and happiness, how for above three 
years that it hath pleased God to permit us to reign over ■ • 
these kingdoms, we have not appeared to be that prince, 
our enemies would have made the world afraid of; our 
chief aim having been not to be the oppressor, but the 
father of our people ; of which we can give no better 
evidence, than by conjuring them to lay aside all private »5 
animosities, as well as groundless jealousies, and to choose 
such members of parliament, as may do their parts to 
finish what we have begun for the advantage of the 
monarchy, over which Almighty God has placed us; 
being resolved to call a parliament, that shall meet inio 
November next at furthest. Given at our court at 
Whitehall the 27th day of April mdclxxxviii. in the 
fourth year of our reign. 

PeiiHon of the archbishop and bishops Sfc. 567 


ition of William Sancroji^ archbishop of Canter- 

, William Lloyd^ bishop of St. Asaph, Thomas 

I, bishop of Bath and Wells, Fraticis Turner^ 

}p of Ely^ John Lake, bishop of Chichester^ 

mas White, bishop of Peterborough, and Jonathan 

lawny, bishop of Bristol^ agaifist publishing the 

g^s declaratimi for liberty of cmiscience, presented 

the king May 18, mdclxxxviii. 

To the king*s most excellent majesty. 

Ths humble petition of William, archbishop of Canterhuryj 
and of divers of the suffragan bishops of that province, now 
present ttith him, in behalf of themselves, and others of their 
absent brethren, and of the clergy of their respective dioceses. 

Humbly sheweth, 

HAT the great averseness they find id themselves to 
the distributing and publishing in all their churches 
r majesty's late declaration for liberty of conscience, 
!eeds neither from any want of duty and obedience to 
r majesty (our holy mother the church of England 

\e petition of William Sancroft"] This petition, which was followed 
le trial and acquittal of the seven bishops named in it, and may he 
idered as the one act, above all others, decisive of the fortunes of 
James II., is memorable not only as giving its support at a critical 
lent to a great constitutional principle, but also as alleging reasons, 
h would seem to be inconclusive and inadequate to the occasion. 
&tes that " such a dispensing power as the king had been exercising 
been often declared illegal in parliament, and particularly in the 
I 1663 and 1672 and in the beginning of his majesty's rtign," 


ieiyiac Cant. Anno Chriiiti Reg Anglin 

SAKCEOFTfi. 1688. Jacob. II. 4. jj 



(368 Pefitivn o/t/te arch&iskop and bMop$ [GLXIV. 

being both in her principles and constant practice un- 
questionably loyal, and having to her great honour, been 
more than once publicly acknowledged to be so by your 
gracious majesty) nor yet from any want of due tender- 
ness to dissenters, in relation to whom they are willing tos 

making this the sole ground for resisting a command issaed by the 
law'ful governor and supreme head of the church. Now in the year 
1672 (and it is not necessary to examine the circamstances of the 
earlier case,) it was only the house of commons that expressed a dis- 
approval of king Charles' dispensations ; and the lords, when the 10 
papers connected with the transaction had been communicated to them, 
passed a vote of thanks for the royal message, as they thence obtuned 
'^ the means of shewing their duty to his majesty, and asserting the 
ancient just rights and privileges of the house of peers." Afterwards 
in the beginning of king James' reign (in November 1685), when thei$ 
commons addressed the king respecting the popish recusants in the army, 
(whose commissions were held by royal dispensation,) and alleged that 
" the continuance of them in their employments may be taken to be a dis- 
pensing with the law without act of parliament," it was proposed, that 
the lords should be desired to concur in the address, but the Tote passed 10 
in the negative. And besides the indication afforded by this onwilling- 
ness to consult the house of lords on so solemn an occasion, there are 
other reasons for doubting whether that house would have concurred 
in denying to the king the power of dispensing with the observance of 
acts of parliament ; for at the time of the revolution, when the lords 3$ 
had seen further reasons for marking out and limiting the extent of the 
king's prerogative, they could not be brought to declare the dispensing 
power to be altogether illegal, but only " as it had been assumed and 
exercised of late." So that the bishops in alleging the authority of 
parliament, took merely the opinion of the commons, who were jo- 30 
dicially incompetent to decide ; the other house, which was competent, 
having pronounced no opinion on the subject, and being more likely, if 
an occasion liad offered itself, to have decided otherwise. 

It is clear from a paper which is preserved among the archbishop's 
MSS. in the Bodleian (Tanner MSS. vol.xx\iii. No. 8o.)* and contains^ 
minutes of the speech prepared to be delivered by him at his trial, thst 
the real ground of objection to the king's exercise of his dispensing 
power was, not its illegality, but its incompatibility with a free form of 
government. The paper notices indeed the votes of the house of com- 
mons that have been alreadv considered ; it also refers to a letter of 40 
remonstrance written by archbishop Abbot to king James I. in the 

1 688.] against the kings declarxUwii, 369 

come to such a temper, as shall be thought fit, when that 
matter shall be considered and settled in parliament and 
convocation : but among many other considerations, from 
this especially ; because that declaration is founded upon 
s such a dispensing power, as hath been often declared il- 

year 1623 on occasion of certain indulgences attempted to be granted 
by means of proclamations (see Tanner MSS. vol. Ixxxii. p. 365), and 
mentions some other facts of a like nature, and of no greater authority ; 
but its main argument consists in the following observations : '* It was 
to apparent that if the king had that power, which in those declarations 
he had exercised, the reformation itself was become arbitrary, and that 
the church of England, as it was the religion of the state, had no other 
subsistence but by the king's mere favour .... that all the acts of uni- 
formity and all the acts for taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy 

>5 and the tests are suspended and dispensed with ; all which laws are so 
much the fences, the mounds and the bulwarks of the protestant reli- 
gion and the church of England, that no man can concur to the weak- 
ening or destroying of them without betraying at once his religion and . 
the laws of the land." 

ao And certainly if the case were treated only as a legal question, the 
king had great authorities in his favour. Lord Bacon in his Elements 
of the Common Law (Works, vol. iv. p. 62) says, that it is " an insepar- 
able prerogative of the crown to dispense with politic statutes of a given 
kind : sir Edward Coke (12 Rep. p. 18) says, that " no act of par- 

25 liament can bind the king from any prerogative which is sole and in- 
separable to his person, but that he may dispense with it by a non- 
obstante :" and in the recent case of sir Edward Hales, in which it was 
sought to recover a penalty imposed by the test act, and the strength 
of the prerogative was tried in a distinct and apposite issue, eleven out 

30 of the twelve judges decided in favour of the king's dispensation. It 
was evident that a power so vague and revolutionary, exercised too in 
a manner so unsparing, could not long be allowed to continue in its 
existing condition ; and it was accordingly declared in the bill of rights 
(i of Will, and Mary, sess. 2. c. 2), that the pretended power of sus- 

35 pending or dispensing with laws, or the execution of laws, by regal 
authority, without consent of parliament, was illegal. Lords' and Com- 
mons' Journals. Blackst. Comm. Hallam, vol. ii. pp. 406. 450. Burnet, 
O. T. vol. iii. pp. 227. 400. Neal, Purit. vol. iii. p. 301. Collect. Cu- 
riosa, vol. i. p. 365. D'Oyly's Sancroft. vol. i. p. 258. Calamy's Life, 

40 vol. i. pp. 199. 334. Clarke's James II. vol. ii. pp. 81. 152. Lingard, 
vol. viii. p. 372. 

VOL. II. B b 

870 Articles recommended by archbishop Sancro/i [CLXV. 

legal in parliament, and particularly in the years MDCLxn., 
MDCLXXii. and in the beginning of your majesty's reign; 
and is a matter of so great moment and consequence to 
the whole nation, both in church and state, that your 
petitioners cannot in prudence, honour, or conscience so 5 
far make themselves parties to it, as the distribution of it 
all over the nation, and the solemn publication of it once 
and again even in God's house, and in the time of his 
divine service must amount to in common and reasonable 
construction. Your petitioners therefore most humbly »*» 
and earnestly beseech your majesty, that you will be 
graciously pleased not to insist upon their distributing 
and reading your majesty's said declaration. 
And your petitioners shall ever pray, etc. 


Archiepisc. Cunt. Anno Christi Heg. Angliv 

GriL. Sanckoft If. 1688. Jacob. II. 4. 

The articles recommended hy the arclMshop of Cant, to aU 
the bishops within his metropolitan jurisdiction. 


YESTERDAY the archbishop of Cant, delivered the 15 
articles, which I send you enclosed, to those bishop?, 
who are at present in this place, and ordered copies of 
them to be likewise sent, in his name, to the absent 

The articles recommended^ The trial of the seven bishops took place 
on the 29th of June, and in the following month the archbishop ad->o 
dressed these articles to the bishops of his province. The matter most 
deserving of notice in them is the different tone adopted with reference 
to the protestant dissenters ; and the change was occasioned by the 
.sense of common danger that had been created in both parties from 
the encroachments of popery, and by the respect and gratitude which »5 
many of the nonconformists paid to the established clergy for their 
great services in the common cause of protestantism. In the MSS. 

i688.] to th^ bishops of his prai^ince, 371 

bishops. By the contents of them you will see that the 
storm, in which he is, does not frighten him from doing 
his duty, but rather aw*ikens him to do it with so much 
the more vigour. And indeed the zeal, which he ex- 
5 presses in these articles, both against the cormptions of 
the church of Rome on the one hand, and the unhappy 
differences that are among protestants on the other, are 

minutes for the archbishop's speech we find the following notice : 
** Here may be said what shall be judged convenient about taking off 
10 penal laws against dissenters;** and we know from other sources that 
he had already arranged a plan for comprehending many of them within 
the established church, and was employing some of the most eminent 
divines of the time in preparing it for the convocation. The following 
account of the matter was given by Dr. Wake, then bishop of Lincohi, 

15 in the speech that he delivered in the year 1710, at the trial of Dr. 
Sacheverel : ** Towards the end of that unhappy reign, when we were 
in the height of our labours, defending the church of England against 
the assaults of popery, and thought of nothing else, that wise prelate 
[archbishop Bancroft] foreseeing some such revolution as soon after 

10 was happily brought about, began to consider how utterly unprepared 
they had been at the restoration of king Charles II. to settle many 
things to the advantage of the church ; and >rhat a happy opportunity 
had been lost, for want of such a previous care for its more perfect 
establishment. It was visible to all the nation, that the more mode- 

25 rate dissenters were generally so well satisfied with that stand which 
our divines had made against popery, and the many unanswerable 
treatises they had published in confutation of it, as to express an un- 
usual readiness to come in to us The design was in short this ; 

to improve, and if possible to enforce, our discipline ; to review and 

30 enlarge our liturgy by correcting some things, by adding others ; and, 
if it should be thought advisable by authority, when this matter should 
come to be legally considered, first in convocation, then in parliament, 
by leaving some few ceremonies, confessed to be indifilerent in their 
nature, as indifi^erent in their usage, so as not to be necessarily ob- 

35 served by those w^ho make a scruple of them, till they should be able 
to overcome either their weaknesses or prejudices, and be willing to 
comply with them. How far this good design was not only known to, 
but approved by, the other fathers of our church, that famous petition, 
for which seven of them were sent to the Tower, and which contri- 

40 buted so much to our deliverance, may suffice to shew. The willing- 

B b 2 

372 Articles recommemkd bg archbishop Saneroft [CLXV. 

such apostolical things, that all good men rejoice to see 

so good a prelate at the head of our church, who in this 

critical time has had the courage to do his duty in so 

signal a manner. 

/ am^ Sir^ yours. s 

London, July 27, 


Some heads of things to be more ftdly insisted upon by the 
bishops in their addresses to the clergy^ and people of 
their respective dioceses. 

I. rriHAT the clergy often read over the forms of their 
J- ordination, and seriously consider what solemn 
vows and professions they made therein to God and his 
church, together with the several oaths and subscriptions 
they have taken and made upon divers occasions. " 

II. That in compliance with those and other obliga- 
tions, they be active and zealous in all the parts and 
instances of their duty, and especially strict and exact in 

ness they there declared of coming to such a temper as should be 
thought fit with the dissenters, when that matter should be considered '5 
and settled in parliament and convocation, manifestly referred to what 
was then known to several, if not all, of the subscribers, to have been 
at that very time under deliberation." The king's wrath against the 
dissenters is expressed in the Stuart papers in the following manner : 
" lliey joined hands and voices with the church of Eugland party, so so 
far at least as to rail against the church of Rome, and talk of nothing 
but fire and fagot, as if Smithficld had been all in a blaze ; when the 
king*s tenderness made it his principal care that there should not be 
the least fine inflicted for religion's sake ; but this (they were told) 
might be catalogued amongst their other tliankful returns for the king*8>5 
snatching them out of the fire, and losing his credit with the chnrdi 
party, for having gathered those vipers from the dunghill where the 
laws had laid them, and cherishing them in his bosom till they stung 
him with reproaches, as false as they were villainous and ungratefuL" 

Among the Tanner MSS. (vol. ccc. p. 270.) is a paper in the hand* 30 
writing of the archbishop, entitled '' For the regulation of ecdesiasticsl 
afifairs," and containing provisions on all the points complained of in 

1 688.] to the bishops ofhisprovime. 373 

all holy conversation, that so they may become examples 
to the flock. 

III. To this end, that they be constantly resident upon 
their cures in their incumbent houses, and keep sober 

5 hospitality there, according to their abilities. 

IV. That they diligently catechise the children and 
youth of their parishes, (as the rubrics of the Common 
Prayer book and the LIXth canon enjoin,) and so pre- 
pare them to be brought in due time to confirmation, 

lo when there shall be opportunity ; and that they also at 
the same time expound the grounds of religion, and the 
common Christianity in the method of the catechism, for 
the instruction and benefit of the whole parish, teaching 
th0k|what they are to believe and what to do, and what 

'5 to pray for, and particularly often and earnestly incul- 
cating upon them the importance and obligation of their 
baptismal vows. * 

V. That they perform the daily office publicly (with 
all decency, affection, and gravity) in all market and 

«o other great to\^Tis, and even in villages and less populous 

the government of the church, such as excommunication, commutation 
of penance, appeals, pluralities, lay- impropriations, peculiars, and the 
punishment of scandalous clergymen. Among the same MSS. (vol. 
xxviii. p. 93), and also in the archbishop's handwriting, is the original 

25 of these ** Heads of things," and the present reprint has been taken 
from it. It is worthy of remark, that in first writing the paper the 
archbishop had placed the 1 1 th article (respecting dissenters) before 
the tenth (respecting Romanists) ; but was induced to reverse the order 
afterwards. In the same vol. (p. 94) is also the archbishop's first draft 

30 of this paper, from the corrections in which may be seen the great care 
he took to exclude any suspicion of sympathy with the Romanists, and 
to cultivate a good understanding with the protestant dissenters. 

The letter which precedes the " Heads of things" was prefixed in 
the printed circular issued at the time by the archbishop, and may 

3.5 be seen in the Tanner papers, vol. xxviii. p. 97. Sacheverel's Trial* 
p. 213. D'Oyly's Sancroft, vol. i. p. 327. Neal, Purit. vol. iii. p. 305. 
Burnet, Own Times, vol. iv. p. 53. Baxter's Life, p. 383. Clarke's 
James IT. vol. ii. p. 169. 

374 Articles recommended by archbishop Saneroji [CLXV. 

places bring people to public prayers as frequently as 
may be, especially on such days, and at such times, as 
the rubrics and canons appoint, on holidays and their 
eves, on Ember and Rogation days, on Wednesdays and 
Fridays in each week, csi)ecially in Advent and Lent. 5 

VI. That they use their utmost endeavour, both in 
their sermons, and by private applications, to prevail with 
such of their flock, as are of competent age, to receive 
frequently the holy communion ; and to this end that 
they administer it in the greater towns once in every i© 
month, and even in the lesser too, if communicants may 
be procured, or however as oft as they may, and that they 
take all due care, both by preaching and otherwise, to 
prepare all for the worthy receiving of it. ^f^ 

VII. That in their sermons they teach and inform 15 
their people (four times a year at the least, as the first 
canon requires) that all usurped and foreign jurisdiction 
is for most just causes taken away and abolished in this 
realm, and no manner of obedience or subjection due to 
the same, or to any that pretend to act by virtue of it;M 
but that the king's power being in his dominions highest 
under Clod, they upon all occasions persuade the people 
to loyalty and obedience to his majesty in all things law- 
ful, and to patient submission in the rest ; promoting (as 
far as in them lies) the public peace and quiet of the 25 

VITT. That they maintain fair correspondence (full of 
the kindest respects of all sorts) with the gentry and per- 
sons of quality in their neighbourhood ; as being deeply 
sensible, what seasonable assistance and countenance thisjo 
poor church hath received from them, in her necessities. 

IX. That they often exhort all those of our commu- 
nion to continue steadfast to the end in their most holy 
faith, and constant to their professions ; and to that end, 
to take heed of all seducers, and especially of popish emis-.?.* 
saries, who are now in great numbers gone forth amongst 


1 688.] to the bishops of his province, 875 

them, and more busy and active than ever; and that 
they take all occasions to convince our own, that it is not 
enough for them to be members of an excellent church, 
rightly and duly reformed both in faith and worship, 
5 unless they also reform and amend their own lives, and 
so order their conversations in all things, as becomes the 
gospel of Christ. 

X. And forasmuch as those Romish emissaries, like 
the old serpent, " insidiantur calcanep," are wont to be 

lomost busy and troublesome to our peojde at the end of 
their lives, labouring to unsettle and perplex them in the 
time of sickness and. at the hour of death; that there- 
fore all, who have the cure of souls, be more especially 
vigilant over them at that dangerous season, that they 

>5 8tay not till they be sent for, but inquire out the sick 
in their respective parishes, and visit them frequently; 
that they examine them particularly concerning the state 
of their souls, and instruct them in their duties, and settle 
them in their doubts, and comfort them in their sorrows 

30 and sufferings, and pray often with them, and for them, 
and by all the methods, which our church prescribes, 
prepare themselves for the due and worthy receiving of 
the holy eucharist, the pledge of their happy resurrec- 
tion ; thus with their utmost diligence watching over 

25 every sheep within their fold (especially in that critical 
moment) lest those evening wolves devour them. 

XI. That they also walk in wisdom towards those, 
who are not of our communion ; and if there be in their 
parishes any such, that they neglect not frequently to 

30 confer with them in the spirit of meekness, seeking by 
all good ways and means to gain and win them over to 
our communion. More especially, that they have a very 
tender regard to our brethren, the protestant dissenters, 
that upon occasion offered they visit them at their houses, 

.35 and receive them kindly at their own, and treat them 
fairly wherever they meet them, discoursing calmly and 

376 King William's letter to the buAcp of London. [CLXVI. 

civilly with them, persuading them (if it may be) to a fiill 
compliance with our church, or at least, that wfaereto we 
have already attained, we may all walk by the same nile^ 
and mind the same thing. And in order hereunto, that 
they take all opportunities of assuring and convincings 
them, that the bishops of this church are really and sin- 
cerely irreconcilable enemies to the errors, superstitions, 
idolatries, and tyrannies of the church of Rome, and that 
the very unkind jealousies, which some have had of us to 
the contrary, were altogether groundless. to 

And in the last place, that they warmly and most 
affectionately exhort them to join with us in daily fervent 
prayer to the God of peace, for an universal blessed union 
of all reformed churches, both at home and abroad, against 
our common enemies ; that all they, who do confess the 15 
holy name of our dear Lord, and do agree in the truth of 
his holy word, may also meet in one holy communion, and 
live in perfect unity and godly love. 


Archiepisi^ Cunt. Anno Christi Reg'. An^ue 

Buspenso. 1689. Guiliei.. et Mar. 3. 

His majesty's letter to the reverend f oilier in God^ Henry^ 
lord bishop of London^ to be communicated to the two 
provinces of Canterbury and York. 

William R. 

*0 I GUT reverend father in God, we greet you well. 
XV Whereas the advancement of the honour and service » 
of Almighty God, and of the protestant religion, which 

His majesty 8 letter] Archbishop Sancroft was suspended from hi* 
office on the ist of August 1689, and deprived on the lat of February 
following. Dr. Tillotson^ then dean of Canterbury, was appointed by 
the chapter of his cathedral to exercise the archiepiscopal jorisdictioD 'J 
during the suifpcnsion, and was nominated by the king to the arch- 
hibhopric on the 23rd of April 1691. 

1689.] Kirhg WiUiam^s letter to the bishop of London, 877 

by his wonderful providence hath been preserved and 
estabh'shed in these kingdoms, ought to be the chief part 
of our royal care ; in order to this, as we have oftentimes 
declared that we would take the church of England, by 

5 law established, into our particular protection and favour, 
so we take this occasion to renew these assurances, being 
resolved to do all we can for the support and strengthen- 
ing of it, preserving withal the liberty of conscience to 
all our protestant subjects, which by our laws they now 

>o enjoy. 

And because the welfare, peace, and honour of this 
church depends so much upon all persons faithfully doing 
their duties in their several places and functions; we 
therefore first of all charge and require you the bishops of 

'5 this our church, to apply yourselves with all diligence 
and zeal to the duties of your episcopal function, accord- 
ing to the word of God, the orders of this church, and 
the laws of this our realm. 

More especially as to the ordination of ministers, we 

20 require you to use all possible care and strictness in ex- 
amining and inquiring into the lives and learning of such 
persons, as desire to be admitted into holy orders ; and 
herein constantly to observe the canons relating there- 
unto, the neglect whereof we shall strictly inquire into, 

35 and take care that it be punished according to law. 

We also charge and require you, to keep a strict watch 
over all the clergy in your respective dioceses, to see that 
they be duly resident upon their livings, according to the 
laws in that case provided; and that they be constant 

30 and diligent in their duties, performing the public offices 
of worship gravely and devoutly, preaching the word of 
God plainly and practically, without running into need- 
less controversies, and administering of the holy sacra- 
ments frequently, with that reverence, which is due to 

35 the institutions of Christ, also catechizing the youth, 
visiting the sick and distressed, and doing all such things 

378 King WiUianis htier to the bishop of London. [CLXVI. 

in their stations, as may tend to promote the honour of 
God, and true reh'gion, together with peace and charity 
among all their neighbours; themselves giving a good 
example to their flock, by walking before them in all 
holy conversation and o^odliness. s 

And the more eflbctuallj to prevent the scandals that 
may arise by any disorders in the lives of those, who 
ought to be examples to others, you shall admonish them 
religiously to observe the canon entitled " Sober conver- 
sation required in ministei-s ;" and you shall severally and '<> 
impartially proceed by ecclesiastical censures against all 
such of your clergy, as shall be found guilty of any 
notorious violation of this or any other law or canons* 
relating to their duty. 

And for the better encouragement of deserving men, «5 
as we intend to make it a rule to ourself, so we also 
require it of you in disposing of church preferments, to 
have a s])ecial regard to such persons, as by their piety, 
learning, diligence, and peaceableness do most promote 
the honour of God, and the edification of his church. «o 

And because, as our duty requires, wo most earnestly 
desire and shall endeavour a general reformation in the 
lives and maiuiers of all our subjects, as being that which 
must establish our throne, and secure to our people their 
religion, happiness, and peace; all which seem to be in 25 
great danger at this time, by reason of that overflowing 
of vice, M'hieh is too notorious in this, as well as other 
neighbouring nations; we therefore require you, to order 
all the clergy to preach frequently against those particular 
sins and vices, which are most prevailing in this realm, jo 
and that on every of those Lord's days, on which any 
such sermon is to be preached, they do also read to their 
])e()ple such statute law or laws, as are provided against 
that vice or sin, which is their subject on that day; as 
namely against blasphemy*, swearing, and cursing, against 35 

« XXI. .Inc. c. XX. 


1689] King William's letter to (he bishop 0/ London. 879 

pe^jll^y^ against drunkenness*^ and against profanation^ of 
the Lord's day ; all which statutes we have ordered to be 
printed together with these our letters, that so they may 
be transmitted by you to every parish within this our 

5 realm. 

And whereas there is as yet no sufficient provision 
made by any statute law for the punishing of adultery 
and foniication, you shall therefore require all church- 
wardens in your dioceses to present impartially all those 

10 that are guilty of any such crimes in their several parishes; 
and upon such presentments we require you to proceed 
without delay, and upon sufficient proof to inflict those 
censures, which are appointed by our ecclesiastical laws 
against such offenders. In doing whereof according to 

«5 your duty, you shall not want our effectual assistance and 

And for the better carrying on of so good a work, we 
do in the last place charge and require you to preach 
frequently yourselves; to confer often with your clergy; 

30 and to inquire by all proper means into all abuses and 
corruptions in your dioceses, in order to a full and speedy 
reformation ; and all this not only as you shall answer it 
to us, but also considering the great charge that God 
hath committed to you, and the account that you must 

25 give him for it at the great day. And so we bid you 

heartily farewell. Given at our court at Whitehall the 

thirteenth day of February, mdclxxxix. in the second 

year of our reign. 

Bf/ his majestjfs command. 

30 Shrewsbury. 

^ V. Eliz. c IX. c IV. Jac. c. V. xxi. Jac. c. VII. 

<i XXIX. Car. 11. c.VII. 

380 King William 8 injunetiotu [CLXVII. 


Archi(>|)isc. Cant. Aimo Christi H^. Atiglue 

Tiio. Tekison I. i694> Guiliei.. III. 7. 

Injimctiom given by the king's majesty to the arclJnshops 
of this realm, to be communicated hy them to the bishops^ 
and the rest of the clergy. 

To the most rev&i'end father in Gody our right trusty 
ajid right entirely beloved counsellor Thomas, lord arch' 
bishop of Canterbury^ and to the most reverend father 
in God John, lord ardibishop of York. 

William R. 

MOST reverend father in God, our right trasty and 
right entirely beloved counsellor; and most reverend 
father in God, we greet you well. We being very sen- 
sible, that nothing can more effectually conduce to the 
honour and glory of God, and the su])port of the pro- 5 
testant religion, than the protecting and maintaining of 
the church of England, as it is by law established ; which 
we are resolved to do to the utmost of our power ; have 
therefore upon mature deliberation with you and other 
our bishops, by virtue of our royal and supreme authority, 10 
thought fit, with the advice of our privy council, to ordain 
and publish the following injunctions. 

T. That the 34th and 35th canons concerning ordina- 
tions be strictly observed. 

11. Tliat every |)orson, to be admitted to holy order8|i5 
do signify his name and the place of his abode to the 

Injunctions givni] Archbishop Tillotson died on the 22nd of Nov.' 
1694, and Dr. Tcnison, then bishop of Lincoln, was nominated to the 
archbishopric by the king in council on the 6th of December following. 
Kennet. vol. iii. p. 678. HaxterV Life, p. 541. * 

'6 94 J to (fw archbishops atul bishops, 381 

bishop fourteen days before he is ordained, to the end 
that inquiry may be made into his life and conversation. 
A nd that he appeaii' at the furthest on Thursday in Ember 
week, that so such, who upon examination shall be found 
5 fit, may have time to prepare themselves by fasting and 
prayer, before the day of ordination. 

III. That every bishop shall be well satisfied, that all 
persons that are to be ordained, have a real title with a 
sufficient maintenance, according to the 33rd canon, in 

«o which matter we require the bishops to use an especial 

IV. That a certificate of the age of the person to bo 
ordained, be brought, if it can be, out of the parish 
register, or at least a certificate very well attested. 

'5 V. That the part of the 34th canon, which relates to 
the giving of certificates concerning the lives and manners 
of those, who are to be ordained, be strictly looked to. 
And that the bishops lay it on the consciences of the 
clergy, that they sign no certificates, unless, upon their 

«>own knowledge, they judge the persons to be duly 

VI. That every bishop shall transmit, between Michael- 
mas and Christmas, to the archbishop of the province a 
list of all such persons, as have been ordained by him 

25 during that year, according to the constitutions in the 
year mdlxxxiv. in order to be put in a public register, 
which shall be prepared by you for that use. 

VII. That the bishops shall reside in their dioceses, 
and shall take care to oblige their clergy to such resi- 

30 dence, as the laws of the land and the canons do require, 
particularly the 41st canon. 

VIII. That they, who keep curates, have none but 
such as are licensed by the bishop of the diocese, or in 
exempt jurisdictions by the ordinary of the place having 

35 episcopal jurisdiction, as is required both by the act of 
uniformity and the 48th canon, that so when the incum- 

382 King William's injunctions [CLXVII. 

bent does not reside, the bishop, or such ordinary may 
know how the cure is supplied ; and that no person shall 
presume to serve any cure without license from the 
bishop, or such ordinary, upon pain of suspension. 

IX. That you use your most effectual endeavours tos 
suppress the great abuses occasioned by pluralities, and 
restrain them as much as you can, except where the 
l)arishes lie near one another, and the livings are small : 
that all qualifications be carefully examined; we being 
determined to have no chaplains to be qualified by us, lo 
but such as arc admitted to attend upon us. And that 
due caution be taken before any faculty is grant^fd. And 
that such pei-sons as are legally qualified shall reside at 
least two months in the year in each of their livings; 
and provide a curate to serve where they are not ims 
person, with a due maintenance to be determined by the 
bishop of the diocese, unless the two parishes lie so near, 
that the incumbent can constantly serve both cures. 

X. That the bishops shall look to the lives and man- 
ners of their clergy, that they may be in all things regular i6 
and exemplary, according to the 75th canon. 

XL That the bishops do use their utmost endeavour to 
oblige their clergy to have public prayers in the church, 
not only on holidays, and litany days, but as often as 
may be, and to celebrate the holy sacrament frequently, n 

XII. That the bishops shall require the clergy to use 
their utmost endeavours, that the Lord's day be reli- 
giously observed. Tliat they set a good example to their 
people, and exhort them frequently to their duty herein. 

XriL That the bishops remind their clergy to visit jo 
the sick frequently, and require them to perform that 
duty with great care and diligence according to the 67th 

XIV. That catechizing be duly perfonned, according 
to the 59th canon. J5 

XV. That the bishops be careful to confirm, not only 


i694»] to t/ie archbisliops and bishops, 883 

in their triennial visitations, but at other convenient 

XVI. That care be taken, that the archdeacons make 
their visitations personally ; and that, as much as may be, 

5 they live within the bounds of their jurisdiction, and do 
their duty according to the canons. 

XVII. That no commutation of penance shall be made, 
but by the express order and directions of the bishoj) 
himself, which shall be declared in open court. And that 

lothe commutation money shall be aj)plied only to pious 
and charitable uses, according to the " articuli pro clero" 
made in the year mdlxxxiv. and the constitutions made 
in the year mdxcvii. 

XVIII. That no license for marriage without banns 
15 shall be granted by any ecclesiastical judge, without first 

taking the oaths of two sufficient witnesses, and also suf- 
ficient security for performance of the conditions of the 
license, according to the 102nd and 103rd canons. 

These injunctions we do require you to transmit to the 

10 bishops of your respective provinces, to be by them com- 
municated to their clergy, and to be strictly observed, 
and often inquired after both by you and them. For as 
we esteem it the chief part of our princely care to pro- 
mote true religion, as it is established in this church; 

as and in order thereunto, we have determined not to dis- 
pose of any church preferments in our gift, but to such of 
our clergy as we shall have reason to believe do live most 
exemplarily, and preach and watch most faithfully over 
the i)eople committed to their charge ; so we assure our- 

30 self, that these our pious intentions will be effectually 
seconded by you and the rest of our bishops ; and that 
you will, without favour or partial affection, study to 
suppress impiety and vice, and to reform all disorders, as 
far as in you lies ; well knowing that nothing will so 

35 much advance the great ends of religion, and so certainly 

J384j Archhisliop Teuisofi's letter [CLXVII*. 

secure and establish this church, as the exemplaiy lives 
and faithful labours of those who minister in it. And so 
we commend ourself to your prayers, and bid you very 
heartily farewell. Given at our court at Kensington the 
fifteenth day of February, mdcxciv. in the seventh years 
of our reign. 

By his 7naJ€stjfs command. 



Archiepisi^ Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Aiif(1iiP 

Tiio. Texikon 2. 1695* OuiLiEf.. III. ;. 

The nrchhishop\s letter to the bishops of his province. 

My very good Im'd^ 

HAVING well considered the following particulars, 
together with such of our brethren, as were in or 
near London, and believing them to be means very 10 
proper for the i)romoting the glory of God and the edifi- 
cation of his church, I do hereby recommend them to you, 
as I have also done to the rest of the bishops of this 
province, desiring you and them to see them carefully 
observed in your respective dioceses. 15 

In the first place. It is the king's pleasure, that you 
take especial care concerning the late act against pro- 
fane cursing and swearing : not only, that it be publicly 

Tlie archbishop's letter] This letter was written on the 1 6th of July 
1695, in conformity with the king's Injunctions issued in the precedingM 
month of February (N^. CLXVII.), and with a reference also to the 
king's letter of February 1690, (N*. CLXVI.) See Kennet» vol. iii. 

p. 708. 

1695.] to the bishops 0/ his province, 386 

read, as the law has in that case provided, but that the 
clergy be directed both in their catechizing and sennons, 
to insist often upon those points, to the end, that by 
God's blessing upon their faithful endeavours, a stop may 

5 be put to those execrable wickednesses, which, if they be 
suffered to continue, will bring down God's heavy judg* 
ments upon this church and nation. 

Secondly, There are also other acts to be read publicly 
in churches, which yet are not read (as I understand) in 

10 many places. I desire you to remedy that neglect. 

Thirdly, It seems very fit, that you require your clergy 
in their prayer before sermon, to keep to the effect of the 
55th canon : it being commonly reported, that it is the 
manner of some in every diocese, either to use only the 

'5 Lord's prayer (which the canon prescribes as the conclu- 
sion of the prayer, and not the whole prayer) or at least 
to leave out the king's titles, and to forbear to pray for 
the bishops as such. 

Fourthly, I commend to your care the preaching of 

*® your clergy in the afternoon, upon catechetical heads, both 
that the people may be the better rooted and grounded 
in the faith, and also kept from other assemblies. 

A fifth particular recommended to you, is. That you be 
very careful in the giving of institutions ; and particularly, 

^B that you use good and diligent examination and care to 
foresee and prevent all simoniacal pacts or covenants 
with the patrons, or the presenters, for the spoil of their 
glebe, tithes, or mansion-houses; and in especial manner, 
those artificial bargains, which are made by bonds of 

30 1'esignation. 

A sixth is, The causing of stipends of curates to be 
proportioned to the value of the benefice, and the great- 
ness of the duty required of them ; especially where the 
incumbent is a pluralist, and cannot constantly reside in 

35 person. That the service of God may not suffer by the 
employing of such ignorant and scandalous men as these 

VOL. II. c c 

386 Archbishop Tenison's letter [CLXVIP. 

incumbents generally procure, who choose to have such 
for their curates, as will serve for the meanest salaries. 

A seventh is, The preventing of dilapidations, especially 
wliere pluralists do not keep constant residence : towards 
which, frequent views of chancels, and parsonage and 5 
vicarage-houses, by your archdeacon or archdeacons, or 
other officers, and reports made to you upon those views, 
will nmch conduce. And as for such, who upon any pre- 
tences whatsoever, desire a dispensation for nonresidence, 
I entreat you not to grant it to any of them, without their 10 
giving sufficient security to keep their chancels, and par- 
sonage or vicarage-houses in good repair, if they be so 
already; or if not, to put them in good repair with all 
convenient speed, and to keep them so for the future. 

The eighth is, Your causing the clergy to pursue very 15 
carefully the end of the eighty-seventh canon, relating 
to terriers of glebe-lands and other possessions belonging 
to churches ; for want of which, great controversies daily 
arise, and the rights of the church are often lost. 

The ninth is, Your hindering (as much as in you lies) all*® 
snch from being surrogates, who are not qualified by the 
(ranon ; and to see that none be instrumental in dispatch- 
ing licenses of marriage, and solemnization of matrimony 
illegally, or in pronouncing the sentences of excommu- 
nication and absolution, without such solemnity as that'5 
great and weighty affair requires. 

Tenthly, When any minister removes out of your dio- 
cese into another, to any cure of souls, I desire you in 
a letter to the bishop into whose diocese he is going, to 
give a just character of him. Also when any such3o 
minister comes into your diocese, not to admit him, but 
with the like letter from his former diocesan; or in a 
vacancy, from the guardian of the spiritualities. 

Eleventhly, I beseech you to think of, and to use all 
])roper methods for the time to come, for the preventing35 
of such from being admitted into holy orders, who are 

1695] to the bishops of his province. 387 

not likely to pursue the sacred ends of them. Some such 
methods I here lay before you, desiring you to take them 
into your consideration. 

1st, That you take all possible care that there be good 
5 schoolmasters in the several public schools within your 
diocese, not licensing any but such as upon examination 
shall be found of sufficient ability, and do exhibit very 
satisfactory testimonials of their temper and good life; 
that so in the education of youth, especially such as are 

10 designed for holy orders, there may not be an ill founda- 
tion laid. 

2ndly, That you ordain no man deacon or priest, who 
hath not taken some degree in school in one of the uni- 
versities of this realm, unless in some extraordinary case. 

15 Srdly, That you accept of no letters testimonial brought 
by persons to be ordained, unless there be a clause in- 
serted in them by the testifiers to this effect : that they 
believe them to be qualified for that order, into which 
they desire to be admitted. 

20 4thly, That as soon as any apply to you for holy orders, 
you give timely notice of this at the place where the 
person resides, or lately resided, that so the exceptions 
against him (if any such there be) may come timely to 
your knowledge. 

25 5th ly, That when any person comes to you to be or- 
dained, you lay it upon his conscience to observe such 
fasting as is prescribed upon Ember dmjs^ and to give 
himself in most serious manner to meditation and prayer. 
After some competent time after every ordination, 

30 whether intra or eaira tempora, at least between Michael- 
mas or Christmas, I desire you to send a return under 
your hand, attested by the archdeacon, and such other 
clergymen as assisted at the ordination, containing the 
names and surnames of all the persons then ordained, the 

35 place of their birth, their age, and college where they 
were educated, with the degree they have taken in the 

c c 2 

388 Abp, TenisofCs letter to the bishops of his province. [CLXVII*. 

university, the title upon which they were ordained, and 
upon whose letters dimissory, if they came out of another 
diocese ; and to subjoin a particular account of all such 
as then offered themselves to ordination, and were re- 
fused; as also of the reasons for which they were refused. 5 
All which I undertake and promise to cause to be en- 
tered into a ledger book for that purpose. By this means 
counterfeit orders may be detected; men who come up 
for preferment may be the better understood and dis- 
tinguished; and such who have had the misfortune either >« 
to lose their orders, or to want them here, upon any 
emergent occasion, may be in some measure helped. 

And that the king may be the better enabled to give 
you his further assistance, in these and other aifidis of 
the church, you are desired and required to comply with »s 
his majesty's command to me signified, in giving me an 
account of what has been done in your diocese, in pur- 
suance of his injunctions, when you come next to parlia- 
ment ; as also of the present state of it, in as particular 
manner as you well can ; that such accounts may be laid » 
before him, in order to the supplying of what is wanting, 
and rectifjdng of what is amiss. Not doubting of your 
lordship's care and zeal in these weighty matters, I re- 
commend you, and all your affidrs to the blessing of God 
Almighty, and remain 1$ 

Your vety loving 

friend and brother ^ 

Tho. Cantuab. 

1695O ^«»»^ WilUamis directions ^c. 389 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christ! Reg. AngUn 

ThO. TeNISOK 3. 1695. GUILIEL. III. 7. 

Directions to our archbishops and bishops ^ for the preserve 
ing of unity in the churchy and the purity of the Chris^ 
tian faiths concerning the lioly Trinity n 

William R. 

MOST reverend and right reverend fathers in God, we 
greet you well. Whereas we are given to under- 
stand, that there have of late been some differences 
5 among the clergy of this our realm about their ways of 
expressing themselves in their sermons and writings, con- 
cerning the doctrine of the blessed Trinity, which may be 
of dangerous consequence, if not timely prevented ; we 
therefore out of our princely care and zeal for the pre- 

10 Directions to our archbishops] In the year 1691, Dr. William Sher* 
lock^ soon afterwards appointed to the deanery of St. Paul's, published 
his " Vindication of the Doctrine of the holy and ever-blessed Trinity," 
containing a new method of explaining that sacred mystery, and tend- 
ing in one part of the argument to the establishment of a tritheism. 

15 This gave rise to a lengthened controversy, in which Dr. South and 
himself were the great antagonists, both of them bringing an impe- 
tuous temper to the discussion, and calculated to do injury to the cause 
of religious inquiry by the intemperance with which they conducted it. 
Other writers took an earnest part in the dispute ; but the case which 

90 attracted the greatest attention, owing to the solemn condemnation it 
met with, was a sermon preached in Michaelmas Term 1695, before 
the university of Oxford ; in which the preacher, in conformity with the 
sentiments of Dr. Sherlock, maintained that " There are three infinite 
distinct minds and substances in the Trinity," and that " The three 

35 persons in the Trinity are three distinct infinite minds or spirits, and 
three individual substances." These propositions were formally de- 
clared by the board of heads of houses to be false, impious, and heretical^ 

390 King WUliarns directions to the arcUnBhcps [CL X V 1 11 . 

servation of the peace and unity of the church, together 
with the purity of the Christian faith, have thought fit to 
Bend you these following directions, which we straitly 
charge and command you to publish, and to see that 
they be observed within your several dioceses. 5 

I. That no preacher whatsoever, in his sermon or lec- 
ture, do presume to deliver any other doctrine concerning 
the blessed Trinity, than what is contained in the holy 
scriptures, and is agreeable to the three creeds and the 
thirty-nine articles of religion. . lo 

II. That in the explication of this doctrine they care- 
fully avoid all new terms, and confine themselves to such 
ways of expression, as have been commonly used in the 

III. Tliat care be taken in this matter, especially to's 
observe the fifty-third canon of this church, which forbids 
public opposition between preachers, and that above all 
things they abstain from bitter invectives and scmrilous 
language against all persons whatsoever. 

and their decree was made so public through the mediam of newiqiaperB, so 
and attended with so many reflections on the author of the new heresy, 
that the controversy soon found fresh materials to feed upon, and a 
greater degree of acrimony to foment it. Dr. Sherlock published " A 
modest examination of the authority and reasons of the late decree," 
and was foUowed by other writers on both sides, who engaged so'j 
fiercely in the contest, that at the request of the bishops the king inter- 
posed, and issued his directions on the subject on the 3rd of February 

Bishop Burnet says, that the king's directions " put a stop to those 
debates, as the death of Mr. Firmin [in 1697, who was a most boon-l^ 
tiful man, but a great supporter of Socinian doctrines] put a stop to 
the printing and spreading of Socinian books." Doubtless the vehe- 
mence of the contest was much abated ; but it appears that Dr. Sher- 
lock still continued to publish tracts in defence of real, as opposed to 
nominal, Trinitarianism, and in opposition to the false views of the J3 
Socinian:-. Burnet, O. T. vol. iv. p. 390. Baxter's Life, p. 549. 
Biog. Brit. artt. Sherlock and South. Calamy's Life, vol. i. p. 404. 


1 695.] and bishops for the preserving of tmity. 391 

IV. That the foregoing directions be also observed by 
those, who write any thing concerning the said doctrine. 
And whereas we also understand, that divers persons, 
who are not of the clergy, have of late presumed not only 

5 to talk and to dispute against the Christian faith concern- 
ing the doctrine of the blessed Trinity, but also to write 
and publish books and pamphlets against the same, and 
industriously spread them through the kingdom, contrary 
to our known laws established in this realm ; we do there- 

'ofore strictly charge and command you, together with all 
other means suitable to your holy profession, to make use 
of your authority according to law, for the repressing and 
restraining of all such exorbitant practices : and for your 
assistance we will give charge to our judges, and all other 

15 our civil oflScers, to do their duty herein, in executing the 
laws against all such persons as shall by these means 
give occasion of scandal, discord, and disturbance in our 
church and kingdom. Given at our court at Kensington 
the third day of February, mdcxcv. in the seventh year 
of our reign. 

'o By his majesty's command, 


39^ C'o)icenting tk4 irregidar proceedinps of etilain [CLXIX. 


Archiq>i8C. Cant. Anno Chriiti Reg. Anglne 

Tho. Tenison 3. 1696. GUILIEL. III. 8. 

A dedaratioji of the sense of the archbishops and bishops^ 
now in and about London^ upon the occasion of their 
attendance in parliarnent ; concerning the irregular and 
scandalous proceedings of certain clergymen at the ewe- 
cution of sir John Friend and sir William Parkins. 

WE the archbishops and bishops, now in and about 
London, upon occasion of our attendance in par- 
liament, having seen a printed paper entituled " A true 
copy of the papers delivered by sir John Friend, and sir 

A declaration of the sense"] The discovery of the conspiracy againit S 
king WilliaiD, to which his exiled predecessor is now known to bare 
been privy, and of the dark and deadly designs of which he could not 
well have been unconscious, gave a fatal blow to the interests of the 
Jacobites, and roused the feelings of the nation nt large in fiftvonr of 
the reigning king. An engagement abjuring the pretensions of James, 10 
and pledging the subscribers to revenge the death of king William, in 
imitation of a similar method adopted in the reign of Elizabeth, was 
drawn up on the 24th of February, 1696, and was generally signed by 
the members of both houses of parliament, and throiigbont the king- 
dom. This engagement probably suggested the pablication of the 15 
paper, which the bishops drew up as a declaration of their sentiments, 
it being evidently intended to express their abhorrence of the conspi- 
racy itself, as much as to reprove the irregular and scandalous proceed- 
ings they were called upon to notice. *' In the beginning of April," says 
bishop Burnet, •' Friend and Perkins were executed together. A very 10 
unusual instance of the boldness of the Jacobites appeared upon that 
occasion ; these two had not changed their religion, but still calkd 
themselves protestants ; so three of the non-juring clergymen wuted 
on them to Tyburn. Two of them had been oft with Friend and one 
of them with Perkins : and all the three at the place of execution joined 15 
to give them public absolution, with an imposition of hands, in the view 

1696.] clergymen at the execution of Friend and Parkins, S9S 

William Parkins, to the sheriffs of London and Middle- 
sex, at Tyburn, the place of execution, April 8, mdcxcvi." 
and being also certainly informed of the most irregular 
behaviour of Mr. Cooke*, Mr. Collier^ and Mr. Snatt*^, in 

5 pretending to absolve the said criminals at their execu- 
tion, to the groat scandal of the church, and of our holy 
religion, have therefore thought ourselves obliged to 
declare our sense of the same, as here foUoweth : 

T. As to the paper before mentioned, we cannot but 

10 observe, that in that part, to which sir John Friend is 
entituled, among many other things there delivered as his 
private opinion (for which we must leave him to God) 
there are mingled some things concerning the church of 
England to the great dishonour and reproach of it. That 

"5 venerable name is by the author of that paper appropri- 
ated to that part of our church, which hath separated 
itself from the body ; and more particularly to a &ction 
of them, who are so furiously bent upon the restoring of 
the late king, that they seem not to regard by what 

2oof all the people; a strain of impudence that was new as it was 
wicked ; since these persons died, owning the ill designs they bad been 
engaged in, and expressing no sort of repentance for them. So these 
clergymen, in this solemn alisolution, made an open declaration of their 
allowing and justifying these persons in all they had been concerned in. 

^5 Two of these were taken, and censured for this in the king's bench ; 
the third made his escape." (Own Times, vol. iv. p. 313.) Mr. 
Cook and Mr. Snat were indicted by order of the court of king's bench 
and committed to Newgate, but were afterwards released without a 
trial. Mr. Collier, having a scruple about putting in bail, absconded and 

30 was outlawed. He afterwards pubhshed several tracts in his own vin- 
dication, and in answer to the declaration of the bishops. Hallam, 
vol. ii. p. 477. Kennet, vol. iii. p. 712. Biog. Brit. art. Collier. 
Baxter's Life, p. 550. Eveljni, vol. iii. p. 350. Impartial Ace. of the 
horrid Conspiracy, 1696. 

35 * Shadrach Cooke, A.M. lecturer of Islington. 

*> Jeremiah Collier, A.M. lecturer or afternoon preacher at Gray's 

c William Snatt, A.M. prebendary of Chichester and vicar of Cook, 
field, Sussex. 

394 Concerning the irrepiUar proceedings of certain [CLXIX. 

means it is to be eifeeted. We have a sad instance of it 
in this very person, who (as was deposed at his trial) was 
privy to the horrid design of assassination, and yet neither 
discovered it, nor shewed any dislike of it, but as he was 
afraid it might ruin king^ James, and his affairs; and was 5 
ready also, together with others of the same Christian 
principle (as the author of his paper is bold to call it) to 
act in conjunction with an army of French papists, for the 
ruin of their country, and extirpation of that religion, 
which they themselves do profess. lo 

II. As for sit William Parkins, who also profidssed to 
die in the communion of the church of England, we can- 
not think he meant any thing else by it, than that he 
adhered to the same violent faction; being assured (as 
we are by very good information) that both he and sins 
John Friend had withdrawn themselves from our public 
assemblies some time before their death. Which makes 
us the less wonder to find in both their papers so light, 
and even favourable, a mention of that most inhuman 
design of assassinating his sacred majesty; especially in » 
that of sir William Parkins, who, though he was publicly 
convicted of his having engaged so many in that horrible 
sin, yet after all could think to clear himself of it with 
this wretched excuse : " It is true, I was privy to the 
design upon the prince, but was not to act in it." Blessed >5 
be God, there never was any of our church, that in any 
change of times could have this laid to his chai^, that 
he was so much as privy to a design of assassination. 

Lastly, For those clergymen that took upon them to 
absolve these criminals at the place of execution, by lay-j^ 
iiig, all three together, their hands upon their heads, and 
publicly pronouncing a form of absolution; as their 
maimer of doing this was extremely insolent and without 
j)recedent either in our church, or any other that we 
know of, so the thing itself was altogether irregular. 35 

^ Tr\'id, p. 1 7. 


1696 J clergymen at the execution of Friend and Parkins. 895 

The rubric in our office of the visitation of the sick, 
from whence they took the words they then used, and 
upon which, if upon any thing in our liturgy, they must 
ground this their proceeding, gave them no authority nor 

5 no pretence for the absolving these persons ; nay, as they 
managed the affair, they acted in this absolution far 
otherwise than is there directed. 

That rubric is concerning sick persons, and it is there 
required, first, that " the sick person shall be moved to 

10 make a special confession of his sins, if he feel his con- 
science troubled with any weighty matter, and then after 
such confession, the priest shall absolve him, if he humbly 
and heartily desire it." But here they absolved, and that 
publicly, persons condemned by law for execrable crimes, 

15 without so much as once moving them at that time to 
make a special confession of their sins, at least of those 
sins for which they were condemned. And on the other 
side, here were persons absolved that did not humbly 
desire absolution, as feeling any such weighty matter to 

ao trouble their conscience ; but on the contrary, in sir 

John Friend's paper it is declared, that he had a great 

deal of satisfaction in suffering for that cause which he 

firmly believed to be the cause of God and true religion. 

If these ministers knew not the state of these men's 

25 souls, before they gave them absolution, as it is manifest 
two of them Mr. Snatt and Mr. Cooke, did not, as to sir 
William Parkins, (they having since declared, that they 
had not spoke with sir William till they were at the 
place of execution,) how could they without manifest 

30 transgression of the church's order, as well as the profane 
abuse of the power Christ has left with his ministers, 
absolve them from all their sins ? 

If they were acquainted with these men's sentiments 
declared in their papers, then they must look upon them, 

35 either as hardened impenitents or as martyrs. 

We are so charitable to believe that they would not 

396 Concerning the irregular proceedings ^e. [CLXIX« 

absolve them under tbe former notion ; for that had beea, 
in effect, sealing them to damnation ; but if tbey held 
these men to be martyrs, then their absolving tbem in 
that manner was a justification of those grievous crimes, 
for which these men suffered, and an open affront to the 5 
laws both of church and state. 

Upon the consideration of these things, and for the 
doing of right to our church, which may otherwise suffer, 
among such as are strangers to our constitution, by the 
evil principles and practices, both of the aforesaid cri-'o 
minals, and the three clergymen that assisted them, who 
all pretended to be members of the church of England ; 
we do declare that we disown and detest all such prin- 
ciples and practices ; looking upon them as highly schis- 
matical and seditious, dangerous both to the church and '5 
state, and contrary to the true doctrine and spirit of the 
Christian religion. And we also take this occasion to 
M'arn and exhort all the people committed to our charge, 
to beware of such seducers and to avoid them ; lest (as 
the apostle St. Peter speaks) " they be led away with the » 
error of the wicked," and fall from their steadfast adher- 
ence to the principles of the true church of England, as 
it was established at the blessed reformation of religion, 
and as by God's especial providence it continues to this 
day. 15 

April lo, MDCxcvi. 

Tho. Cantuar. Sy. Eliens. 

Job. Ebor. Gil. Hereford. 

Henr. London. Jo. Norwich. 

Nath. Duresme. Ric. Peterb. i» 

P. Winchester. Ed. Gloucester. 

W. Cov. and Lich. Rob. Chichester. 

Tho. Roffin. E. Asaph. 

1699O ArchhUhop Tenison's letter 4-c. 897 


Archiepisc. Cant. Anno Christi R^. Angliie 

Tho. Tenison 5. 1699. OUILIEL. III. II. 

His grace the lord archbishop of Canterburies letter to the 
right reverend the lords bishops of his province. (From 
an original in the Bodleian. 4to. W, 45 Theol.) 

To the right reverend the lord bishop of 

Reverend Brother, 

MY writing to you and the rest of our brethren at this 
time is occasioned by a sensible growth of vice and 

5 profaneness in the nation : which, to the great affliction of 
all good men, appears not only in the corrupt practices of 
particular persons, but also in the endeavours that are 
used to subvert the general principles of our holy religion. 
And this with a boldness and openness, far beyond the 

lo examples of past times ; so that if a speedy stop be not 
put to such national provocationsi we have just cause to 
fear they may bring down the heaviest judgments of God 
upon us; the preventing whereof belongs more imme- 
diately to us, who are the ministers of Christ; and as 

15 such, are obliged to the utmost care and watchfulness in 
opposing these instruments of Satan. 

I doubt not, but many of the parochial clergy are suffi- 
cient sensible both of their own duty and the danger we 
are in: in the cities of London and Westminster, and 

20 other places, I am sure the good effects of their diligence 

His grace the lord archbishop] King William having ordered a 
general fast and humiliation to be observed on the 5th day of April, 
the archbishop took occasion to issue this letter of admonition to the 
bishops of his province. 

3d8 Archbishop Tenum's leH&r [CLXIX*. 

have been very evident of late years. But in some parts 
that are more remote, all of them may not so well under- 
stand either the arts or the industry of these enemies of 
religion : and therefore I thought it a duty incumbent on 
the station wherein providence has placed me, to desires 
of you and the rest of our brethren, to warn the clergy 
under your care, of these attempts against religion and 
virtue ; and to excite them to a diligence proportionable 
to the danger ; and to suggest to them such methods as 
are most likely to work a general reformation. " 

With this request, I send you such particulars as, in 
my opinion, are very necessary to be pressed up<Hi your 
clergy for the attaining so desirable an end. As, 

I. That in their own lives, and the government of their 
own families, they would make themselves examples of a >5 
sober and regular conversation. It is the apostle's rea- 
soning, " If a man know not how to rule bis own house 
(and much more bis own life and actions) how shall he 
take care of the church of God ?" The true method of 
working a reformation abroad, is to lay the foundation at « 
home, which alone can give our reprooft a just weight 
and authority: but till that is done, no exhortations, 
whether in public or private, can either be offered with 
decency, or received with reverence. 

II. To piety, they should add prudence, to all their )5 
actions and behaviour : which even in private Christians 
is a great ornament to religion, but in public teachers is 
a most necessary qualification for the due discharge of 
their ministry. A mildness of temper, with a gravity and 
calmness in their conversation, will not fail to gain them 30 
a general love and esteem among their neighbours ; and 
a discreet caution in their words and actions will preserve 
them from those little imprudences that are sometimes 
so sensible an obstruction to the good endeavours of well- 
meaning men. Persons in holy orders are not only bound, 35 
in the conduct of their lives, to consider what is lawful or 

1699O to the bisliops of his province. 399 

uulawfiil in itself, but also what is decent or indecent in 
them, with respect to their character and function : " ab- 
staining from all appearance of evil, and giving no ofTence 
in any thing, that the ministry be not blamed." 
5 III. While our enemies are so very industrious in seek- 
ing out objections against the Christian religion^ it be- 
comes the clergy (who are set apart for the vindication of 
it) to be no less diligent in their preparations for its 
defence : by acquainting themselves thoroughly with the 

10 rational grounds of Christianity, and the true state of 
such points as are the subjects of our present contro- 
versies; together with the objections which are usually 
made by our adversaries of all sorts, and the effectual 
answers that have been returned to them by so many 

15 eminent writers of our own church ; that so they may be 
ready, on all occasions, to do justice and honour to our 
religion ; and be able to expose the folly and ignorance 
of these gainsaying men. The cause which God has put 
into our hands, is undoubtedly good ; but the best cause 

20 may suffer by the weakness of its advocate: and when 
this happens in the matter of religion, it gives the adver- 
sary an occasion of triumph, and is apt to stagger the 
faith even of sincere and unprejudiced Christians. 

IV. It were to be wished, that the clergy of every 

25 neighbourhood would agree upon frequent meetings, to 
consult for the good of religion in general, and to advise 
with one another about any difficulties that may happen 
in their particular cures. By what methods any evil 
custom may most easily be broken : how a sinner may be 

30 most effectually reclaimed: and (in general) how each 
of them in their several circumstances may contribute 
most to the advancement of religion. Such consul- 
tations as these, besides the mutual benefit of advice and 
instruction, will be a natural means to excite the zeal of 

35 some, to reduce the over-eagerness of others to a due 
temper, and to provoke all to a religious emulation in 

400 ArchUshop Tenidon's letter [CLXIX*. 

the improvement of piety and order within their re- 
spective parishes. And these meetings might still be 
made a greater advantage to the clergy in carrying on 
the reformation of men's lives and manners, by inviting 
the churchwardens of their several parishes, and others 
pious persons among the laity, to join with them in the 
execution of the most probable methods that can be sug- 
gested for those good ends. And we may very reasonably 
expect the happy effects of such a concurrence, from the 
visible success of that noble zeal wherewith so manyio 
about the great cities in my neighbourhood do promote 
true piety, and a reformation of manners. And therefore 
I desire you that you will particularly excite your cleigy 
to the procuring such assistances as these, for the more 
effectual discharge^ of their own duty. »5 

V. It would very much further and fiEu;ilitate all their 
endeavours of this kind, to gain over the persons who 
have the greatest esteem and authority in their parishes, 
to a hearty concern for the honour of God and religion : 
frequently suggesting to them the obligation that Godio 
has laid upon them to be examples to others, and the 
great good that it is in their power to do, by setting a 
pattern of regular living, and the unspeakable mischief of 
their irregular behaviour. For if once the better sort 
can be brought to such a seriousness and sobriety, the 35 
rest will more easily follow; example being the most 
powerful instruction; and experience teaching us that 
shame and fear, which arise from the authority of such 
good pattenis, are commonly the most effectual restraints 
upon the meaner sort. 3» 

VI. Where any person is obstinate in his vices, and not 
to be reclaimed either by teaching or example, by exhor- 
tation or reproof; the ordinary ought to be informed of 
it, that he may proceed to reclaim such by ecclesiastical 
censures. And where those are like to prove ineffectual, ^^ 
the civil magistrate must be applied to, and desired to 

1699*] to the bishops of hU province. 401 

proceed against them according to the laws in those 
cases provided. Which information and request, espe- 
cially in the case of such incorrigible offenders, can be 
made by none so properly as by the clergy; who may 
5 best be supposed to understand the necessity there is of 
having recourse to the civil magistrate. And since our 
lawgivers have enacted these temporal punishments, on 
purpose to assist us in the discharge of our ministry ; it 
would be a great failing in us, not to make use of them 

■owhen all other methods have been tried to little or no 

VII. Every pious person of the laity should, if need 
be, be put in mind by the clergy, that he ought to think 
himself obliged to use his best endeavours to have such 

15 offenders punished by the civil magistrate, as can no 
otherwise be amended. And that when he hears his 
neighbour swear or blaspheme the name of God, or sees 
him offend in drunkenness or profanation of the Lord's 
day, he ought not to neglect to give the magistrate notice 

10 of it : in such a case to be called an informer, will be so 
far from making any man odious in the judgment of 
sober persons, that it will tend to his honour, when he 
makes it appear by his unblamable behaviour, and the 
care he takes of himself and his own family, that he doth 

25 it purely for the glory of God and the good of his bre- 
thren. Such well-disposed persons as are resolved upon 
this, should be encouraged to meet as oft as they can, 
and to consult how they may most discreetly and effec- 
tually manage it in the places where they live. 

30 VIII. As in reforming the laity, they ought to use the 
assistance of the civil magistrate ; so if any of their own 
brethren be an irregular liver, and cannot be reclaimed by 
brotherly admonition, the neighbouring clergy should be 
strictly enjoined to make it known to their diocesan, 

35 either by themselves or the archdeacon, or by some other 
convenient way. That so the offender may be admo- 

VOL. II. D d 

402 .^rchbi$hop Tenitms letter ii^c. [CLXIX*. 

nished to live suitably to his character ; and if a bare 
admonition will not do, he may be proceeded against by 
ecclesiastical censures, for the preventing such scandals 
and mischiefs. a« will always accompany the irregular life 
of a minister of the gospel. 5 

IX. And whereas the foundations of piety and morality 
are best laid at the beginning, in the religious education 
of children, I cannot but wish that every one of the 
parochial clergy would be very diligent in catechising the 
children under their care; and not only so, but in calling lo 
upon them afterwards, as they grow up, to give such fur- 
ther accounts of their religion, as may be expected from 
a riper age. That being thus careiiilly instructed in the 
faith and duty of a Christian, they also may teach their 
children the same; and so piety, virtue, and goodness, 15 
may for ever flourish in our church and nation. These 
directions, with such others of the same nature as will 
occur to you, I desire may be transmitted by you to the 
clergy of your diocese, for the religious government of 
themselves and their people in these dangerous times, m 
So commending you and them to the blessing of God, 
I rest 

Your iiffectionate brother^ 

Lambeth, April 4th, ThO. GaNTUAB. 



1 700.] A royal eommigsi»n to arc&bis/wp Tenison. 403 


Archiepisc Cant. Anno Christi Reg. Anglic 

Tho. Tenison 7. 1700. Guiliel. III. 12. 

A royal commission addressed to Thomas lord archbishop 
of Canterbury and others. — Le Neve's Lives of Pro- 
testant Bishops, vol. i. p. 247. 

WILLIAM III. by the grace of God, king &c., to 
the most reverend father in God our right trusty 
and right entirely beloved counsellor, Thomas lord arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, primate of all England and metro- 

5 politan ; and to the most reverend father in God, John 
lord archbishop of York, primate of England and metro- 
politan ; and to the right reverend fathers in God, Gilbert 
lord bishop of Sarum, William lord bishop of Worcester, 
Simon lord bishop of Ely, and John lord bishop of Nor- 

lowich, greeting. 

We being sensible that nothing can conduce more to 
the glory of God, our own honour, and the welfare of the 
church, than our promoting to preferment therein the 
most worthy and deserving men according to their merits; 

IS and conceiving you, the said Thomas archbishop of Can- 
terbury, John lord archbishop of York, Gilbert lord bishop 

A royal commission] During the life of queen Mary ecclesiastical 
appointments were made by her, acting under the advice chiefly of 
archbishop Tillotson. After her death it appears from this commission 

30 that king William entrusted the same appointments to a board of 
bishops, and that this commission is only a renewal of the same trust 
with the substitution of another prelate. The commission was not 
continued after the accession of queen Anne. It diflers greatly both 
in its principle and in its efiects from the warrant issued for similar 

25 purposes by king Charles II. See No. CLX. Burnet, O. T. vol. iv. 
p. 21 1 ; vol. V. p. 1 7. Bp. Patrick's Life of Himself, p. 226. 

Dd 2 

404 A royal commission to archbishop Tenison. [CLXIX**. 

of Sanim, William lord bishop of Worcester, Simou lord 
bishop of Ely, and John lord bishop of Norwich, to be pro- 
per and competent judges in such cases ; know ye, there- 
fore, that we, reposing special trust and confidence in your 
approved wisdoms, fidelities, and circumspectionn, haves 
nominated, constituted, ordained, and appointed, and by 
these presents do nominate, constitute, ordain, and 
appoint you the said Thomas lord archbishop of Canter- 
bury, John lord archbishop of York, Gilbert lord bishop 
of Sarum, William lord bishop of Worcester, Simon lord w 
bishop of Ely, and John lord bishop of Norwich, to be 
our commissioners for the purposes hereinafter mentioned, 
and we do hereby give and grant unto you our said com- 
missioners, or any three or more of you, (whereof we will 
that you the said Thomas lord archbishop of Canterbuiyis 
to be always one ; and where any preferment or place to 
be disposed of lies within the province of York, you the 
said John lord archbishop of York to be also one,) fiill 
power and authority to meet at such convenient tiroes 
and places as you the said Thomas lord archbishop ofio 
Canterbury shall by your summons of the rest of our siud 
commissioners from time to time appoint, for the putting 
the powers hereby granted in execution in such manner 
as is hereby appointed. And we do hereby declare our 
will and pleasure to be, that when our royal person shall >5 
be resident within our kingdom of England, you do at 
such meetings consider of one or more person or persons 
proper to be recommended to us to succeed to any 
bishopric in England, or any other ecclesiastical prefer- 
ments in England, above the tax or real value of twenty 5» 
pounds in our books, which are in our gift or disposal 
from time to time as they shall respectively become 
vacant during our residence within our said kingdom of 
England. And that you, or a sufficient number of you 
empowered as aforesaid, do signify under your hands yonrjs 
recommendation of such person or persons as you in your 

1 700.] A royal c&tnmissian to archbishop Tenigon. 40^ 

wisdoms shall think most fit to be appointed by us to 
succeed to any such vacant preferments, to the end that 
the names of such person or persons may be presented to 
us by one of our principal secretaries of state, that our 
5 royal pleasure may be farther known therein. And if at 
the time of our residence in any parts beyond the seas, 
any bishoprics in England, or any deaneries or arch- 
deaconries in England, or any prebends in the churches 
of Canterbury, Worcester, Windsor, or Westminster, or 
loany canonry in Christ Church in the university of Oxon, 
or in either of them ; or provostship or mastership of any 
college, or any places of royal professor in either of the 
universities of Oxon or Cambridge, or the mastership of 
any hospital, or any living or benefice exceeding the tax 
15 or value of twenty pounds in our books, and being above 
one hundred and forty pounds per annum real value, taxes 
and other charges not to be deducted in the computation 
of the real value of the said livings, which shall happen 
to be vacant by death, promotion, or otherwise ; then our 
20 will and pleasure is, that you our said commissioners, or 
any three or more of you, whereof you the said Thomas 
lord archbishop of Canterbury to be always one ; and in 
any case where any such preferment shall happen to be in 
the province of York, you the said John lord archbishop 
25 of York* be also one ; to transmit unto us, under your 
hands, the names of such person or persons as you shall 
think most fit and proper to succeed to any such vacant 
bishopric, deanery, prebend, canonry, provostship, master- 
ship, professorship, or living, or other preferment respect- 
so ively, as they or any of them shall become vacant at any 
time during our residence beyond the seas, to the end 
our farther pleasure may be known therein to be signified 
under our royal sign manual. And we do hereby declare 
our further will and pleasure to be, that the yearly real 
35 value of the said livings and benefices, as to the exceeding 
or not exceeding one hundred and forty pounds per annum» 

406 A royal cammissiofi to archbUhcp Tenistm. [CLXIX^. 

shall be ascertained by the affidayits of two or more credi- 
ble witnesses, to be taken before some master of the court 
of chancery, testifying their knowledge of the yearly value 
thereof, and by the certificate of such number of our said 
commissioners empowered to act as aforesaid, testifying 5 
that they are satisfied that the matters contained in such 
affidavits are true. And further we have given and granted, 
and by these presents we do give and grant unto you our 
said commissioners, or any three or more of you (whereof 
you the said Thomas lord archbishop of Canterbury to be <» 
always one ; and in any case where the preferment shall 
happen to be in the province of York, you the said John 
lord archbishop of York to be also one) full power and 
authority under your hands and seals to present to and 
dispose of in our name all other ecclesiastical preferments '5 
whatsoever, which are above the tax and value of twenty 
pounds in our books, and are in our disposal, and shall 
become vacant when we shall reside abroad in parts 
beyond the seas ; except all bishoprics in England, and 
except all deaneries and archdeaconries, and the prebends m 
in the churches of Canterbury, Westminster, Worcester, 
and Windsor, the canonries of Christ Church in the 
university of Oxford, the provostship and mastership of 
colleges royal, professors' places in either university, and 
masterships of hospitals, and except livings of su6h yearly s; 
value as aforesaid. And our will and pleasure is, that 
the hands and seals of you our said commissioners, or any 
throe or more of you (whereof the hand and seal of you 
the said Thomas lord archbishop of Canterbury to be 
always one; and in any case where the preferment shall i^ 
Iia})pen to be in the province of York, the hand and seal 
of you the said John lord archbishop of York, to be also 
one) to such presentation and disposal in our absence 
beyond the seas shall be a sufficient warrant to the 
keeper of our groat seal, and to all persons whom it may.'* 
<-oneern, for tlie passing the same under the great seal of 

1 7^^'] ^ royal commission to arcMnshop Tenison. ¥fl 

England. And if it shall happen that the number of 
suffrages of you our said commissioners at any time of 
your meeting shall be equal, then our will and pleasure is, 
that you the said Thomas lord archbishop of Canterbury, 

s shall have a second voice to make a majority. And when 
by reason of the distance which you our said commis- 
sioners may be at in your respective dioceses, you cannot 
conveniently come together to make a sufficient number 
to act according to the powers and directions herein con- 

■otained, that then in all such cases our will and pleasure is, 
that the hands and seals of as many and such of you as 
if you were met together would make a sufficient number 
to act as aforesaid, shall be of equal validity with any 
act which you might have done at a meeting : any thing 

1 5 herein before contained to the contrary notwithstanding. 
And further, we do hereby declare our pleasure to be, 
that neither of our principal secretaries of state do at any 
time, either when we shall be resident in England, or in 
parts beyond the seas, move us in behalf of any person 

2o whatsoever, for any place or preferment which we have 
hereby left to the recommendation or disposal of our said 
commissioners as aforesaid, without having first com- 
municated both the person and the thing by him desired 
to you our said commissioners, or so many of you as are 

H hereby empowered to act ; and without having your 
opinion and recommendation in such manner as herein 
before is directed. And if at any time we be moved in 
like manner by any other person whatsoever, our pleasure 
is, and we do hereby declare, that neither of our principal 

30 secretaries of state shall present any warrant to us for our 
royal signature in such a case, until you our said commis- 
sioners, or so many of you as are hereby empowered to 
act, have been acquainted therewith, and have given your 
opinion and recommendation as aforesaid. And iiirther 

35 our will and pleasure is, that this our commission, and 
the powers hereby granted, shall continue in force until 

408 A royal commistUm to arMnskcp Tenisai^ [CLXIX**. 

we shall declare our pleasure to the contrary, notwith- 
standing the same commission be not continued by 
adjournment. And lastly we have revoked and deter- 
mined, and by these presents do revoke and determine 
certain letters patents under our great seal of England, 5 
bearing date the 6th day of April in the seventh year of 
our reign, whereby we constituted and appointed you the 
said Thomas lord archbishop of Canterbury, John lord 
archbishop of York, William lord bishop of Coventry and 
Lichfield, Gilbert lord bishop of Sarum, and Simon lord<o 
bishop of Ely, together with the then right reverend 
father in God, Edward lord bishop of Worcester lately 
deceased, to be our commissioners for the purposes above 
mentioned, and every clause, article, and thing therein 
contained. In witness whereof we have caused these onns 
letters to be made patents. Witness ourself at West- 
minster the 9th day of May, in the twelfth year of onr 

Per Breve de Privato SigiUoy 

Chute. » 

Original in the hands of Dr. Edward Tenison. 
Archdeacon of Caermarthen. 

1 707 •] Arehbithop TenuotCa letter, <$■<;. 409 


ArchiepiRc. Cant. Anno Cbristi Reg. Angli« 

ThO. TeNISON 13. 1707. ANNiEQ. 

His grace the lord archbishop of Canterbury's circular 
letter to the right reverend tJie lords bishops of his pro- 
vince : in which is inserted her majesty* s gracious letter 
to him of the eighth of Aprils mdccvii. relating to matters 
in convocation. 

To the right reverend tlie lord bishop of 

Right reverend brother y 

ON the eighth day of this instant April I received a 
letter from her most gracious majesty, the contents 
of which I was therein required to communicate to the 
bishops and clergy of my province in convocation as- 
5 sembled. 

His grace the lord archbishop] This appeal from the upper house of 
convocation to the clergy in general was occasioned by the reft'actory 
conduct of the lower house on the subject of prorogations and inter- 
mediate sessions ; and this form was given to it^ partly on account of 

10 the premeditated absence of the prolocutor (dean Stanhope), when her 
majesty's letter was communicated to the lower house, and partly on 
account of the great publicity that had been g^ven to their proceedings, 
inasmuch as a protest had been circulated throughout the whole of the 
province, for the purpose of obtaining the signatures of all those mem- 

15 bers of the lower house who were opposed to the factious conduct 
of the majority. The prolocutor was pronounced contumacious ; but 
further proceedings against him were stayed on his making a full sub- 
mission ; and the bishops, having the legal opinions of the lord chan- 
cellor Cowpcr and the lord chief justice Holt in their favour, receired 

20 the direct 8up])ort and authority of the crown. No business can be 
undertaken in convocation, unless it has been specially proposed to 
them by royal license ; and much mischief, allayed with little benefit. 

410 Archbishop Temsan's letter [CLXX. 

The convocation at that time stood prorogued to April 
the tenth, on which day we met; and those of the lower 
house, who were present, being called up to the Jeru- 
salem chamber, I did, in pursuance of her majesty's order, 
communicate to them her said gracious letter. 5 

But the prolocutor being absent, and very few of the 
lower house appearing, I thought it proper, in a matter 
of so great importance, to acquaint all the clergy of my 
province not only with the letter itself, but with divers 
other matters, which give light to it, and without which »<> 
those, who were absent, will not be able to comprehend 
the full scope and intention of it. 

T would therefore desire you to acquaint the clergy of 
your diocese, as soon as conveniently you can, with the 
following particulars. 'S 

On the twelfth of Febmary last, by virtue of a royal 
writ then received, I prorogued the convocation to March 
the fifth following. 

On the 19th of March the lower house did, by their 
prolocutor, deliver to the president an application in these") 
words : 

To the most revei*end his grace the lord archbishop of 
Canterbury^ and the right reverend the bishops of the 
upper house of convocation. 

May it please your gra/^e and your lordships. 

" We the clergy of the lower house of convocation beg 
leave to acquaint your lordships, that some of our mem- 
bers have carefully compared the several royal proroga- 

having for some time previously resulted fromtheir labours, no such per- 
mission has been granted since the year 1717, so that from that period 25 
the convocation has virtually become extinct. Burnet, Own Times, vol. v. 
pp. 202. 254. Baxter's Life, p. 713 Hallam, vol. ii. p. 549. Tindal*s 
C'ontin. p. 539 Tanner MSS. vol. cclxxxii. p. 234. 

1707*] relating to ynoMers in conwecUion, 41 1 

tions of the parliament, and of the synod of the province 
of Canterbury, from the year of our Lord mdxxxii. when 
the first royal writ for proroguing the convocation issued, 
to the year of our Lord mdccv. when this present convo- 

5 cation first assembled. 

" Upon the perusal of a schedule thereof, which we 
are ready to lay before your lordships at your next session, 
your lordships will be pleased to observe, that within the 
period above mentioned, containing one hundred seventy 

"o three years, there is no one instance of a writ of proroga- 
tion issuing, during the session of parliament, to dismiss 
the clergy, when met in convocation. 

** We do therefore in all humility and earnestness be- 
seech your lordships, that out of that conscientious regard 

'5 which we doubt not but your lordships have for the wel- 
fare of the church of England, you will use your utmost 
endeavours, that your lordships, and the clergy of this 
province, may enjoy the same usages, which your lord- 
ships' protestant predecessors and ours have been in 

20 constant possession of, and have never misemployed." 

As to the schedule mentioned in the foregoing paper, 
for the support of their assertion therein, they did not 
bring it up till March 26, on which day it was offered 

25 and received. 

After a perusal of it, the president and bis suffragans 
caused a paper to be drawn up at large, containing a vin- 
dication of her majesty's proceeding; together with ob- 
servations on their schedule, and an appendix relating 

30 further to it. But the matter of the said application 
being of so high and nice a nature, they did forbear, at 
that time, to give them any other answer than this, which 
follows : 

412 Archbishop Tmison's letter [CLXX. 

April 2, M Dccvii. 

Afr. Prolocutor y and the rest of the clergy toith you. 

^' We have perused and considered your application 
brought up on the 19th of March last past, and your 
schedule mentioned therein, and brought up on the 26th 
of the same month ; and are prepared to shew, that your 
assertion in the aforesaid application, together with what 5 
is offered as a support of it in the said schedule^ is in 
many particulars far from being true. 

'' But it appearing to us, that the matter therein con- 
tained does highly concern her majesty^s royal supremacy, 
(which she was pleased to declare in her gracious letter lo 
of Feb. 25, MDCCV., that she was resolved to maintain, as 
a fundamental part of the constitution of the church of 
England,) we think it not proper to make any further step 
in relation thereunto, till we have humbly laid the same 
before her majesty." '5 

On April 5, (the day to which the convocation was 
prorogued,) some of the lower house brought up a short 
declaration ; which, it seems, they had entered upon their 
minutes on March 5, but did not acquaint the upper 
house therewith till the 5th of April; when the prolo-to 
cutor, with four or five more, brought up the following 
paper : 

May it please your grace and your lordships. 

" The clergy of the lower house of convocation humbly 
l)ray, that when your grace shall be ])Ieased to lay before 
her majesty the a])pIieation and schedule lately brought 95 
up to your grace, the following declaration, made ante- 
cedently to their application, may also be laid before her 
majesty, as transcribed from the minutes ; viz. that they 
(lid not thereby intend to enter into any manner of debate ^ 

1 707. J relating to matters in convocation. 413 

concerning the validity of the late royal prorogation, to 
which they have humbly submitted." 

The same day (April 5) the president and his suffragans 
having been informed that divers of the lower clergy had 

5 dissented from the foresaid application, and that their 
dissent was entered in the acts of the lower house, did 
direct a copy thereof to be taken, and brought before 
them ; which was done accordingly. 

All the foregoing papers having been reviewed, the 

'o president, with the consent of his suffragans, did humbly 
lay them, together wth the schedule and vindication, 
before the queen; and her majesty, after consideration 
had of them, was pleased to send to the said president 
the above mentioned gracious letter, a true copy of which 

»s is here subjoined : 

Anne R. 

Most reverend father in God, our right trusty and right 
entirely beloved counsellor, we greet you well. In our 
letter to you, bearing date the twenty-fifth day of Febru- 
ary, MDCCV, which we directed to be communicated to the 

20 bishops and clergy of the convocation of your province, 
we declared our resolution to maintain our supremacy, 
and the due subordination of presbyters to bishops, as 
fundamental parts of the constitution of the church of 

25 We did hope, that so plain a declaration of our royal 
intention would have been a suflficient warning to those 
of the clergy, whose innovations (contrary to the duty 
they owed to us, and their ecclesiastical superiors) gave 
us occasion to mjike it. Yet, contrary to our expecta- 

3otion, we understand, that not only the former illegal 
practices are continued, but also, by the proceedings laid 
before us by you and your suffragans, that the last proro- 
gation of the convocation held before you, which you 

414 Archbishop TeAimnC9 ktUr 8fe. [CLXX. 

made by our command, rignified in our writ under onr 
great seal, has been by divers of the clergy of the said 
convocation in their application to you reflected on, as 
unprecedented, and contrary to the ancient and constant 
usage of the convocation, which yourself and the bishops 5 
of your province were bound in conscience to have seen 
maintained and preserved to them. We are satisfied, that 
assertion is untrue in point of fact, and amounts to a plain 
invasion of our royal supremacy, which is reposed in us 
by the law and the constitution of the church of Eng-io 
land ; and that their subsequent declaration being eva- 
sive, and contrary to what they had before done, has 
rather aggravated than lessened the guilt of so dangerous 
an attempt. As our repeated admonitions do sufficiently 
shew our tenderness for the clergy, so our firm resolution is 
to preserve the constitution of the church of England, 
as by law established, and our rightful supremacy (if any 
thing of the like nature be attempted for the future) will 
make it necessary for us (how unwilling soever we are to 
proceed to those measures) to use such means for thew 
punishing offences of this nature, as are warranted by law. 
All which wc require you to communicate to the bishops 
and clergy of your province in convocation asaembled. 
And so we bid you very heartily farewell. Given at our 
court at St. James's the eighth day of April, mdocvii., in 15 
the sixth year of our reign.' 

By her majesty's command. 


To the most reverend father in God^ our right trusty and 
right entirely beloved counsellor^ Thomas^ lord arck^ 
bishop of Canterbury^ primate of aU England and metro^ 
politan, and president of the convocation of the province y^ 
of Canterbury. 

I7J4»] King George the Firgfs directions ^e. 415 

I doubt not, but, in duty to our most excellent sove- 
reign, in justice to the cause of the royal supremacy, and 
in tender regard to the welfare of our established church, 
you will lay before the clergy of your diocese the fore- 
5 going account, which I here transmit to you, for that end, 
in the ])laine8t manner, hoping it may be a means to de- 
tect the misrepresentation, and disappoint the designs of 
evil-minded men. I heartily commend your lordship to 
the divine protection, remaining, 

»o Mj/ lo7'd, your affectionate brother^ 

Lambeth, April i8, ThO. CaNTUAR. 



Archiepisc. Cant. AnnoChristi Reg. Angliae 

Tho. Tenison 2a 1714. Oeoro. I. i. 

Directions to mir archbishops and bishops for the pre- 
serving of unity in the churchy the purity of the Chris- 
tian faith concerning the holy Trinity ; and also for 
preserving the peace and quiet of the state, 

George R. 

MOST reverend, and right reverend fathers in God, 
we greet you well. Whereas we are given to 
understand, that there have of late been great differences 
among some of the clergy of this our realm about their 

15 ways of expressing themselves in their sermons and 
writings concerning the doctrine of the blessed Trinity ; 
and whereas also unusual liberties have been taken by 
several of the said clergy, in intermeddling with the 
affairs of state and government, and the constitution of 

20 the realm ; both which may be of very dangerous con- 
sequence, if not timely prevented ; we therefore, out of 
our princely care and zeal for the preservation of the 

416 King George the FirsCa direcHans/br [OLXXI. 

peace and unity of the church, together with the parity 
of the Christian faith, and also for preserving the peace 
and quiet of the state, have thought fit to send you these 
following directions, which we straitly charge and com- 
mand you to publish, and to see that they be observed 5 
within your several dioceses. 

I. That no preacher whatsoever in his sermon or 
lecture do presume to deliver any other doctrine con- 
cerning the blessed Trinity, than what is contained in 
the holy scriptures, and is agreeable to the three creeds, lo 
and the thirty-nine articles of religion. 

II. That in the explication of this doctrine they care- 
fully avoid all new terms, and confine themselves to such 
ways of expression, as have been commonly used in the 
church. 15 

III. That care be taken in this matter especially to 
observe the fifty-third canon of this church, which forbids 
public opposition between preachers; because (as that 
canon expresses it) there groweth thereby much ofTcnee 
and disquietness unto the people: and that above allw 
things they abstain from bitter invectives and scurrilous 
language against all persons whatsoever. 

IV. That none of the clergy in their sermons or lec- 
tures presume to intermeddle in any afiairs of state or 
government, or the constitution of the realm, save only 15 
on such special feasts and fasts, as are or shall be ap- 
pointed by public authority; and then no further than 
the occasion of such days shall strictly require. Provided 
always, that nothing in this direction shall be understood 
to discharge any person from preaching in defence of ourio 
regal supremacy established by law, as often, and in such 
manner, as the first canon of this church doth require. 

V. That the foregoing directions be also observed by 
those who write any thing concerning the said subjects. 

VI. Whereas also we are credibly informed, that it isss 

1 7 14"] the preAerciuff of unify hi f he church, 417 

the manner of some in every diocese before their sermon 
either to use a Collect and the Lord's Prayer, or the 
Lord's Prayer only, (which the fifty-fifth canon prescribes 
as the conclusion of the prayer, and not the whole 
5 prayer,) or at least to leave out our titles, by the said 
canon required to be declared and recognised ; we do fur- 
ther direct, that you require your clergy, in their prayiT 
before sermon that they do keep strictly to the form in 
the said canon contained, or to the full effect thereof. 

«o VII. And whereas we also understand, that divers 
persons, who are not of the clergy, have of late presumed 
not only to talk and to dispute against the Christian faith 
concerning the doctrine of the blessed Trinity, but also 
to write and publish books and pamphlets against the 

> 5 same, and industriously spread them through the king- 
dom, contrary to the known laws in that behalf made 
and enacted ; and particularly to one act of parliament, 
made in the ninth year of king William the Third, en- 
tituled, "An act for the more effectual suppressing of 

2'5 blasphemy and profaneness ;" we taking all the matters 
above mentioned into our royal and serious consideration, 
and being desirous to do what in us lies, to put a stop to 
these disorders, do strictly charge and command you, 
together with all other means suitable to your holy pro- 

^5 fession, to make use of your authority according to law, 
for the re])re8sing and restraining of all such exorbitant 
practices. And for your assistance, we will give charge 
to our judges, and all other our civil officers^ to do their 
duty herein, in executing the said act, and all other laws 

30 against all such persons, as shall by these means give 

occasion of scandal, discord, and disturbance in our church 

and kingdom. Given at our court at St. James's the 

eleventh day of December, mdccxiv., in the first year of 

35 our reign. 

By his majesty's command. 


VOL. II. E e 

418 Archbishop Wake's let(4r to [OLXXll. 


Archiepioc. Cant. Anno Christi Rflff. Anglut 

Gu iL. Wake i . 1 7 1 6. O«oao. I. a. 

The archbishop of Canterburj/s letter to the right reverend 
the lords bishops of his province. [Westminster, June 5, 


My very good lord^ 

BEING by the providence of God called to the metro- 
political see of this province, I thought it incumbent 
upon me to consult as many of my brethren the bishops 
of the same province, as were here met together during 
this session of parliament, in what manner we might best 5 
employ that authority, which the ecclesiastical laws now 
in force, and the customs and laws of this realm have 
vested in us, for the honour of God, and for the edifica- 
tion of his church, committed to our charge ; and upon 
serious consideration of this matter, we all of us agreed >« 
in the same o])inion, that we should, by the blessing of 
God upon our honest endeavours, in some measure pro- 
mote those good ends, by taking care (as much as in us 
lieth) that no unworthy persons might hereafter be ad- 
mitted into the sacred ministry of the church, nor any be 15 
allowed to serve as curates, but such as should appear to 
be duly qualified for such an employ ; and that all who 
officiated in the room of any absent ministers should 
reside upon the cures which they undertook to supply, 
and be ascertained of a suitable recompense for their w 

In pursuance of those resolutions, to which we unani- 
mously agreed, I do now very earnestly recommend to 

I. That you require of every person, who desires to be as 
admitted into holy orders, that he signify to you his name 

^7^6'] the bishops of huf province. 419 

and place of abode, and transmit to you his testimonial, 
and a certificate of his age duly attested, with the title, 
upon which he is to be ordained, at least twenty days 
before the time of ordination ; and that he appear on 
5 Wednesday, or at furthest on Thursday in Ember-week, 
in order to his examination. 

II. That if you shall reject any person, who applies 
for holy orders, upon the account of immorality proved 
against him, you signify the name of the person so re- 

"ojected, with the reason of your i-ejecting him, to me 
within one month ; that so I may acquaint the rest of 
my suffragans with the case of such rejected person 
before the next ordination. 

III. That you admit not any person to holy orders, 
15 who having resided any considerable time out of the 

university, does not send to you, with his testimonial, a 
certificate signed by the minister, and other credible 
inhabitants of the parish where he so resided, expressing, 
that notice was given in the church in time of divine 

ao service on some Sunday, at least a month before the day 
of ordination, of his intention to offer himself to be or- 
dained at such a time ; to the end that any person, who 
knows any impediment, or notable crime, for the which 
he ought not to be ordained, may have opportunity to 

25 make his objections against him. 

IV. That you admit no letters testimonial on any 
occasion whatsoever, unless it be therein expressed, for 
what particular end and design such letters are granted ; 
nor unless it be declared by those who shall sign them, 

3<5that they have personally known the life and behaviour 
of the person for the time by them certified ; and do 
believe in their conscience, that he is qualified for that 
order, office, or employment, to which he desires to be 

35 V. That in all testimonials sent from any college or 
hall in either of the universities, you expect, that they be 

E e 2 

420 ArcMishop Wakis letter to [CLXXII. 

signed, as well as sealed; and that among the persons 
signing, the governor of such college or hall, or in his 
absence, the next person under such governor, with the 
dean, or reader of divinity, and the tutor of the person 
to whom the testimonial is granted (such tutor being ins 
the college, and such person being under the degree of 
master of arts), do subscribe their names. 

VI. That you admit not any person to holy orders 
upon letters dimissory, unless they are granted by the 
bishop himself, or guardian of the spiritualities, sede^o 
vacante ; nor unless it be expressed in such letters, that 
he who grants them has fiilly satisfied himself of the 
title, and conversation of the person, to whom the letter 
is granted. 

VIT. That you make diligent inquiry concerning curates 15 
in your diocese, and proceed to ecclesiastical censures 
against those, who shall presume to serve cures, without 
being first duly licensed thereunto; as also against all 
such incumbents, who shall receive and employ them, 
without first obtaining such license. w 

VIII. That you do not by any means admit of any 
minister, who removes from another diocese, to serve as 
a curate in yours, without testimony of the bishop of that 
diocese, or ordinary of the peculiar jurisdiction, from 
whence he comes, in writing, of his honesty, ability, and 15 
conformity to the ecclesiastical laws of the church of 

IX. That you do not allow any minister to serve more 
than one church or chapel in one day, except that chapel 
be a member of the parish church, or united thereunto; 10 
and unless the said church or chapel, where such a 
minister shall serve in two places, be not able in your 
judgment to maintain a curate. 

X. That in the instrument of license granted to any 
curate, you appoint him a sufficient salary according tojs 
the power vested in you by the laws of the church, and 

1 7 ' ^O the tishops of his promnee. 4f21 

the particular direction of a late act of parliament for the 
better maintenance of curates. 

XI. That in licenses to be granted to persons to serve 
any cure, you cause to be inserted, after the mention of 

5 the particular cure provided for by such license, a clause 
to this effect, " or in any other parish within the diocese, 
to which such curate shall remove with the consent of 
the bishop." 

XII. That you take care, as much as is possible, that 
lo whosoever is admitted to serve any cure, do reside in the 

parish, where he is to serve, especially in livings, that are 
able to support a resident curate ; and where that cannot 
be done, that they do at least reside so near to the place, 
that they may conveniently perform all their duties both 
'5 in the church and parish. 

These, my lord, were the orders and resolutions, to 
which we all agreed, and which I do hereby transmit to 
you ; desiring you to communicate them to the clergy of 
your diocese, with an assurance, that you are resolved, by 
aothe grace of God, to direct your practice in these par- 
ticulars agreeably thereunto. And so commending you 
to the blessing of God in these, and all your other pious 
endeavours for the service of his church, I heartily 


My very good lord. 

Your truly ctffectionate brother, 

W. Cant. 


VOL. I. 

I. Commissio regia archiepiscopo Cantuar. ad exercendam suam 

jurisdictionem. AnnolEdw. VI P. 1 

II. Injunctions given by the most excellent prince Edward the 

Sixth, to all and singular his loving subjects^ as well of the 
clergy as of the laity. An. lEdw.VI 4 

Articles to be inquired of in the king's majesty's visi- 
tation 9S 

III. King Edward's injunctions particularly delivered to the 
bishops. An. lEdw.VI 81 

IV. King Edward's letter to the archbishop of York, concern- 
ing the visitation then intended. An. 1 Edw. VI S3 

V. A proclamation concerning the irreverent talkers of the 
sacrament. An. lEdw.VI 84 

VI. A proclamation for abstaining from flesh during Lent. An. 
1 Edw. VI 88 

VII. A proclamation against innovating in rites and ceremonies 
or preaching without license. An. 2 Edw. VI 4A 


VIII. Abp. Cranmcr's letter against candles^ ashes^ and palms 
in churches. An. 2Edw. VI 45 

IX. Mandatum ad amovendas et delendas imagines. An. 
2 Edw. VI 47 

X. Articles to be inquired of in the visitation of the diocese of 

Canterbury. An. 2 Edw. VI 49 

X*. A proclamation inhibiting preachers. An. 2 Edw. VI. ... 59 

XI. A letter from the lord protector and others of the councily 
to all licensed preachers. An. 2 Edw. VI 6S 

XII. Injunctions from the king's visitors to the clergy and laity 
within the deanery of Doncaster. An. 2 Edw. VI 67 

XIII. A proclamation inhibiting all preachers. An. 2 Edw. 
VI 70 

XIV. Letter missive from the council to the bishops, concerning 
the communion to be ministered in both kinds. An. S Edw. 
VI 72 

XV. Articles to be observed according to the king's injunctions. 
An. 3 Edw. VI 74 

XVI. The council's letter to bishop Bonner for reformation of 
certain masses at St. Paul's. An. 3 Edw. VI 76 

XVII. Another letter from the king and council to bishop Bon- 
ner, rebuking him for negligence, and requiring the use of 
the new service book. An. 3 Edw. VI 78 

XVIII. Commissio regia ad examinandum materiam versus 
Edmundum cpisc. London. An. 3 Edw. VI 80 

XIX. Alia commissio regia ad examinandum materiam con- 
tomptus episc. London. An.3Edw.VI 83 

XX. Tlie king's order for bringing in popish rituals. An. 
4 Edw. VI 85 


XXI. Articles to be inquired of in the visitation of the diocese 
of London by bishop Ridley. An. 4 Edw. VI 89 

Injunctions given in the visitation of the diocese of Lon- 
don by bishop Ridley. An. 4 Edw. VI 98 

XXII. The council's letter to the bishop of London against 
weekly lectures, with the bishop's letter for the execution 
of it. An. 4 Edw. VI 96 

XXIII. The king's order to bishop Gardiner about subscribing 
to certain articles. An. 4 Edw, VI 98 

XXIV. The council's order to bishop Ridley to take down 
altars and place communion tables in their stead. An. 
4 Edw. VI 100 

XXV. Commissio regia ad inquirendum de observatione libri 
precum communium, et de hseresibus et erroribus quibus- 
cunque. An. 4 Edw. VI 102 

XXVI. Commissio regia pro reformatione legum ecclesias- 
ticarum. An. 5 Edw. VI 106 

XXVII. Instructions given to the king's commissioners ap- 
pointed for the survey of church goods in the county of 
Northampton. An. 6 Edw. VI 110 

XXVIII. Queen Mary's first proclamation about religion. 
An. 1 Mar 114 

XXIX. Bulla legationis de latere cardinalis Poli. An. 1 Mar. 117 

XXX. A letter with articles from the queen to Bonner bishop 
of London. An. 1 Mar 120 

XXXI. Mandatum episcopi London, omnibus Cantuar. pro- 
vincial ecclesiis de cultu divino et sacramentorum admini- 
stratione. An. 1 Mar 126 

XXXII. Bulla papse Julii III. potestatem concedens cardinali 
Polo Angliam ecclesise Romansc reuniendi. An. 1 Mar. 128 


XXXIII. Articles to be inquired of in the visitation of the 
diocese of London by bishop Bonner. An. 2 Mar 1S5 

XXXIV. A mandate of bishop Bonner for abolishing the scrip- 
tures painted upon the walls of churches. An. 2 Mar. 168 

XXXV. The declaration of bishop Bonner to the lay people of 
his diocese, concerning their reconciliation. An. 2 Mar. 170 

XXXVI. A monition of bishop Bonner, requiring the names of 
all such within his diocese as would not come to confession 
and to the sacrament of the altar. An. 2 Mar 174 

XXXVII. Constitutiones legatinae Reginaldi Poli cardinalis 
&c. An. 2 Mar 176 

XXXVIII. Quindecim articuli quibus academici Cantab, ab 
episcopo Gardinero subscribere jubentur. An. 2 Mar. 194 

XXXIX. A proclamation of the king and queen against all 
books and writings contrary to the catholic faith. An. 
2 Mar 197 

XL. Writ of king Philip and queen Mary for the burning of 
Cranraer. An. 3 Mar 201 

XLI. Articles of inquiry set forth by cardinal Pole for his visi- 
tation of the diocese of Canterbury. An. 5 Mar 208 

XLI I. Queen Elizabeth's proclamation to forbid preaching, and 
to allow only the reading of the epistles and gospels &c. in 
English. An. lEliz 208 

XLIII. Queen Elizabeth's injunctions concerning both the 
clergy and the laity. An. I Eliz 210 

XLIV. Articles of inquiry set forth for a diocesan visitation 
in the first year of queen Elizabeth 242 

XLV. Commissio regia visitatoribus in partibus borealibus. 
An. 1 Eliz 249 


XLV*. The queen's warrant for the court of high commission 
in causes ecclesiastical. An. 1 Eliz 255 

XL VI. A declaration of certain principal articles of religion set 
out by order of the archbishops and bishops for uniformity 
of doctrine. An. 1 Eliz 268 

XL VII. An address to queen Elizabeth from some bishops and 
divines against the use of images. An. 1 Eliz 268 

XLVIIL A commission from the queen concerning the ex- 
change of impropriate tithes for bishops' lands. An. 
1 Eliz 273 

XLIX. Breve regium pro consecratione archiepiscopi Parker. 
An. 2 EUz 275 

Rituum et ceremoniarum ordo in consecratione archie- 
piscopi Parker 276 

L. Literse patentes de forma precum publicarum Latine ver- 
tenda. An. 2 Eliz 280 

LL Commendatio benefactorum et celebratio coens Domini in 
funeribus. An. 2 Eliz 282 

LII. Bulla papae Pii IV** reginae Elizabethse per Vincentium 
Parpaliam missa. An. 2 Eliz 285 

LIIL Bishop Jewel's challenge. An. 2 Eliz 287 

LIV. A proclamation against defacers of monuments in 
churches. An. 2 Eliz 289 

LIV*. A proclamation against Anabaptists 292 

LV. The queen's letter to her commissioners about new lessons 
in the calendar of the Common Prayer book. An. 
2 EUz 294 

LVI. Articles agreed upon by the high commissioners in their 
second session at Lambeth for the ordering of the church. 
An. 3 EUz 298 


liVII. Injunctions to be confessed and subscribed by such as 
shall be admitted to be readers. An. 3 Eliz 302 

LVIIL The queen's letter to archbishop Parker about St. Paul's 
church. An. 3 Eliz 804 

The archbishop's letter to the bishop of London about 
the same 305 

LIX. The queen's injunctions respecting married members of 
colleges and cathedrals. An. 3 Eliz 307 

LX. Archbishop Parker's letter desiring a certificate of the 
resident clergy &c. An. 3 Eliz 309 

LXI. A proclamation for the reverent use of churches and 
churchyards. An. 3 Eliz 310 

LXIL The queen's letter to archbishop Parker, authorizing his 
orders for prayers and fasting during a visitation of sick- 
ness. An. 5 Eliz 313 

LXin. The council's order for thanksgivings on the queen's 
recovery. An. 5 Eliz 315 

LXIV. Admonition to all such as shall intend to marry. An. 
5 Eliz 316 

Table of prohibited degrees 320 

LXV. Advertisements issued by the archbishop and other 
bisihops in commission with him, for unity of doctrine, uni- 
formity of rites and manners, and decency of outward 
apparel. An. 7 Eliz 321 

LXVI. The queen's letter to the bishop of London for seizing 
seditious books imported from beyond sea. An. 8 Eliz. 332 

LXV XL Archbishop Parker's letter to the bishop of London for 
conformity. An. 9 Eliz 334 

LXVIIL Articles to be inquired of in the visitation of colle- 
giate and cathedral churches in the province of Canterbury, 
by archbishop Parker. An. 9 Eliz 337 



LXIX. Orders from the queen and the archbishop for inquiry 
respecting foreigners. An. 10 Eliz 342 

LXX. A license from the queen for holding certain games and 
recreations on Sundays. An. 11 Eliz 345 

LXXI. Archbishop Parker's letter to the bishop of London 
respecting arms to be provided by the clergy. An. 11 
Eliz 347 

LXXn. The councirs letter to the archbishop for recovering 
the discipline of the church. An. 11 Eliz 350 

LXX in. Articles to be inquired of in the visitation of the 
diocese of Canterbury by archbishop Parker. An. 12 
Eliz 355 

LXXI v. Damnatio et excommunicatio Elizabethse reginss 
Angliae per papam Pium quintum. An. 12 Eliz 363 

LXXV. The queen's letter to the archbishop for uniformity in 
church matters. An. 13 Eliz 367 

LXXVI. Injunctions given to the province of York by arch- 
bishop Grindall. An.l3Eliz 369 

LXXVII. Mandatum pro publicatione libri cujusdam precum 
publicarum. An. 14 Eliz 373 

LXXVIII. Injunctiones Matthsei archiepisc. Cantuar. in visi- 
tationc ecclesia; sua? cathedralis. An. 15 Eliz 375 

LXXIX. A proclamation against the breakers of the orders 
prescribed in the book of Common Prayer. An, 15 Eliz. 383 

I^XXX. The council's letter to the several bishops about uni- 
formity and parochial visitations. An. 15 Eliz 387 

LXXXI. The direction of the ecclesiastical exercise (prophesy- 
ings) in the diocese of Chester. An. 16 Eliz 889 

LXXXI I. The queen's warrant to sir Nicholas Bacon for a 
writ of execution against certain Flemings heretics. An. 
17 Eliz 392 


Breve regium de hoereticis quibuBdam Flandricis com- 
burendis 394 

The form of recantation prescribed to certain Ana- 
baptists 396 

LXXXII*. Archbishop GrindalPs articles of inquiry for his 
mctropolitical visitation of the province of Canterbury. 
An. ISEliz 397 

LXXXIII. Articles to be inquired of in the visitation of colle- 
giate and cathedral churches in the province of Caterbury 
by archbishop Ghrindall. An. 18 Eliz 417 

LXXXIV. The archbishop's orders for reformation of abuses 
in the exercises called prophesyings. An. ISEliz 4S2 

LXXXV. The council's letter to the archbishop respecting the 
observance of Ember days and Lent. An. 19 Eliz 4A5 

LXXXVI. The queen's letter to the several bishops suppress- 
ing the exercise called prophesying. An. 19 Eliz 4fi8 

LXXXVII. The archbishop's letter to the lords of the council 
about the same, and praying to be restored to the queen's 
favour. An. 20 Eliz \ 431 

LXXXVIII. The queen's letter to Whitgift bishop of Wor- 
cester to forbid prophesyings. An. 20 Eliz 484 

LXXXIX. The council's letter to the archbishop, concerning 
a libel on the queen and the French king's brother. An. 

21 Eliz 435 

XC. The council's letter to the archbishop, concerning some 
preachers that refused to celebrate the communion. An. 

22 Eliz 440 

XCI. Episcoporum epistola ad roginam Elizabetham pro restau- 
ratione archiepiscopi Grindall. An. 22 Eliz 441 

XCII. The form of abjuration tendered to those of " the Family 
of Love." An. 22 Eliz 447 


XCIII. The council's letter to the archbishop about those that 
fell off from the church, with the archbishop's articles of 
inquiry. An. 22 Eliz 44tf % 

XCIV. A proclamation against the sectaries of " the Family of 
Love." An. 22Eliz 451 

XCV. The council's letter to the archbishop about recusants^ 
with the archbishop's articles of inquiry, An.23Eliz... 456 

XCVI. The archbishop's letter, with articles, for good order in 
the church. An. 25 Eliz 459 

XCVII. The archbishop's letter to the bishop of London on the 
same subject. An. 26 Eliz 462 

XCVIII. Archiepiscopi Cantuar. commissio sufiraganeo Dovor. 
An. 26 Eliz 464 

XCIX. Archbishop Whitgift's orders respecting preachers and 
other church matters, with the three articles to be subscribed. 
An. 27Eliz 466 




VOL. 11. 

C. A writing of the bishops in answer to a book of articles 
offered to them respecting ecclesiastical abuses. An. 
27 Eliz P. 1 

CI. Certain orders for the increase of learning in the unlearned 
sort of ministers. An. 27 Eliz 21 

CII. Archbishop Whitgift's articles to be inquired upon in the 
visitation of the diocese of Chichester, sede vacante. An. 

27 Eliz 22 

cm. Archbishop Whitgift's letter to the bishop of Lincoln, 
concerning the admittance of unmeet persons into the 
ministry. An. 28 Eliz 28 

CIV. The archbishop's license to bring in popish books. An. 

28 Eliz 80 

CV. The archbishop's letter to the bishop of Lincoln, about 
Bibles in churches An. 29 Eliz 31 

('VI. The archbishop's articles to be inquired of in the vibita- 
tiou of the diocese of vSarum, sede vacante. An. 80 Eliz. 5i8 


CVII. Orders agreed upon by the archbishops and bishops in 
1588, and commanded by her majesty to be put in execu- 
tion. An. 30 Eliz 36 

CVIII. A proclamation against certain seditious and schisma- 
tical books and libels. An. 31 Eliz 38 

CIX. The archbishop's letter for catechizing and confirming. 
An. 33 Eliz 42 

ex. The archbishop's letter for contributions in aid of con- 
verted priests. An. 36 Eliz 44 

CXI. The council's letter and instructions to the archbishop 
concerning recusants. An. 36 Eliz 46 

CXII. Articuli Lambethani. An. 37 Eliz 49 

CXIII. The archbishop's letter concerning the scarcity, and in- 
structing preachers thereupon. An. 38 Eliz 53 

CXIV. The archbishop's letter concerning the scarcity , and en- 
joining fasting and prayers. An. 39 Eliz 56 

CXV. The council's letter to the archbishop for celebrating the 
5th of August yearly. An. 1 Jac. 1 59 

CXVI. A proclamation concerning such as seditiously seek 
reformation in church matters. An. 1 Jac. 1 62 

CXVII. The archbishop's letter for contributions in aid of the 
city of Geneva. An. 1 Jac. 1 67 

C XVIII. A proclamation commanding all Jesuits^ seminaries, 
and other priests, to depart the realm by a day appointed. 
An. 1 Jac. 1 69 

CXIX. A proclamation requiring the book of Common Prayer 
to be used throughout the realm. An. 1 Jac. 1 76 

CXX. A proclamation requiring conformity to the service of 
God established. An. 2 Jac. 1 80 

VOL. II. Ff 


CXXI. The king's letter to the bishop of London (Bancroft) 
about translating the Bible, contained in a circular letter of 
the bishop of London. An. 2 Jac.1 84 

The bishop of London's letter about the expense of trans- 
lating the Bible 87 

CXXIL The council's letter for proceeding against the non- 
conforming clergy, contained in a circular letter of arch- 
bishop Bancroft. An. 2Jac. 1 88 

Archbishop Bancroft's directions to the same purpose 93 

The archbishop's letter touching recusants 96 

CXXIl*. Archbishop Bancroft's articles of inquiry for his first 
metropolitical visitation. An. 3 Jac. 1 101 

CXXIIL Certain articles of abuses, which are desired to be 
reformed, in the granting of prohibitions; exhibited by 
archbishop Bancroft to the privy council in the name of the 
whole clergy. An. 3 Jac. 1 116 

CXXIV. Orders set down by king James I. for translating the 
Bible. An. 5 Jac. 1 140 

CXXV. A proclamation for the strict execution of the laws 
upon recusants; specially requiring that all priests and 
Jesuits shall depart the realm, and that the oath of alle- 
giance shall be ministered to all the king's subjects. An. 
8 Jac. 1 147 

CXXVI. The archbishop's letter respecting pluralities and 
other church matters, with particular directions on all the 
important questions of the time. An. 8 Jac. 1 154 

CXXVII, The archbishop's letter for contributions towards 
the prince's library. An. 8 Jac. 1 162 

CXXVIII. Articles to be inquired of in the visitation of' the 
cathedral church of Bristol by archbishop Abbot. An. 
10 Jac. 1 164 


CXXVIII*. Archbishop Abbot's articles of inquiry for his first 
mctropolitical visitation. An 14 Jac. 1 167 

CXXIX. The archbishop's letter for an uniform manner of 
prayer before sermon. An. 17 Jac. 1 185 

CXXX. Dispensatio cum Georgio, archiepiscopo Cantuar. 
super irregularitate. An. 19 Jac. 1 187 

CXXX I. The king's letter to the archbishop, and the bishop of 
Lincoln, (lord keeper,) for a voluntary contribution from the 
clergy ; contained in a circular letter from them and others 
to the rest of the bishops. An. 19 Jac. 1 193 

CXXXIL The king's letter to the archbishop concerning 
preachers and preaching, with a schedule of directions 
thereupon, contained in a circular letter from the arch- 
bishop. An. 20 Jac. 1 198 

The archbishop's letter explaining the above directions. 203* 

CXXX III. The king's letter to the archbishop touching recu- 
sants ; in a circular from the archbishop. An. 1 Car. I. 207 

CXXXIV. The king's letter to the archbishop for contribu- 
tions against foreign enemies, and in aid of the king of 
Denmark; in a circular from the archbishop. An. 2 
Car. 1 210 

CXXXV. A conmiission to sequester archbishop Abbot from 
his jurisdiction. An. 3 Car. 1 217 

CXXXVL His majesty's declaration, prefixed to the new edi- 
tion of the XXXIX. Articles. An. 3 Car. 1 221 

CXXXVII. The archbishop's letter respecting the ministration 
of the eucharist in the church of Crayford in Kent. An. 
9 Car. 1 226 

CXXXVIII. The king's injunctions to the bishops, communi- 
cated to the bishops of his province by archbishop Laud. 
An. 9 Car. 1 229 

Ff 2 


CXXXIX. The king's letter to the bishops against ordaining 
any *' sine titulo;" in a circular from the archbishop. An. 
9 Car. 1 288 

The archbishop's declaration what is a title according 
to the canon 286 

CXL. An order of council concerning the position of the com- 
munion table in St Gregory's church. An. 9 Car. I...- 287 

CXLI. His majesty'^s declaration to his subjects concerning 
lawful sports to be used on Sundays. An. 9 Car. I. ... 240 

The archbishop's letter communicating the above decla- 
ration to the several bishops 245 

CXLII. The king's letter respecting leases for lives or terms. 
An. lOCar. 1 246 

The archbishop's letter on the same subject, and with 
further instructions 248 

The king's letter respecting leases in explication of his 
former letter on that subject 249 

CXLIII. Particular orders, directions, and remembrances given 
in the diocese of Norwich by bishop Wren. An. 12 
Car. 1 261 

CXLIV. LitersD patentes pro visitatione ecclesiarum sive cathe- 
dral, sive coUegiat. hospitalium scholanim Sec. An. 13 
Car. 1 258 

CXLV. Proceedings and judgments respecting the powers and 
jurisdiction of ecclesiastical courts. An. 13 Car. 1 263 


CXLVI. The king's letter to the high commissioners to proceed • 
against such as refuse to take the oath, &c. An. IS 
Car. 1 268 

CXLVII. The king's letter to bishops, deans and chapters, 
prebendaries and others, for the augmentation of small 
\dcaragcs and cures. An. 12 Car. 1 272 

CXLV III. The king's commission for inquiring into and re- 
adjusting the sales and purchases of lands and hereditsr 
mcnts belonging to the crown or the church. An. 12 
Car. II 278 


CXLIX. His majesty's declaration to all his subjects of Eng- 
land and Wales concerning ecclesiastical affairs. An. 
12 Car. II 285 

CL. A proclamation against anabaptists, quakers, and fiflh- 
monarchy-men. An. 12 Car. II 302 

CLI. The king's letter to archbishop Juxon concerning certain 
abuses in preaching, with particular directions for preachers. 
An. 14 Car. II 304 

The archbishop's letter to the several bishops, enclosing 
the above letter of his majesty 310 

CLI *. His majesty's further declaration to all his loving sub- 
jects of England and Wales. An. 14 Car. II 311 

CLII. Archbishop Sheldon's letter to the bishop of London^ 
with orders and instructions concerning ordinations, plu- 
ralists, lecturers, schoolmasters, practisers of physic, and 
nonconformist ministers. An. 1 7 Gar. II 321 

CLIII. The archbishop's letter to the commissary, the dean 
and archdeacon of Canterbury, directing them as his com- 
missioners to carry into effect the act for suppressing con- 
venticles. 22Car.n. c.l 327 

CLIV. The archbishop's circular letter respecting the proper 
performance of divine service in cathedral churches. An. 
22 Car. II 881 

CLIV*. His majesty's further declaration to all his loving sub- 
jects of England and Wales. An. 24 Car. II 888 

CLV. The archbishop's letter concerning the increase of sects, 
enjoining the use of the Catechism, and the greatest care 
in the admission of schoolmasters. An. 25 Car. II 887 

CLVI. The archbishop's letter requiring a return of the popu- 
lation in every parish, and the number of dissenters. An. 
28 Car. II 889 

CLVII. Archbishop Sancroft's letter with directions as to the 
granting of testimonials to candidates for holy orders. 
An. 30 Car. II 842 


CLVIII. The archbishop's letter respecting the augmentation of 
poor vicarages and curacies. An. 89 Car. II 345 

CLIX. The archbishop's letter requiring the bishops to put in 
ure certain canons of king James I. respecting popish recu- 
sants. An.33Car. II 347 

CLX. The king's warrant appointing a commission for nomi- 
nating to vacant offices in the church or the universities. 
An. 33 Car. II 860 

CLX*. Suspensio Thoma; Wood episcopi Lichft et Cov. ab 
officiis ejus excquendis. An. 36 Car. II 358 

CLX I. Articles for the better regulation of ordinations agreed 
upon between the archbishop and bishops. An. 1 Jac. II. 854 

CLXII. His majesty's declaration to all his loving subjects for 
liberty of conscience. An. 3 Jac. II 359 

CLXIII. His majesty's declaration for liberty of conscience re- 
published. An. 4 Jac. II 864 

CLX IV. The petition of the seven bishops against the king's 
order for the publishing of the declaration in parish 
churches. An. 4 Jac. II 367 

CLXV. Articles recommended by the archbishop to the several 
bishops^ to be inculcated by them in their respective 
dioceses. An. 4 Jac. II 370 

CLX VI. The king's letter to the bishop of London^ with in- 
junctions respecting the clergy of both provinces. An. 
SGuil.etMar 876 

CLXVII. The king's injunctions to the archbishops, to be com- 
niuuicatcd to the bishops and the rest of the clergy. 
An. TGuil. Ill 880 

CLXVII*. Archbishop Tenison's letter with especial direc- 
tions to the bishops of his province. An. 7 Guil. III.... 884 

CLX VIII. The king's directions to the archbishops and bishops 
respecting differences on the doctrine of the Trinity. An. 
7 Guil. Ill 889 


CLXIX. A declaration from the archbishops and bishops, oc- 
casioned by the conspiracy against the king, and the con- 
duct of certain non-juring clergymen. An. 8Guil. III. 392 

CLXIX*. The archbishop's letter to the several bishops, with 
directions as to some general principles to be impressed 
upon the clergy. An. 11 Guil. Ill 397 

CLXIX**. The king's warrant appointing the archbishops 
and other prelates a commission for nominating to vacant 
offices in the church and the universities. An. 12 Guil. 
Ill 403 

CLXX. The archbishop's letter to the several bishops con- 
taining her majesty's letter of April, 1707, relating to mat- 
ters in convocation. An.9 Annse 409 

CLXX I. The king's directions to the archbishops and bishops 
respecting differences on the doctrine of the Trinity, and 
forbidding sermons on affairs of state or government. An. 
1 Georg. 1 416 

CLXXII. Archbishop Wake's letter to the several bishops^ 
with particular directions respecting ordinations and other 
matters of church government. An. 2 Georg. 1 41 8 



ABBEY lands. I. 198, 35, II. 

363. 24- 
Abrasse tabulae, 11.199,34. 205, 4. 
Absolution, I. 141,22. 171, 24. 

172, 2 & II. 174.9. 11.294, 

9 & 17. 386, 25. 392, 26. 

393. 23. 394, 32 &c. 
Acolythi, I. 192, i. 
Administratio bonorum, I. 2, 29. 

2j2, II. II. 27, 17. 
Admonition to the parliament, I. 

383, 22. II. 38, 8. 
Admonition to the people of Eng- 
land, II. 40^ 23. 
Agnus, I. 93, 19. 
Alehouses. I. 9, 26. 37, 24. 52, 

14. 89,5. 203,19. 207,36. 

214.33. 243,24. 341.30- 

358, 20. 406, 14. 421, 8. 

li. 26, 7. 55, 28. 103, 32. 

243, 6. 309. 29. 
Allen, cardinal, I. 455, 21 & 28. 
Alms, I. 18, 22. 39, 16. 381, 

36. 4»9» 33- n\ 5j. 35. 58, 

1 7 . 8ee Relief of the poor. 
Altar of Damascus, TI. 91, 31. 
Anabaptists, I. 91, 15. 103, 23. 

156, 26. 170, 20. 293, 2 & 

20. 338, 9. 342, 20. 343, 8. 

392. 16. 393, 16. 394, 17 &c. 

396, 23. II. 180, 7. 204, 7. 

205, 7. 302, 5 & 20. 
Analogy of faith, II. 14J, 13. 

Antichrist, I. 135, 20. 153. 34. 
Antiphoners^ I. 86, 26. 151. 13. 

299» 21. 399. 3- 
Arches, court of, II. T19, 28. 

120, 8 &c. 319,11. 238,11. 

352, 5- 
Arians, I. 170, 20. 237, 23. 

Arminian, II. 222, 32. 223, 22. 

Arms, provision of, I. 348, 1 &c. 

Articles of futh, 1. 51, 27. 53, i. 

91, II. 204, II. 227, 33. 

244, 9. 299, 34. 358, 36. 

See Creed. 
Articles of Religion, I. 370, 19. 

401, I. 460, 16. II. 103, 2. 

134, 13. 179, 30- aoi, 17. 

202, 23. 205, 14. 222, 9. 

300. 17. 307. I. 308, 34. 
Articles of the catholic fidtfa, I. 

J45' 17- 
Articles, the six, I. 76, 7. 95, 25.. 

98, 18. 
Articles, the three, of the 36th 

canon, I. 466, 16 &c. 468, 24. 

II. 80, 28. 198, II. 
Articuli cleri, II. 117, 27. 383, 

1 1. 
Ash Wednesday, 1 . 44, i o. 46, 1 1 . 

56, 25. 92. 23. 370, i6, II. 

253» 20. 
Athanasius, I. 445, 23. 
Ave Maria, I. 154, 6. 
August in friars, I. 158, T9. 



Auricular confession. I. 126, n. 

i4[, 21. 205, 27. 408, 22. 

See Confession. 
Authority of the church, II. 223, 

27. 224, 7 & 25. See Supre- 
macy of the church, 
Bacon, lord, I. 350, 25. 428, 27. 

459» '9- n. 24, 3j. 40, 24. 

^3* 31- 204. 29. 369, 21. 
Baculum pastorale, I. 278, 31. 
Bale, friar, I. 198, 28. 
Bancroft, Dr., sermon at Paul's 

Cross, II. 25, 24. 40, 38. 294, 

Banners, I. 151, 24. 408, 5. 
Baptism of infants, I. 91, 28. 241, 

3-. 340. 34- 
Baptism, when to be administered, 

n. 255, 31. 
Barnes, friar, I. 198, 27. 
Basil, alias Beacon, I. 199, 2. 
Bedlem, I. 158, 17. 
Begging, I. 8, 3. 
Bellarmine, cardinal, II. 148, 27. 

"53* 30- 
Bells, knolling of, I. 15, 13. 57, 

14. 219,31. 228,25. 400,14. 
Bells, ringing of, I. 399, 33. 400, 

6 & 13. II. 1 1 1, 16. 258, 9. 
Benefices, I. 188, 5. 
Benefices, number of, II. 16, 14. 
Benevolence, II. 67, 23. 68, 5. 

See Voluntary Contributions, 
Bentham, I. 209, 31. 
Bernardinus Ochinus, I. 198, 26. 
Bible, for churches, &c., I. 8, 36. 

25* 33- 52» 2. 214, 8 & 19. 
.355. >3- II. 31, 7. 32, I & 7. 
Bible, reading of, I. 9, 12. «;2, 8. 
Bible, translation of 161 1, II. 85, 

4 &c. 87, 25. 140, I &c. See 

Translations &c. 
Bidding prayer, I. 21, i & 19. 235, 

I. II. 185, 18 & 20. 252, 9. 

385, 12. 417, 8. 
Bigamy, I. 56, 9. 61, 29. 129, 

29 & 34. 
Bill of rights, II. 369, 33. 

Bishoprics, tenure of, I. i, 14 & 18. 

Bishops* lands, 1. 273, 12. 

Bishops' leases, I. 418, 27. See 

Bishops, their jurisdiction, I. 321, 

31. 322, 26. 35a, 7. 423, 37. 

428, 24. 432, 34. 433, 6. 

436, 37. 467, 7. II. II. 36. 

12, 6 & 15. 47»i9- 90* 33- 

218, 4. 263, 23. 264. 34. 

292, 9. 294, 8. 296, 28. 
Black friars, I. 158, 18. 
Blessing eyes, I. 75. 3. 93, 14. 
Board, Gk)d'8, I. 10, 13. 93, 22. 

95, I. See Communion Table, 
Bonds of resignation, II. 385, 29. 
Bonner, bishop, I.i,io. 81, 11. 

83» '9- 
Book of sports, II. 240, 18. 241, 

24. 245, 29. 

Books from abroad, I. 198, 20. 

Bowing at the name of Jesus, 

I. 231, 20. 11.176,17. 254, 
15. 299, 26. 

Bowing towards the altar, II. 

239, 26. 
Bread and wine for the eucharist, 

II. 256, 13. 
Briefs, II. 161, 32. 
Brownists, II. 180, 7. 205, 7. 
Bucer, 1. 197, 11. 198, 25. 
Bullinger, I. 198, 25. 300, 17 & 

23- 334'>o&i7- 363» 8 &c. 

384,21. 11.21,21. 49, 24&C. 
Bull, papal, I. 363. 3. 374. 34- 

II. 148, 26. 
Burghley, lord, I. 321, 26. 385, 

23. 45j, 14. II. 23, 19. 25. 26. 
Burning of heretics, I. 395, 16. 
Butirum, I. 131, 6. 

Buttered beer, II. 124, 2. 

Cabal, II. 333, 11. 
Calvin, I. 197, 1 1. 198, 25. 300, 

13 &23. 365.2. 11.49'^7&c. 
Calvinism, II. 31, 23. 49, 17 &c. 

63, 25. 198, 15. 222, 28. 
Campion, I. 455, 13. II. 69, 26. 
Candlemas, I. 44, 10. 46, 2. 56, 

24. 92, 23. 

Canon law, II. 20, 29. 188, 33. 
235, 22. 270, 77. See Jut 



Canons, book of, II. 102, 16. 
Cartwright, Tliomas, II. 2, 10. 7, 

Catalla, or chattels, I. 293, 24. II. 

126, 29. 132, 4. 
Catechism, I. 76, 4. 92, 16. 95, 

»9- 227, 3j. 237, 6 & 33 

299. 14 &c. 359. 2. 370, 6 

401, 28. 402, I. 413, 24. II 

24. 5. 26, 31. 34, 18. 43. 5 

44.3 &9. 107,32. 173,15 

201, 29. 205, 2, 15 & 23 

230* 7- 231, 10. 251, 2j 

256, 34- 307. 27. 337, 21 

338, 4 & 27. 373, 6. 377. 35 

382, 34. 4C2, 9. 
Cathedrals, !• 307» 2. 
Cathedrals of the new foundation, 

II. 258, 26. 
Catholics, II. 72, 31. 335, 28. 
Celibacy, I. 341, 12. 
Chalcedon, council of, II. 2, 16. 
Chalice, I. 75, 6. 93, 14. 112, 

18. 126,6. 151,15. 176,4. 

356» 29. 399, 18. 
Chantries, I. 31, 19. 93,8. 110, 

Chantry- priests, I. 20, 21. 31, 8. 
Chaplains, I. 32, 8. II. 16^ 21. 

17, 22 &c. 
Chapter leases. I. 418, 21. II. 

165, 18. 246, 25 &c. 247, 15. 

250, 5 &c. See Leasee, 
Chest for the poor, I. 17, 34. 55, 

II & 16. 57, 25. 68, 20. 75, 

23- 93* 2. 95,10. 216, 22. 

222, 9. 244. 29. 245, 35. 

356, 2. 361. 9. 398, 8. 413, 

II. II. 169, 18. 
Chest, parish, I. 11, 17. 57, 6. 

216, 10. 
Chosuble, I. 151, 16. 
Childbed, I. 19, 7. i6j, 23. 
Chrisoms, I. 155, 1. 
Chrism, I. 76, 10. 152, 17. 156, 

5. 180, 13. 238, 21 369, 

10. 399, 1 1 & 24. 
Churchales, II. iii, 14. 
Church-government, I. 321, 18. 

362, I. II. 81. 28. 89, 28. 

286, 37. 287, 9. 292, 28. 

Churches of strangers, I. 342, 22. 

345» *9- 
Church militant, II. 64, i. 

Citations in the king's name, II. 

264, 21. 266, 15. 

City and chamber of London, II. 

i5o» 27. 
Clavium authoritas, 1. 240, 30. 

264, 28. 
Clement VIII., pope, II. 74, 16 

& 27. 
Clerical habits, 1. 148, 16. 226, 3. 

«37. »5- 3ai»"- 3*2.9. 329, 

5 &c. 338, 2. 384, 22. 419, 
6& 12. 468, 13. II. 23, 17. 
a5» 8. 159, 8. 

Cloaks, II. 230, 18. 

Coadjutor, II. 37, 25. 

Cockle and tares of heresy, II. 

H7» 7- 
Coke, sir Edward, I. 250, 17. 

467, 27. II. 90, 32. 117, 33- 

^69, 39. 369. H- 
Collations^ I. 5, 30. 7, 33. II- 

20 r, 26. 
Comfortable places of scripture, 

I. 14, 21. 219, 2. 
Commemorations, I. 282, 9 &c. 
Commendataries, II. 196, 32. 
Commination, I. 370, 15. 398, 1 1. 
Commission ecclesiastical, I. 230, 

23. 249,12. 255,19. 33©. 

16. 367. 4 & 13. 392» "• 

448, 24. 449, 19. 11. 389 5. 

46, 28. 89, 27. ii7» 28 &C. 

»3S» 23. 155, 31. 225, 31. 

235, 14. 264, 8. 267, 31. 

269, 40. 270, 4 &c. 360, 31. 
Committee of grievances, II. i54» 

Common prayer, I. I3> 14- 5o« 15. 

57. lo- 78. 5- 79. 33- 85. 16. 
86, 31. 91, 4 & 22. 92, II 

6 29. 95, 14. 104, 32. 199, 
20. 265,23. 294,11. 324, 

n- 3S3>»- 3SSt»2- 356,13. 
374, 4. 383, 20. 387, 8. 423, 
27- 435. 4- 468, 36. II. 21, 2. 
23, 14. 26, II. 32, 8. 43, 12. 
44. 6. 49, 1. 56, 26. 77, 35. 
78, 22. 79, 9. 80, 15 & 21. 



81.27. 83,10. 297, 6 & 23. 
307, 28. 308, 16. 329, 4. 
Common prayer, revision of, II. 

^97. H- 37N30- 
Communicants, I. 16, 21. 75, 22. 

369, 12. 371, 21. 419, 22. 

II. 256, 8. 34i»37- 374.11- 
Communion bread, I. 238, 19. 

356,26. 369,1. 
Communion of the body and blood, 

I. 77, 9. See Sacrament &c. 
and Eucharist 

Communion of the very body and 
blood, I. 16, 7. 35, 24. 220, 25. 

Communion service, II. 251, 9. 

Communion table, I. 234, 13 & 
24. 238. 10. 326, 24. 355. 

»5- 370. 36. 397, 22. See 

Board, Gwi't. 
Communion table, position of, II. 

no, 23. 168, 23. 226, 18. 

237» 13 &c- 252, 15. 
Comprehension of dissenters, II. 

287, 26. 316, 21. 339, 17. 
.34o»34- 3^8, 5 &c. 371,11. 

372, 14- 

Conduct, or chaplain, II. 236, 23. 

Conference, II. 30, 21. 32, 29. 
63, 24 & 32. 77, 18 & 28. 81, 
5 &c. 82,8. 91,1. 287,3. 

288, 2. 290, 18. 
Confession, I. 10, 3. 98, 20. 145, 

26. 157, 10. 172, I. 173. 29. 

175. 9 &c. 187,29. See ^tt- 

ricular Confession, 
Confessor, 1. 130, 17. 

Confirmation, I. 125, 1. 162, 2. 

II. 43, 16. 44, II. 295. 25. 

373. 9- 382. 36. 
Confiscated property, II. 273, 34. 

276, 9 &c. 277, 34. 
Conjured bread, I. 86, 2. 
Consanguinity and affinity, I. 318, 

21 & 26. 471, 8. II. 27, 10. 
Consecration of bishops, I. 275, 

15. 301, 20 &c, 
Constantine, I. 445, 26. 
Constitutioncs pontificise, I. 177, 

Consultations, II. 120, 19 &c. 
Controversies, I. 319, 28. 314,9. 

II. 225. 12. 301, 23. 305. 27. 

307. »3- 377. 33- 390. >7- 
406, 18. 

Conventicles, I. 91, 16. 206, 36. 

248, 17. 293, 28. 360, II. 

386, 13. 404, 29. 468, 2. II. 

23, 16. 24.1. 35»'S- 77>^^' 
103,27. 303,21. 327. 6 &c. 

33^. 5- 
Convocation, disputes between the 

houses of, II. 409, 9. 
Convocation, now virtually extinct, 

II. 410,31. 
Cope, I. 151,17. 238,4. 269, 

28. 326,14. 399,17. 
Corpse brought to the church, 

I. 19. 'o- 55' *»• 7j« 24. 

92, 6. 
Coverdale. Miles, I. 198, 29. 
Couchers, I. 228, 19. 
Councils and ancient fathers, II. 

109, 22. 
Cranroer, abp., I. t, 9. 45, 24. 

107,23. 199,1. 201, 6 &c. 
Creed, I. 7, 22. 51, 23. 209, 23. 

213, 26. 243, 6. II. 20 [, 29. 

See Articles of faith. 
Creed, Apostles', II, 353, 17, 
Creed of Athanasius, II. 353, 15. 
Creeds, the three, I. 264, 20. 
Creeping to the cross, I. 76, 9. 

^56. 5- 
Cromwell, lord, I. i , 8. 5« 3 1 . 

Cross, sig^ of, I. 372, 8. II. 105, 
35. 171,20. 299,15. 311, 

Crosses, I. iji, 20. 268, 8. 269, 

as- 399."- 
Crowns, shaven, 1. 143, 15. 186, 

20. 20j, 3. 

Crucifixes, 1. 152, 7. 168, 8. 
Cruets, L 151, 15. 
Crutched friars, 1. 158, 19. 
Cuddesden, II. 131, 31. 232,32. 
Curates, I. 8, 21. 16, 10 & 11. 

73,12. 11. 2,3. 3, 3. 48,10. 

201, 2j. 322, 27. 324, 13. 

344, 16. 381, 32. 385. 31. 

4*0. 15. 
Curia prKrogativa, 1. 2, 33, 
Custom-hoaae, I. 333, 6. 



Gustos rotulonim, I. 1 1 1, 8 & 23. 

456, 32. 458. 10. 
Davenant, bishop, II. 222, 34. 
Dead, prayers for the, I. 21, 17 

& 32. 56, 2. 235,23. 371. II. 

400, 12. 
Dearth, or scarcity, II. 53, 21 

&c. 56,14. 215,31. 
Decking of images, I. 10, 28. 18, 

»4- 52. 25. 55, 18. 222, 25. 

243. 34- 
Dedication-day, I. 29, 17. 58, 4. 

180, 17. 
Delegates, court of, II. 95, 27. 
Denmark, king of, II. 212, 12. 

213, 2 &c. 
Denunciation, I. 83, 20. 84, 8. 
Devils, I. 17, 13. 29, II. II. 109, 

Dies cocna? Domini, I. 129, 21. 
Dispensations, II. 14, 19. 
Dispensations for marriage, I. 47 1, 

3. II. 19, 20. 
Dispensation royal, II. 312, 30. 

317, 4. 360, 36. 362, 27. 

368, 10 & 24. 369, 5 &c. 
Disturbance in churchyards, I. 

Diversity of opinion, I. 43, 3. 
Diversity of rites, I. 384, 9. 387, 


Eiaster-even, I. 56, 30. 92, 24. 
Ecclesia catholica, I. 119, 25^ 

120, 2. 128, 5. 196, 17. 197. 

Ecclesiastical laws, I. 106, 14. 

107, 10 & 24. 108,21. 109, 

3. 122. 17. 175, 3. 176, I. 
Education, II. 42, 21. 402, 7. 
Edward Vlth, I. 232, 17. 233, 9. 

234, 26. 300, 10. 
Elizabeth, queen, I. 364, 20. 365, 

25. 366. 2 & 13. 
Episcopacy, divine right of, II. 25, 

22 &c. 264, 33. 294, 34. 

413. 23. 
Epistle and Gospel, I. 209, 16. 
Erasmus, I. 300, 8. 
Erasmus' Paraphrase, I. 9, 2. 13, 

22. 52, 3. 214,10 &16. 355, 
14. 397, 19. II. 160, 24. 

Erasmus Sarcerius, I. 198, 26. 

Evangelium regni Christie I. 447, 
26. 451.19. 453. 6. 

Evensong, I. 14, i. 54, 8. 92, 

Eucharist, I. 126, 12. 195.36. 

II. 226, 24. 238. 32. 374, 9. 

375» ^3- 382, 25. Sec Com^ 

munioH and Sacrament. 
Eugenius IVth» pope, I. 179, 

Eusebius, I. 445, 21. 
Examination of dergymen, 1. 13, 

27- 56. 35- ai8» 22. 236, 28. 
239. 20. 328, 16 & 22. II. 
22, 21. 
Excommunication, I. 82, 21. 87, 
21. 129,14. 130,32. 131, 
26. 169, 34. 174, II. 193, I. 
291, 9 & 16. 301, 4. 393,11. 
461, 24. 462, 23. 464, II. 

11. 10, I & 10. 12, 26 &c. 99, 
8, & 17. 108, 23. 119, 5. 

'38. 34- 155. 30- 157. 34- 
158, 4. 174, 10. 208. 7. 

210,4. 264.21. 270,17. 294, 

9 & 14. 348, 28. 373, 21. 

386, 24. 

Exempt places, 1. 127, 2. 344, 23. 

430. .25- 
Exhibitions to scholars, I. 12, 13. 

53>i5- 59. »o- 90. ao- «»7t 

12. 247, 20. 360, 21. 

Faculties, court of, II. 203, 9. 

219, 12. 
Family of Love, I. 447, 6. 451, 7. 

452, II &c. II. 180, 8. 
Fannon or phanon, I. 151, 18. 

399, 10. 
Fasting, I. 27, 21. 39, 16. 41, 6. 

53. 5- 67, 7. 425, 5. 
Fasting-days, I. 13, 13. 38, 20. 

40, I. 41, 1.6. 124, 29. 131,5. 

142, 23 & 28. 160,15. 169, !• 

207* 4- 399- 27. II. 55. 19. 
57, 8. 254, 23. 
Fees, I. 464, 17. II. 27, 31. 115, 
16. 183, 29. 



Fidei defensor, I. 102, 7. 103, 8. 

106. 13. 
Fifth-monarchv-men, II. 302, 5 & 

Fifty days (Lent), I. 426, 3. 
Firma seu affictus, 1. 189, 23. 
Fish in fasting, I. 40, 23. 
Fisheries, I. 425, 16 & 26. 426, 

5 & 31. 427, 24. 
Five- mile-act, II. 46, 14. 150,7. 

323* 31- 
Foreign churches, I. 42, 18. 

Foreigners, I. 342, 15 &c. 

Free-will-men, I. 237, 23. 

Frith, John. I. 199, 3. 

Fry and seminary, II. 42, 18. 


Games, unlawful, I. 9, 30. 52, 15. 

89,7. 139,21. 205,4. 215,3. 

2^3, 25. II. 244, 8. 309, 

Gang-days, I. 372, 15. 407, 31. 

See Perambulation. 
Gaping gulph, I. 435, 18. 436, i. 
General fast, I. 313, 25. 314, 10. 

See Fasting, 
General thanksgiving, I. 315, 9 & 

27. See Thanksgiving, 
Geneva, ritual of, I. 338, 21. 
Genevan Bihle, II. 31, 11 &c. 51, 

Gessc, II. 58, 5. 

Glass windows, I. 17, 25. 50, 28. 

221, 27. 

Godfathers, 1. 327, 2 & 4. 

Goods of the church, I. 11, 30. 

18, 29. 56, 14. 57, 22. 216, 
24. 223,10. 245, 1 1 & 32. 

357» 7- 36>» ^' 4>7» a*- 4'^, 
3. 420, 12. II. 34, 25. 

Goods of the poor. I. 11,31. **^» 

Gospeller and Epistoler, I. 326, 1 2. 

Gowrie, conspiracy of, II. 60, 7. 

Grace, indefectible, II. 52, 13. 

202, 8. 

Graces in English, I. 20, 15. 

Grailcs, I. 86. 27. 151, 13. 228, 

19. 299, 21. 399. 4. 
Grammar, set forth by authority, 

I. 20, 17 & 27. 31, 3. 57, 36. 

163, 10 & 16. 227, 10. 246, 6. 

361, 16. 413, 19. 
Grammar-school, I. 339, 22. 419, 

26. See Schola Caihedralis. 
Gregory Xth, pope, I. 181, 8. 

183, 30. 
Gregory Xlllth, pope, I. 374, 33. 
Grey friars, I. 158, 19. 
Guaiter, I. 334, 11. 384, 21. 
Guilds, I. 18, 29. 112,10. 223, 

Gunpowder plot, II. 70, 27. 97, 

29. 147,20. 148,14. 153.5. 
Hales' Chronicle, I. 199, 4. 
Handbells, I. 371, 8. 372, 23. 

399, JO. 408, 6. 
Harvest, time of, I. 16, 12. 54, 36. 

220, 31. 
Head of the church, I. 1,3. 33, 3. 

39, 4. 40, 22. 47, 6. 102, 8. 

106,13. 235, 26. 265, 15. 

340, 19. 364, 22. II. 268, 7. 
Henry IVth of France, II. 148, 1 8. 

149, 27. 
Henry Vlllth, I. 4, 15. 5, 9. 5, 

34. 134, 4. 232, 16. 233, 8. 

329. J5- 363* 28. 376, II. 

II. 199, 8. 259, 28. 260, 8. 
Henry prince of Wales, II. 150, 

12 & 34. 162, 22 &c. 
Heresies, I. 103, 24 & 35. 104, 

13. 121,4. 123.9. 129,4. 
130, 30. 168, 16. 174, 13. 

179, 7. 205, 16. 226, 10. 

246, 16. 258, 24. 360, 13. 

396.13. 45^' 3. 454. 3&17. 
II. 269, 7. 

Heretical books, I. 178, 23. 198, 

a. 454, 4. 
High altar, I. 77, 16 & 21. 151, 

4& 18. 
High court of commission. See 

Commisnon ecclesiastical. 
High mass, 1. 13, 29. 14, 36. 

,^7> 15- 
High ways, repair of, I. 18, 27. 

59»»3- 93.4. ao7. 28. 223,6. 

247, 20. 291, 28. 360, a I. 
Holy bells, 1. 17, n. 76, 8. 
Holy bread, I. 17, 7. 29,9. 44, 



12. 57, 1 8. 68, 4. 95, 

27. 150. 8. 155. I. 160, 

Holy candles, I. 17, 11. 29, 10. 

55, 19. 76,8. 93, 7. 95,27. 

213, 7. 222, 26. 243, 34. 

«66, 35. 340, 27. 
Holy-day, I. 15, 18. 16, 1. 25, 

7. 220, 19. 
Holy scripture, I. 37, 21. 39, 18. 

52, 16. 78, 4. 86, 10. 
Holy- water-stock, I. 149, 24. 

399. »»• 
Homilies, I. 20, 24. 32, 18. 45, 

23. 55, 26. 71, 22. 95,12. 
125, 11. 184, 27 & 30. 224, 
3. 231, 27. 237, 7. 294, 

23- 3>9» 3'- 324. 18. 397, 

19. 401,9. 428,6. 431,3. 

435, 2. H. 33. 17. no, 18. 

201, 18. 202, 22. 205, 15. 

251, 11. 306, 32. 
Hoods, I. 326, 16. n. 117, 26. 

230, 12. 253, I. 257, 29. 

329. 10. 
Hooper, John, (bishop,) I. 198, 

Hospitality, I. 137, 15. 244, 13. 

309. 10. 352, 17. 359, 8. 

n. 17, 21. 55. 14 & 35. 57, 

33. 165, II & 14. 373.5- 
Hospitals, I. 208, 12. 360, 22. 

411, 33. n. 26, 35. 35, i8. 

259, 14 & 23. 322, 13. 
Hours, 1. 20, 25. 55, 29. 186, 

Hugonots, I. 373, 27. 

Hutton, archbishop, H. 51, 9. 

Hymnals, I. 228, 20. 


Tdol, I. 37» 30- 

Images, I. 6, 13. 10, 27. 27, 

14. 47, 20 &c. 50, 24. 52, 

24. 76, 7. 92, 30. 93, 7. 
95, 25. 212, 21. 226, 27. 
242. 8. 243. 35. 247, 24. 
266,30. 268.6. 270, 10 &c. 
288, 19. 340, 28. 356, 34. 

399» iJ- 
Indemnity, act of, II. 312, 26. 

3i4» 8' 

Individuum vagum, I. 289, 6. 
Innocent III., pope, I. 193, 35. 
Innovation, I. 43, 22. 65, 3 & 

23. II. 23, 23. 40, 17. 70, 
15. 79, 23. 8a, 5. 89, 10. 
91, II. 264, 32. 

Institution, I. 470, 7. 
Interdict, I. 129, 15. 
Interludes, I. 115, 31. 
Interrogatories, II. 269, 14 & 20. 

270, 12. 271, 12 &c. 
Inventories, I. 153, 4. 191, 4. 

228, 17. 
Invocation of wnta, I, 76, 6. 95, 

24. 241,32. 

Jacobites, II. 392, 9 & 21. 
Jejunia quatuor temponun, II, 

356. 27- 
Jewel, bishop, II. 160, 21 &. 25. 

161, 10. 
John a Lasco, I. 198, 35. 
John XXII., pope, I. 183, 23. 
Journals, I. 86, 28. 
Judges, the twelve, decisioiis id, 

II. 117, 28. 265, 31. 267, 

Julius III., pope, I. 173, 19. 
Jurisdictio omnia a regia potes- 

tate, I. 2, 3. 
Jus Canonicum, I. 178, 4. See 

Canon Law, 
Justices of assize, I. 385, 3. 461, 

17. 11.46,27. 153.27- I57» 
14. 244, 30. 245, 13. 335. 

18. 365, 31. 391, 14. 417. 

Justices of the peace, I. 23. 7. 
37,34. 41,28. 45,5. 71, 
28. 200, 5 & 17. 215, 29. 
241, 2. 254, 23. 262, 24. 
311, II. 313, 10. 456. 32. 
458, II. 469*36- II- M. 13- 
72,23. 151,3. 15.3. a7- 157. 
14. 244, 30. 245, 8. 303, 
22. 336, I. 361, 27. 

Justus Jonas, I. 198, 29. 


Kennel of hounds, II. 55, 2a. 

Kneeling, II. 254, 18. 298, 31. 
299, 12. 



Kneeling at the communion, I. 

326.30- 356' 32. 
Lacticinia, I. 131, 7. 
Lady-psalters, I. 403, 29. 
Lateranense Concilium, I. 178, 

26. 189, j. 

Latimer, Hugh (bishop), L 198, 

Latin Bible, L 178, 14. 

Latin prayers, L 280, 27. 281, 7. 

297, 12. 
Latin tongue, L 20, 13. 54, 3. 

57, 34. 86, 2 & 15. 124, 28. 

159, 14. 238, 35. 469, 29. 

II. 22, 6 &c. 
Leases*, I. 123, 6. 144, 11. II. 

231, 16. 232, 3. 246, 25. 

247. 3 & ij- 248, 13 &c. 

250, 5. 274, 14. 284, 20. 

Lecturers, II. 94, 25. 196, 29. 

201, 25. 203, 6. 206, 18. 

229, 14. 230, 4&C. 252,25. 

257' 28. 306, II. 324, 21. 
Legate de latere, I. 117, 27. 128, 

II & 18. 171, 5. 
Legends, I. 86, 27. 228, 19. 

i5». «3- 399»4- 
Lent, I. 27, 21. 38,22. 39,33, 

40, 2. 41, 17. 53,5. 67,8. 

>7»»35- 173.29. 
I>eo Judas, I. 300, 17. 
Letters of the word of God. I. 28, 

33. 57, 2. 215. 23. 245,22. 

258, 21. 259, 29. 
Libertines, I. 103, 23. 156, 26. 

170, 20. II. 180, 7. 
Liberty of conscience, II. 360, 5. 

361,31. 364. 7 & 22. 365, 

i8- 367*4 377.8. 
License for plays and games, I. 

346, 3- 
License for preaching, I. 10, 19. 

27. 32. 34. '3- 44. 25. 52, 
19. 61, 3. 64, 2 &c 70, 7 
&c. 90, 29. 140, 25. 184, 
15. 213, 17. 236, 26. 243, 
30. 253, 22. 309, 9. 324, 

25- 325. 3»- 33o» 23. n. 
33, 21. 106, 30. 199, 6. 

203* 4- 258, 5. 309, 8 & 

License for printing, I. 230, 9 & 

License from fasting, 1. 38, 23. 41 , 

>5- 42, 7- 53. 8- 
Lights on the altar, L 7, 9. 51,18. 

74, 12 & 19. 75, 33. 93, 8. 

180, 6. 207, 20. 269, 31. 
Linguists, II. 87, 11. 
Litany, I. 15, 2. 54, 17. 57, 9. 

209, 22. 219, 19. 228, 26. 

231, 16. 236, 34. 245, 25. 

249, 4. 327, 25. 372, 20. 

II. 252, 22. 253, 8. 382, 

Liturgy. See Common Prayer. 
Loans to the poor, I. 68, 34. 
Lord's day, II. 104, 2. 309, 20 

& 26. 378,31. 379, 2. 382, 

27. See Sabbath. 
Lord*8 prayer, I. 209, 23. See 

Luther, I. 197, 11. 198, 22. 
Lutherans, I. 170, 21. 195, 27. 

Manuals, L 86, 27. 151, 15. 

228, 20. 399, 4. 
Manwaring, Dr., II. 211, 32. 
Market-towns, I. 102, f. II. 44, 

15. 186, 3. 
Markets, I. 37, 24. 410, 31. II. 

44. 14- 
Marriage, celebration of, II. 354, 

21. 255, 14. 

Marriage, license for, IL 255, 24. 

383. '4- 386, 23. 
Marriage of bishops, I. 225, 17. 
Married heads of colleges, &c. 

I. 308, 12. 
Married priests, I. 59, 15. 120, 

12 & 14. 123, 27. 131, 15. 

137, I & 10. 139, 15. 186, 

12. 204, 7 & 34. 225, 1. 

307. 13. 309. 8. 
Martin Mar-prelate, II. 38, 15. 
Matricula ecclesias, II. 358, 30. 
Mary, queen, I. 248, 3. 367, 36. 

364. 28. 
Maes of our lady, I. 77, i. 
Maes of the apostles, !• 77, i* 



Masses satisfactory, I. 5 5 . 1 8. 56, 

3 & j. See Propitiatory sacri- 
Matins, I. 13, 36. 29, 20. 54, 

5 & 10. 92, 10. 227, 27. 
Mayor and bailiffs of Oxford, I. 

201, 10. 
Mayors, I. 41, 27. 45, 5, 71, 

29. 106, 8. 117, 9. 200, 

5 & 17. 254, 23. 262, 24. 

311, 9. 313, 10. II. 303, 22. 

3.^6, 1. 
Meetings of the clergy, II. 399, 25. 

See Propheayingit. 
Melancthon, I. 198, 26. 
Memories, I. 14, 7. 54, 12. 
Mensa communis, I. 380, 5. 
Mensse condimenta, I. 185, 19. 
Mental reservation, II. 270, 25. 
Midwives, I. 164, 11. 203, 22. 

414* I- 
Millenary petition, II. 64, 25. 

Ministcriuni vagum, II. 2, 13. 

Ministers, incompetent, II. 22, 18. 

28,22. 37,18. 92,6. 134,2. 

234' 3- 293, 9. 321, 7. 342. 

3- 373. 23. 385, 36. 
Minories, I. 158, 17. 
Minstrels, I. 248, 36. 373, 2. 
Miracles. I. 6, 14. 17, 23. 50, 

27. 59, 21. 92,32. 212,21. 

226, 28. 243. I. 247, 25. 

266, 30. 
Misrule, lords of, I. 372, 26. 

415. 2. 
Missals, I. 86, 27. 151, 14. 
Monopolies, II. 193, 11. 
Month's minds, I. 371, 8. 
Monuments, I. 289, £9 &c. 
Morris-dancers, I. 373, 2. 
Music, church, I. 229, 4 & 12. 

Necessary doctrine and erudition, 

&c. I. 46, 30. 
Netherstocks, II. 159, 13 & 33. 
New Testament, I. 13, 22. 53, 

35- 218, 18. 
Nicholas, Henry, I. 447, 14. 45 i, 

^9- 452, 3« • 
Non- conformists, I. 321, 4. 334, 

15- 338, 20. 350. 8. 362, 

33- Z^7f^'^' ZH* «7- 450» 
34. 459, 14 &c. 462, 13 &C. 

'II. 38, 18. 46, 9. 63, 19. 

83, 22. 89, 20 & 35. 91,30. 

93, 20. 187, 16. 19S, 6. 

269, 29. 311, 27. 31a, 37. 

3»3' 32. 3i9»2. 32i»5- 323* 
29. 326, 10. 329, 20 & 30. 

333. 27 &c. 335, 17. 336, 
24. 339, 23. 340, 23. 341, 

*5- 348, 3^- 363* 5- 375* 

Non-conformity^ II. 46, 26. 89, 

36. 361,9. 363,2. 
Non-jurors, II. 393, 1 7. 
Non-residence, II. 154, 18. 322, 

Non-residents, I. 1 1, 34. j i> 33> 

53. II. 90, 14. 137. 18. 

180, 27. 216, 28. 243, 3. 

243, II. 337, 15. 353, 22. 

II. 14, 26 &c. 36, 3. 37, 7. 

155, 12 &30. 

Nowel, dean^ 1. 300^ 26. II. 337, 

Nuncio^ papal, II. 75, 26. 97, 36. 

Oath ex officio, I. 83, 25. 84, 7. 

255, 24. 11. 268, 13. 269. 

1 1 &c. 270, 14 & 36. 271, 

1 1 &c. 369, 14. 
Oath of allegiance, I. 232, 6 & 28. 

II. 147, 20. 153, 6 & 29. 

156, 31- 3oo» 7- 303. 35- 
362, 18. 

Oath of institution, I. 190, 10. 

Obits, I. 223, 14. 360, 32. 412, 

Oblations, I. 154, 22. 248, 31. 

II. 256, 25. 
Gilcolampadius, I. 197, 11. 19S. 

24. 300, 16. 
Opus operatum, I. 288, 31. 
Ordinals, I. 86, 28. 151, 14. 
Ordination, I. 3, 31. 32, 11. 

125,5. 144.3- 187,4. «39. 

5- 327. 30. 4^» 14 & as- 
II. 8, I &c. 23, 7 & 15. 29, 

25- 72.5- 230,2. 233,24. 
236, 2 494, 26 & 21. 32a, 
25- 323. 2. 354. 5 & 24. 



355' 8&C. 372, 7. 377, 19. 

380, 13&C. 386,36810. 418, 

27 &c. 
Ornaments, church, I. iii, 13. 

112, 8 &c. 126, 7. 146, 20. 

152. 24. J 76, 4. 206, 13. 

228, 18. 296, 10. 341, 36. 

421, 14. 11. 33, 9. 
Otho and Othobonus, I. 148, 6. 

178, 9. 191, 18. 193, 26. 


Palatinate, II. 193, 23. 194, 19 

& 32. 213, 22. 
Pahns, I. 45, 29. 76, 8. 95, 27. 

156, 4- 
Palm Sunday, I. 17, 8. 29, 9. 

44, II. 56, 25. 92, 24. 
Papa, I. 28, 18. 54, 23. 
Papists. See Recusants. 
Paraphrase, 1 . 2 1 8, 19. See Eras- 

mus* Paraphrase. 
Pareus, II. 198, 29. 199, 29. 
Parish clerk, I. 373, 8. 408, 8. 

II. 113. 7. 175, 22. 253, II. 
ParUament, I. 106, 3. 108, 4. 

171, II. 198,9. II. 36, 16. 

81, 24. 89, 29. 150, 13. 

193, 10. 210, 22. 314, II. 

316, II. 319, 24. 360, 24. 

365. I. 366, 20. 369, 2. 

372. 15. 
Parsons the Jesuit, I. 455, 9. II. 

69, 26. 
Paschal, I. 56, 31. 76, 9. 92, 

25. 151, 26. 
Passing bell, I. 238,30. 327, 15. 
Pastores mali vel boni, I. 4, 3. 

Paten, I. 75, 5. 93, 15. 

Pater-noster, I. 7, 22. 2j, 22. 

51. 23 & 27. 53. I. 91, II. 

213, 25. 227, 34. 243. 6. 

244. 9. 299. 34. 340, 30. 

359' I- 37o» 2- n. 201,30. 
Patronage of the crown, II. 403, 

13. Sec Preferments. 
Paul II., pope, I. 190, 31. 
Paul IV., pope, I. 201, 12 & 

Paul v.. pope, II. 148, 26. 135, 


VOL. 11. 

Paul's Cross, I. 31 5,9. II. 40, 

Pax, I. 68, 9. 150, 20. iji, I. 

399, 10. 

Peculiars, II. 196, 28. 373, 22. 

Pelagians, I. 237, 23. 

Penance, I. 172, 2. 291, 14. 

358, 2. 37O' 12. 404, 16. 

414, 10. 415, 27. 462, 23. 

463, 8. 464, 14. 470, 20. 
ri. 14, 8. 25, 5. 35, 22. 
373, 22. 383, 7. 

Perambulation, I. 220, i & 8. 372, 
13. 407, 27. II. 173, 18. 

Peter Alexander, 1. 301, 35. 302, 
4. 253, 22. 

Peter Martyr, 1. 107, 4. 198, 17. 

Petitions, obtaining signatures to, 
II. 65, 20. 66, 20. 90, 27, 

97. 33- 
Pews, II. 152, 19. 159, 20. 

257. 9- 
Physic, practisers of, II. 325, 33. 

3*6, 3. 
Pies, I. 86, 28. 
Pilgrimage, I. 6, 15 & 28. 10, 

27. 17, 23. 18, 13. 25. 15. 

47, 21. 50, 27. 52, 24. 55, 

17. 59, 21. 213, 6. 221, 

26. 222, 25. 226, 28. 243, 
I & 33. 244, 35. 247, 25. 
266, 35. 340, 26. 

Pius Vth, pope, I. 455, 13. 

Pix, I. 148, 28. 151, 22. 179, 

30. 399, 10. 
Plague, I. 314, 8. II. 65, 4. 

77, 2. 81, 2. 208, 27. 215, 

27. 223, 36. 
Plough-monday, I. 69, 22. 
Plur^ties, I. 48, 15. 183, 9. 

245, 12. 359, 3. 462, 19. 

464, 6. II. 15, 26. 17, 8. 

18, 5. 19, 10. S7* 34- 154- 

18. 155,29- i5<^» "• T^59» 
18. 322, 26. 323, 19. 373, 

22. 382,6. 
PomeraniuB, I. 198, 25. 
Pontiff, Roman, 1.364,5. 330,10. 
Poor maids, marrying, I. 59, 14. 

93,4. 161. 6. 247, 21. 360, 

21. 412,24. 



Pope's holiness, 1.171,14. 208, 6. 
Portases, I. 86, 28. 228, 20. 

Praemunire, I. 177, 27. II. 52, 


Prayer for the king, I. 50, 16. 

141, 9. 204, 18. 357, 34. 

11. 34, II. 103, 5. 172, 27. 
185, 1 1& 23. 385, 17. 4»7'5- 

Prayer, form of, in a time of gene- 
ral sickness, I. 314, 23. 

Prayer, form of, in a time of trou- 
ble, I. 374, 4 &30. 

Preachers, I. 19, 24. 70, 2. 303, 

33- 353» 7- 463* 25. 46*8, 

12. II. 19, 8. 33, 4. 36,9. 
107, 17. 112, 7. 156, 10. 
172, 15. 198, 20. 199, 2. 
200, 9. 201, 21. 202, 4 &c. 
203, 22. 204, 17. 206, 6. 
306, 5 & 22. 307,26. 309,5. 
310, 10. 324, 29. 

Preaching, I. 50, 2. 51, 10. 55, 

8. 90, 24. 184,4. 213, I. 

236, 19. 324, 35. 325, 10. 

352, 16. 353, 35. 440, 4. 

II. 7, 4. 
Precontract, I. 414, 29. 471, 8. 

II. 20, 8. 
Predestination, II. 49, i &c. 53, 

1. 202, 7. 307, 5. 
Preferments, disposal of, II. 378, 

16. 383, 26. 388, 9. 403, 

Prerogative, I. 106, 17. 127,22. 

211, 78. 165, 4. II. 40, 2. 

63, 27. 80, 12. 91, 27. 

102, 24. 148, 3c. 187, 19. 

2C2, 18. 264, 7. 369, 25. 

See Supremacy of the Crown. 
Presbyteratus, I. 2, 20. 130, 5. 

134, 36. 465, 9. 
Presbyterians, II. 287, 28. 288, 

2. 293, 30. 313, 33. 339, 

Presentments, I. 416, 13. II. 

102, 3. 210. 3. 379, II. 
Priestly office, I. 224, 7. 
Priests converted, II. 45, 2 & 19. 
Price of corn, II. 54, 15 &c. 
Primacy, 1. 122, 29. 

Prime, I. 2o» 25. 55, 29. 
Primer, I. 20, 8. 30, 35. 57,32. 

409, 8. 
Primitive church, I. 86, 11. 224, 

19. 287,9. 432.9- 452. 7- 
II. 65, 34. 78, 4. 292, 5. 

Private holy-days, I. 1 7, 9. 57, 
19. 92,19. 

Private masses, I. 266, 3. 287, 

II. 340,31- 358.7- 
Privy contracts, I. 59, 5. 247, 10. 

318, 2. 
Processions, 1. 14, 31. 23, 12. 

50, 19. 124, 26. 158, 23. 

176, 6. 177, 6 &c. 219, 15. 

236, 32. 327. 23. 
Processionals, I. 86, 27. 151, 15. 

228, 19. 399, 4. 
Procession-book, I. 28, 12. 54, 

Procession-days, I. 138, 6. 
Prohibited degrees, I. j8, 35. 91, 

29. 206, 29. 247, 7. 301, 8. 

316, 2 & 6. 317, 18&C. 319, 

19. 329, I. 361, 23. II. 27, 

6. 113, 15. 169^ 26. 
Prohibitions, II. 90. 23. 91, 23. 

116,15. 155,33. 
Proper lessons, I. 294, 13. 295, 

1 1. 
Prophesyings, I. 389, 5 &c. 422, 

I &c. 373.4- 432.4- 434. 

14 &C. II. 21, 14. 109, 22. 

174, 2. See Meetings of the 

Propitiatory sacrifices, I. 266, 9^ 

See Masses satisfactory. 
Proprietary, I. 9, 10. 12, 23. 53, 

21. 217, 21. 244, 3. 
Psalms or h3rmns, II. 253, 4. 
Pulpit, 1. 13, 22. 17, 30. 51, 23. 

54. 3- 92. 35- 222, 5. 355. 

15- 37'. J- 397.21. 
Purgatory, I. 76, 6. 95, 24. 

241,32. 266,10. 306.31. 

371, 12. 372, 7. 400, 12. 
Purification, feast of the, I. 372, 

Puritans. See Non-conformists. 


Quadragesimalia, I. 13 i, 5. 



Quakers, I. 452, 30. II. 302, 5 

& 20. 
Qualification (for two livings), II. 

382, 9. 
Quare impedit, II. 8, 2 [ . 

Ralegh, sir Walter, II. 73, 22. 

162, 26. 
Ranters, I. 452, 29. 
Readers, I. 237, 33. 239, 18. 

298.4. 302. 15 &c. 
Reading-desk, II. 1 10, 31. 169, 

9- 257, 3. 
Real presence, I. 80, 23. 
Recognizances, I. 261, 11. 
Reconcilers, I. 457, i. II. 26, 22. 

Recusants, I. 440, 22. 456, 18. 
457, 28 &c. 463, 22. 466, I. 
II. 46, 9. 47, 3 & 18. 48, 7 
&c. 97, 4 &c. 108, 3 j. Ill, 
31. 114,3. 148,8. 150,4. 
15^ 6- i55» 28. 157, 6&C. 
173, 32. 207, 9. 231. 12. 

242, 18. 244, II. 334, 33. 
335» ^7- 336. 24. 340, 14. 
347. 4. 348, 31. 349. 12. 

363, 5- 
Regiment of women, I. 241, 25. 

341. II- 
Register, parish, I. 1 1, 10. 52, 28. 

160, 1. 216, 3. 243, 36. 

330, 28. 358. 33. 398, 7. 

405* 33- ^I- «o9» II- 355-6. 
Relics, I. 6, 13. 10, 27. 52, 24. 

76, 7. 196, 32. 212, 21. 

243, 33. 266, 30. 340, 26. 
Relief of the poor, I. 18, 17. 90, 

18. 137.24. 244,13. 357, 
31. 362, 26. 403, 12. 470, 
24. II. 24, 10. 55, 14 & 35. 
57. 25. 58, 15. See Alms, 

Ro-ordination, I. 144, 21. 

Reparations, I. 12, 28. 19, i. 
53,24. 58, 28. 90, 10. 92,35. 

137. 25. 142.30. 143* 2S. 
204, 20. 206, 1 1. 216, 33. 
217, 26. 223, 18. 244, 18. 
246, 32. 342, 2. 357, 10. 
421, 17. II. 158, 36. 167, 15. 
386, 12. 

Reprobation, II. 49, 9 &c. 53, 2. 

202, 7. 307, 6. 
Residentiaries, II. 156, 26. 165, 

3 &c- 331^12. 
Responds, I. 14, 6. 54, 12. 

Rites and ceremonies, I. 237, 11. 

240, 33. 264, 30. 295, 6. 

319,34. 340* 23. 430*28. 

11.23, 1. 70. I- 78, 3- 94' lo- 

297/32&C. 37 1 » 33- 
Rogations, I. 220, 8. 236, 32. 

327' 23. 372, 14. XL 254, 2. 

374. 4- 
Romana ecclesia, I. 119, 14. 178, 

33. 179. 5- 
Rome, bishop of, I. 5, 22. 6, 1. 

II, 3. 23, 32. 24, 28. 50, 
3 & If. 65, 13. 90, 36. 265, 
II. 287, 15. 458, 24. II. 
73» 20. 
Rood-loft, I. 152, 7. 357, 3. 

371,6. 398,30- 
Rood with Mary and John, I. 206, 

Rubric primers, I. 95, 25. 

Rural deans, II. 296, 4 & 19. 

Rush-bearings, I. 373, 2 & 19. 

II. 244, 4. 

Sabbath, II. 241, 30. See Lords 

Sables, I. 279, 5. 
Sacraments, I. 8, 15. 51* 9. See 

Seven sacraments. 
Sacrament for the sick, I. 76, 23. 
Sacrament of the altar, 1. 10, 10. 

27»i"- 35» 5- 140,16. 141, 
19. 148,27. 157,12. 168, 
26. 175, 10 &c. 204, 28. 

Sacrament of the body and blood, 
1. 72, 5. 234, 30. See EuchO' 
rist and Communion, 8fc. 

Sacramentals, I. 126, 5. 138, 3 
& 7. i39» 6. 141, 5 & 27. 
146, 20. 156, 4. 157, 18. 
176, 6. 203, 14. 

Sacramentaliter* 1. 130, 17. 

Sacramentary, I. 123, i. 156, 35. 
229, 38. 

Sacrifice of the altar, I. 197, 5. 

Sacrifice of the mass, I. 337, 9. 



Sacring bell, I. 7j, lo. 93, 21. 

160, 18. 207, 9. 399, 10. 
Sanctus bell, I. 151, 22. 
Schola cathedralis, I. 191, 26. 

380, 26. 
Schoolmasters^ I. 123, 16. 125, 

16. 207, II. 227, 14. 339, 

22. 361. 14. 413, 13. 419, 

34. 449, 22. 450, 26 &c. 

457, I. 459,1. 463. 18. II. 

26, 27. 34, 34. no, 8. 196, 

3 & 29. 252, 26. 257, 17. 

311, 25. 325, 26. 325, 7 & 26. 

337»i7- 338, 6&£i. 344, 

16. 387, 5. 
Schoolmistresses, II. 325, 12. 
Schoolmen, II. 199, 23. 
Scriptures on the church walls, 

I. 168, 10 & 22. 169, 14 & 20. 

II. 1 10, 30. 169, 6. 
Seditious books, I. 332, 3 & 22. 

II. 39, 2. 41, II. 263^ 26. 

289, 24. 
Seminary priests, II. 26, 21. 35, 

13. 70, 10. 72,5, 14&36. 

150, 20. 208, 4. 
Sepulchre, I. 75, 24. 92, 25. 

95. 27. 
Sequestration, I. 1 23, 29. 441, 22. 

11.156,19. 159,1- 218,22. 
Sermons, I. 5, 30. 6, 22. See 

Servants, II. 47, 3 & 18. 48, 7 

&c. 98, 9. 
Seven deadly sins, I. 145, 21. 

153, 23. 'II. 308, 7. 
Seven principal virtues, I. 145, 22. 
Seven sacraments, I. 1 34, 22. 1 79, 

20. 195, 5. See Sacrametits, 
Seven works of mercy, I. 145, 20. 
Ship for frankincense, I. 151, 21. 
Shrift^ il. 26, 19. 
Shrines, I. 17, 21. 49, 24. 92, 

31. 221, 23. 242, 7. 
Sibtliorp, Dr., II. 211, 31. 217, 

Sick persons, absolution of, II. 

395' J 2. 
Sick persons prayed for, II. 254, 
3 ' • 3 7 5 » 2 o. See iSar r« ;// en t fur 
the sick. 

Sick persons to be visited, I. 245, 

I. 11.375,15. 377.3^- 382, 

Significavit, I. 393, la. II. 136, 


Simony, I. 19, 13. 28, 25. 55, 

^3* 9^> 3* '4^> ^' '^* ^^' 
206, 9. 223, 24. 240, 16. 

245, 4. 328, 33. 341, 21. 

359, 5. 406, 18. 417, 6. 

4^0, 35. II. 26, 4. 167, 2. 

i75» »• 3»2. 2^- 385* 26. 
Sin against the Holy Ghost, I. 

Singing cakes, I. 234, 35. 
Socinians, II. 390, 3 1 & 36. 
Somerset, duke of, I. 4, 12. 38, 

17. 42,14. 46,20. 79,19. 

81,7. 83,10. 85,24. no, 

Spanish marriage, II. 193, 24. 

198, 22. 209, 30. 

Sports and pastimes, I. 345, 23. 

II. 240, 3 &c. 242, 33. 
St. Andrew's day, I. 177, 6. 

St. Bartholomew, massacre of, I. 

373. 26. 
St. Catharine's, I. 158, 20. 
St. John's Gospel, I. 17, 7. 57, 

St. Mark's day, I. 28, 9. 54, 14. 
St. Martin's le grand, I. 158, 18. 
St. Paul's cathedral, I. 304, 1 8 & 

20. 306, 3. 310, 3. 
St. Peter, successors of, I. 196, 8. 
Star chamber, I. no, 18. 292, 23. 

428, 24. 432, 26 & 32. II. 

90, 20. 96, 20 & 27. 137, 27. 

199, 7. 263, 14& 25- a^S« 
30. 266, 8. 270, 9. 

Statutes of cathedrals, II. 258, 25. 
Stipendiaries, I. 306, 18. 
Subscription to articles, I. 408, 33. 

466, 25 &c. 468, 23. II. 23, 

ij. 94, I. 225, 2. 300, 4 

Subsidies, II. 193, 13. 194, 16. 

i95» 30- 210, 18. 
Sudar>', I. 75,4. 93, 5. 
Suffragan bishops, II. 294, 2 & 29. 

295, 16. 296, 3. 413, 33. 



Sammer-lordB, I. 37a, 16. 415, 2. 
Superaltaries, I. 89^ 16. 
Supremacy of Rome, I. 179, 19. 

II. 74, 4. 
Supremacy of the church, I. 5, 35. 

See Authority of the church. 
Supremacy of the crown, I. 23, 33. 

24, 30. 43, 33. 55, 5. 98,17. 

122, 24. 210, 21. 232, 24. 

250, 28. 467, 25. 468, 28. 

II. 83, 6. 91, 23. 117, 4. 

148, 32. 223, 7 & 39. 224, 

20 &c. 271, 7. 312, 30. 334, 

4. 412, II. 413, 22. 414, 9. 

415. 2. 416, 31. 
Surplice, I. 237, 16. 326, 14. 

15 & 21. 356, 9. 398, 6. 

422, 26. II. 23, 17. 25, 8. 

230, 12. 253, I. 257, 29. 

299' 30- 31 >' 26. 329, 10. 
Surrogates, II. 386, 21. 
Suspension, I. 82, 21. 87, 21. 

129, 15. II. 352, 26. 353, 25. 
Sword of the church, II. 270, 16. 

348, 29. 
Sword spiritual, II. 10, 26. 
Sydemen, II. 48, 11. 68, 24. 
Syndici, I. 88, 4. 

Tabemaculum, I. 146, 24. 
Tapers, I. 7, 8. 10, 27. See 

Lights on the altar